+Absconditella annexa



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N - TAA. S - Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: r, A1: rr, B: vr, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on calcareous substrata, the generic position is still an open problem.


+Toninia taurica (Szatala) Oksner

Fl. Lisch. Ukraini, 2: 173, 1968 - Thalloidima tauricum Szatala, Borbasia, 4: 79, 1942.

Syn.: Toninia clemens H. Baumg. nom. inval., Toninia schafeevii Tomin

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene 2003b, 2005c), TAA, Lomb, Piem (TSB), Lig (TSB). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar. S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-5, 3-4, 3-4, 2/ Alt: 1-5/ A: r, A1: rr, B: vr, C: r, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly southern species with Eurasiatic distribution, found on calciferous soil and in fine crevices of the rocks, often associated with cyanobacterial lichens when young, rare in the eu-Mediterranean belt.


+Toninia toepfferi (Stein) Navàs

Broteria, ser. Bot., 11: 9, 1913 - Thalloedema toepfferi Stein, Verh. schles. Ges. vaterl. Kultur, 60: 232, 1883.



C - Laz, Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: er/ PF: 1/ Note: a mediterranean-macaronesian lichen, found on soil developing from basic siliceous substrata in dry-warm regions with a mild climate, most common in very open grasslands.


+Toninia toniniana (A.Massal.) Zahlbr.

[in Beck] Ann. Naturhist. Hofmus. Wien, 1: 305, 1886 - Thalloidima mammillare v. toninianum A.Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 97, n. 180, 1852.

Syn.: Biatorina toniniana (A.Massal.) Jatta, Lecidea caesiocandida Nyl., Thalloidima toninianum (A.Massal.) A.Massal., Toninia caesiocandida (Nyl.) Th.Fr.

N - VG, Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (TSB), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999). C - Tosc, Marc (TSB).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4-5, 2/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: a mainly mediterranean to submediterranean species, found on steeply inclined to slightly underhanging seepage tracks of calcareous rocks, in association with cyanobacterial colonies.


+Toninia tristis (Th.Fr.) Th.Fr. s.lat.

Lichenogr. Scand., 2: 341, 1874 - Psora tabacina v. tristis Th.Fr., Bot. Notiser, 1865: 38, 1865.

Syn.: Toninia tabacina auct. p.p. non (DC.) Flagey, Toninia tabacina sensu A.Massal.

N - VG, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc, Sar. S - Camp, Pugl, Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr-Sax/ 3-5, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-5/ A: vr, A1: rr, B: r, C: r, D: r, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a holarctic lichen of continental areas, with a wide latitudinal range, found on weathered, calcareous or basic siliceous rock, often associated with cyanobacterial colonies.


+Toninia tristis (Th.Fr.) Th.Fr. ssp. tristis

N - Lomb, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr-Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: rr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: in fine crevices of calciferous rocks.


+Toninia tristis ssp. asiae-centralis (H.Magn.) Timdal

Opera Bot., 110: 112, 1991 - Lecidea asiae-centralis H.Magn., Lich. Centr. Asia: 55, 1940



N - Frl, TAA, Lomb. C - Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr-Sax/ 3-5, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: r, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: on rock and soil.


+Toninia tristis ssp. pseudotabacina Timdal

Opera Bot., 110: 113-114, 1991.



N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Lig. C - Sar.

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-5, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on soil, sometimes it reaches the oromediterranean belt.


+Toninia tumidula (Sm.) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ., 4: 278, 1926 - Lichen tumidulus Sm., Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 1: 82, tab. 4, fig. 3, 1791.

Syn.: Biatorina mammillaris (Gouan) Jatta, Lecidea mesenteriformis (Vill.) Vain., Biatorina tumidula (Sm.) A.L.Sm., Lichen mammillaris Gouan, Lichen candidus v. mesenteriformis Vill., Thalloidima mammillare (Gouan) A.Massal., Thalloidima mesenteriforme (Vill.) Arnold, Thalloidima submammillare Flagey, Thalloidima tumidulum (Sm.) Szatala, Toninia hercegovinica Zahlbr., Toninia mammillaris (Gouan) Th.Fr., Toninia mesenteriformis (Vill.) Schuler, Toninia submammillaris (Flagey) Zahlbr.

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Piem, Lig. C - Tosc, Sar. S - Pugl, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: r, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: er/ PF: 1/ Note: on weathered calciferous rocks, most often in fine crevices, and on steeply inclined faces.


+Toninia verrucariae (Nyl.) Timdal

[in Rambold & Triebel] Bibl. Lichenol., 48: 170, 1992 - Lecidea verrucariae [Metzler ex] Nyl., Flora, 51: 164, 1868.

Syn.: Nesolechia verrucariae (Nyl.) Rehm

N - VG (TSB).

F/ §/ S/ Sax/ 5, 1-2, 2, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Encephalographa and endolithic lichens/ Note: probably more widespread, but much overlooked.


+Toninia verrucarioides (Nyl.) Timdal

Opera Bot., 110: 116, 1991 - Lecidea aromatica v. verrucarioides Nyl., Bot. Notiser, 1853: 157, 1853.

Syn.: Bilimbia carbonacea (Anzi) Jatta, Lecidea subimbricata Nyl., Lecidea verrucarioides (Nyl.) Nyl., Thalloidima boissieri Müll.Arg., Toninia boissieri (Müll.Arg.) Arnold, Toninia aromatica v. cervina (Lönnr.) Th.Fr., Toninia carbonacea Anzi, Toninia cervina Lönnr., Toninia congesta Hepp ex Kremp., Toninia conjungens Th.Fr., Toninia kolax Poelt, Toninia subimbricata (Nyl.) H.Olivier

N - VG (TSB), Lomb, Lig (TSB). C - Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2002, Ravera & al. 2006), Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Sq/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 3, 2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: vr, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to coo-temperate lichen, found in fissures and fine crevices of calcareous rocks, often found on species of Placynthium when young.


+Topelia heterospora (Zahlbr.) M.Jørg. & Vězda

Beih. Nova Hedwigia, 79: 505, 1984 - Clathroporina heterospora Zahlbr., Österr. bot. Z., 49: 247, 1899.



S - Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Sax/ 5, 2-3, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a humid subtropical to mediterranean-atlantic lichen, found on hard, compact calcareous rocks in sheltered situations.


+Topelia nimisiana Tretiach & Vězda

Lichenologist, 24, 2: 107 1992.



C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2006b), Laz. S - Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1996, 1998).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 2-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: known from Italy and the Iberian peninsula, on bark of ancient trees in humid, but open evergreen forests, often near the base of the trunks, probably restricted to Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Topelia rosea (Servít) M.Jørg. & Vězda

Beih. Nova Hedwigia, 79: 507, 1984 - Microglaena rosea Servít, Webbia, 8: 419, 1952.

Syn.: Microglaena corrosa v. carnea de Lesd.

N - Lig. S - Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1996, 1998), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Tr/ S/ Sax-Terr/ 4-5, 2-4, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a mainly mediterranean-atlantic lichen, found on calcareous rocks, over soil and muribund bryophytes in shaded-humid situations.


+Tornabea scutellifera (With.) J.R.Laundon

Lichenologist, 16, 3: 226, 1984 - Lichen scutelliferus With., Bot. Arrang. Veget. Gr. Brit.: 728, 1776.

Syn.: Anaptychia intricata (Dufour) A.Massal., Lichen intricatus Desf., Parmelia atlantica Ach., Tornabea atlantica (Ach.) Östh., Tornabea atlantica v. intricata (Desf.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Tornabenia atlantica (Ach.) Kurok., Tornabeniopsis atlantica (Ach.) Follmann

C - Tosc (Nimis & Tretiach 1997), Laz (Lich. Graec. 39: Obermayer 1995b, Nimis & Tretiach 1997, Nordin & Mattsson 2001), Sar (Nimis & Tretiach 1997). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 1997), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1997, 1999), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Nimis & Tretiach 1997).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Sax/ 2-4, 3-5, 1-2, 2-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on a wide variety of substrata, most frequent on branches of littoral shrubs but also found on rocks, and, but only in a few very warm-humid areas, even on mortar walls (e.g. it is abundant in the village of Erice in Sicilia), much more widespread in the past, but presently restricted to a few, localized stations with natural vegetation, esp. sand dunes, mostly along the Tyrrhenian coast.


+Trapelia coarctata (Sm.) M.Choisy

[in Werner] Bull. Soc. Sc. Nat. Maroc, 12: 160, 1932 - Lichen coarctatus [Turner ex] Sm. [in Sm. & Sowerby] Engl. Bot.: 8, tab. 534, 1799.

Syn.: Biatora arridens (Nyl.) Walt.Watson, Biatora coarctata (Sm.) Th.Fr., Biatora coarctata ssp. terrula Hulting, Biatora coarctata v. elachista (Ach.) Th.Fr., Lecanora coarctata (Sm.) Ach., Lecanora coarctata v. elachista (Ach.) Schaer., Lecidea arridens Nyl., Lecidea coarctata (Sm.) Nyl., Lecidea coarctata v. elachista (Ach.) Th.Fr., Zeora coarctata (Sm.) Flot., Zeora coarctata v. contigua Flot.

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia 2000), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994), Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl, Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax-Terr/ 2-3, 3, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-5/ A: rc, A1: c, B: r, C: rr, D: r, E: er, F: rc, G: r, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ p/ Note: a widespread holarctic lichen, an early colonizer of siliceous pebbles near the soil surface, sometimes on bare clayey soil, with a wide altitudinal and altitudinal range, rare, and mostly Tyrrhenian, in the eu-Mediterranean belt.


+Trapelia corticola Coppins & P.James

Lichenologist, 16, 3: 254, 1984.

Syn.: Lecidea elegantior Grummann nom. illegit. non H.Magn., Lecidea elegantula Riehm. nom. illegit.

C - Tosc. S - Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on spongy, loose bark of deciduous trees, sometimes on muribund epiphytic bryophytes in sheltered, humid woodlands.


+Trapelia involuta (Taylor) Hertel

Herzogia, 2: 508, 1973 - Lecanora involuta Taylor [in J. Mackay] Fl. Hibern., 2: 134, 1836.

Syn.: Biatora coarctata v. ornata (Sommerf.) Th.Fr., Biatora coarctata v. glebulosa (Gray) Arnold, Lecanora coarctata v. ornata Sommerf., Lecidea coarctata v. glebulosa (Gray) Cromb., Lecidea coarctata v. ornata (Sommerf.) Nyl., Lecidea ornata (Sommerf.) Hue, Parmelia coarctata v. microphyllina Fr., Trapelia ornata (Sommerf.) Hertel

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl, Lomb, Lig. C - Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 2-3, 1-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: on basic siliceous rocks, roofing tiles, brick walls, mainly Tyrrhenian. The record from Piedmont by Valcuvia (2002, 2002b) is very dubious.


+Trapelia obtegens (Th.Fr.) Hertel

Ber. dtsch. bot. Ges., n. F., 4: 181, 1970 - Biatora coarctata ssp. obtegens Th.Fr., Bot. Notiser, 1867: 152, 1867.

Syn.: Biatora coarctata v. obtegens (Th.Fr.) Th.Fr., Lecidea coarctata v. obtegens (Th.Fr.) Th.Fr., Lecidea obtegens (Th.Fr.) Vain.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 3, 1-3/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: on siliceous pebbles near the ground, sometimes on roofing tiles and over thin soil layers. The record from Lazio in Nimis (1993: 711) was due to a misidentification, and is not accepted here.


+Trapelia placodioides Coppins & P.James

Lichenologist, 16, 3: 257, 1984.



N - VG, TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2006). C - Tosc (TSB). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 3-4, 3, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: vr, E: a, F: r, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: on base- rich or slightly calciferous siliceous substrata, sometimes also on walls, in humid areas, probably more widespread, but never common.


+Trapeliopsis flexuosa (Fr.) Coppins & P.James

Lichenologist, 16, 3: 258, 1984 - Biatora flexuosa Fr., Sched. Crit. Lich. Suec., 2, 8: 11, 1826.

Syn.: Lecidea aeruginosa Borrer, Lecidea flexuosa (Fr.) Nyl., Lecidea flexuosa f. aeruginosa (Borrer) Leight., Lecidea granulosa ssp. flexuosa (Fr.) Th.Fr., Lecidea sapinea (Fr.) Zahlbr. non sensu Vain., Lecidea sporodiza Stirt.

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Ven, TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, Piem (TSB), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Benesperi & al. 2007, Tretiach & al. 2008), Laz, Sar (Zedda 1995, Zedda & Sipman 2001). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Lign-Epiph/ 1-2, 4-5, 2-4, 1-2/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C: c, D: vr, E: er, F: rr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Not a widespread, temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on lignum (often on wooden fences) and acid bark, esp. of Pinus and Castanea.


+Trapeliopsis gelatinosa (Flörke) Coppins & P.James

Lichenologist, 16, 3: 258, 1984 - Lecidea gelatinosa Flörke, Schr. Ges. naturf. Fr. Berlin Mag., 3: 201, 1809.

Syn.: Biatora gelatinosa (Flörke) Flot., Biatora viridescens v. gelatinosa (Flörke) Fr., Micarea gelatinosa (Flörke) Brodo

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 1-2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: rr, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: a boreal-montane to cool-temperate early colonizer of mineral soil, sometimes overgrowing bryophytes and plant debris.


+Trapeliopsis granulosa (Hoffm.) Lumbsch

[in Hertel] Lecid. Exs., 5: 99, 1983 - Verrucaria granulosa Hoffm., Descr. Adumbr. Pl. Crypt. Lich., 2, 1: 21, tab. 30, 1794.

Syn.: Biatora decolorans auct., Biatora decolorans f. eschogonioides Anzi, Biatora granulosa (Hoffm.) Flot., Lecidea decolorans auct., Lecidea granulosa (Hoffm.) Ach., Lecidea granulosa v. escharioides (Hoffm.) Arnold, Lecidea quadricolor (Dicks.) Borrer, Trapelia granulosa (Hoffm.) V.Wirth

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Benesperi & al. 2007), Laz, Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Lign-Terr/ 1-2, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rc, A1: c, B: r, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to cool-temperate, circumpolar lichen, found on soil rich in humus, bryophytes, peat, rotting wood, sometimes also on rocks, mostly in clearings of grasslands and shrublands, most common in the Alps, rarer in the Apennines.


+Trapeliopsis pseudogranulosa Coppins & P.James

Lichenologist, 16, 3: 259, 1984.



N - Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008). C - Tosc, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr-Lign-Epiph/ 1, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: in humid Castanea woodlands, on mosses on basal parts of trunks, decaying lignum and acid organic soil in areas with siliceous substrata, certainly more widespread.


+Trapeliopsis subconcolor (Anzi) Hertel

Herzogia, 5, 3-4: 462, 1981 - Biatora subconcolor Anzi, Comm. Soc. Critt. Ital., 1, 3: 151, 1862.

Syn.: Lecidea subconcolor (Anzi) Jatta, Trapelia subconcolor (Anzi) Hertel

N - TAA, Lomb.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a rarely-collected species of basic siliceous rocks in sheltered situations, with subtropical affinities.


+Trapeliopsis viridescens (Schrad.) Coppins & P.James

Lichenologist, 16, 3: 263, 1984 - Lichen viridescens Schrad. [in J.F. Gmel.] Syst. Nat., 2, 2: 1361, 1792.

Syn.: Biatora sphaeroides f. viridescens (Schrad.) Rabenh., Biatora viridescens (Schrad.) W.Mann, Biatora viridescens v. putrida (Körb.) Körb., Lecidea viridescens (Schrad.) Ach., Micarea viridescens (Schrad.) Brodo, Trapelia viridescens (Schrad.) V.Wirth

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Lign/ 1-2, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly boreal-montane lichen, found on rotting, soft lignum, sometimes overgrowing mosses, mostly in coniferous forests or in Castanea-stands.


+Trapeliopsis wallrothii (Spreng.) Hertel & Gotth.Schneid.

[in Gotth.Schneid.] Bibl. Lichenol., 13: 153, 1980, ("1979") - Lecidea wallrothii [Flörke ex] Spreng., Neue Entdeck., 2: 96, 1820.

Syn.: Biatora glebulosa Fr., Biatora wallrothii (Spreng.) Körb., Trapelia wallrothii (Spreng.) V.Wirth

N - Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Lig. C - Tosc, Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2-3, 4, 3-4, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on base-rich, non- or weakly calciferous soil, sometimes overgrowing mosses, mostly in open situations.


+Tremolecia atrata (Ach.) Hertel

Khumbu Himal, 6, 3: 351, 1977 - Gyalecta atrata Ach., K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. N. Handl.: 229, 1808.

Syn.: Aspicilia melanophaea (Fr.) Körb., Lecidea atrata (Ach.) Wahlenb., Lecidea atroferrata Branth & Grønlund, Lecidea circumcisa H.Magn., Lecidea dicksonii auct. non (J.F.Gmel.) Ach., Lecidea lactea v. melanophaea (Fr.) Nyl., Lecidea melanophaea Fr., Lecidea sincerula Nyl. ex Cromb., Tremolecia dicksonii (“J.F.Gmel.”) M.Choisy

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA (Nascimbene 2003, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, Piem (Allisiardi 2001, Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, 2006), VA (Piervittori & al. 1998, 2004, Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 3-5, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-6/ A: vc, A1: c, B: er, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ m/ p/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on hard magmatic and metamorphic rocks, often rich in iron, mostly on small boulders.


+Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla (Willd.) Hale

[in Egan] The Bryologist, 90: 164, 1987 - Lichen chlorophyllus Willd. [in Humb.] Fl. Frib. Specim.: 20, 1793.

Syn.: Cetraria chlorophylla (Willd.) Vain., Cetraria chlorophylla v. klementii (Servít) H.Magn., Cetraria scutata auct. non (Wulfen in Jacq.) Poetsch, Cetraria ulophylla (Ach.) Rebent., Platysma chlorophyllum (Willd.) Vain., Platysma ulophyllum (Ach.) Nyl., Tuckermannopsis chlorophylla (Willd.) Hale

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Alessio & al. 1995, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Lig (Brunialti & al. 2001, 2002). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994), Sar. S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si (Ottonello & Salone 1994).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3-4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on isolated conifers (e.g. Larix in the subalpine belt), more rarely on old acid-barked deciduous trees, most frequent in the Alps, rarer in the mountains of the south.


+Tuckneraria laureri (Kremp.) Randlane & Thell

Acta Botanica Fennica, 150: 149, 1994 - Cetraria laureri Kremp., Flora, 34: 673, 1851.

Syn.: Cetraria complicata Laurer in Fr. nom.nud., Nephromopsis laureri (Kremp.) Kurok., Platsyma complicatum ("Laurer") Nyl., Platysma laureri (Kremp.) A.Massal., Tuckneraria laureri (Kremp.) Randlane & Thell


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