+Absconditella annexa



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N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Thell & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2005b, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e), Lomb (Nascimbene & al. 2006e). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007)

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ Note: on acid-barked coniferous and deciduous trees in cold-humid montane woodlands, mostly in mixed Fagus-Abies forests, but also on Larix in humid subalpine stands.


+Umbilicaria aprina Nyl.

Syn. Lich., 2: 12, 1863.

Syn.: Gyrophora aprina (Nyl.) Nyl.

N - Piem.

Fol.u/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2, 4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 5-6/ A: er, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine species of hard siliceous rocks. The only record is from France, but near the border (Mt. Blanc).


+Umbilicaria cinerascens (Arnold) Frey

Hedwigia, 71: 115, 1931 - Gyrophora cinerascens Arnold, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 25: 438, 1875.



N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

Fol.u/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2, 3, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 4-6/ A: vr, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on steeply inclined, often north-facing siliceous rocks, mostly in small colonies, almost certainly restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Umbilicaria cinereorufescens (Schaer.) Frey

Hedwigia, 71: 109, 1931 - Umbilicaria vellea v. spodochroa f. cinereorufescens Schaer., Enum. Crit. Lich. Eur.: 25, 1850 p.p.

Syn.: Gyrophora cinereorufescens (Schaer.) Schol., Gyrophora mammulata Ach. em. Frey

N - TAA (Nascimbene 2005), Lomb, Piem.

Fol.u/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2, 4-5, 2-3, 1-3/ Alt: 3-6/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: a holarctic species, also known from the mountains of Africa, found on wind-exposed, vertical or slightly underhanging, hard siliceous rocks in humid areas (frequent fog) and high rainfall, but in apparently dry situations.


+Umbilicaria crustulosa (Ach.) Frey ssp. crustulosa v. crustulosa

Hedwigia, 71: 110, 1931 - Gyrophora crustulosa Ach., Lich. Univ.: 673, 1810.

Syn.: Gyrophora depressa (Ach.) Schaer., Gyrophora depressa v. crustulosa (Ach.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Gyrophora spodochroa v. depressa (Ach.) Ach., Omphalodiscus crustulosus (Ach.) Schol., Umbilicaria spodochroa auct. medioeur. p.p.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (TSB), TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb (Rivellini 1994), Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil (TSB), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc (Vězda Lich.Rar.Exs.179!), Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996) , Si (Otttonello & Isocrono 2004).

Fol.u/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 3-6/ A: c, A1: vc, B: rr, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: a widespread, cool-temperate to arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichen, found on exposed, often steeply inclined siliceous rocks with some water seepage, rare in the Apennines for the scarcity of suitable substrata.


+Umbilicaria crustulosa ssp. crustulosa v. badiofusca Frey

Rabenhorst's Kryptogamenfl., 9, 4, 1: 264, 1932.



N - Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999).

Fol.u/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4-5, 2-4, 2-3/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: rr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: a taxon of the mountains of southern Europe, worthy of further study.


+Umbilicaria crustulosa ssp. punctata Sancho & A. Crespo

Anal. Inst. Bot. Cavanilles, 35: 89, 1978.



C - Sar.

Fol.u/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: a, A1: a, B: vr, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a recently-described taxon, hitherto known from the Iberian Peninsula and from Sardegna, it could be more widespread in the Mediterranean mountains.


+Umbilicaria cylindrica (L.) Duby v. cylindrica

[Delise ex] Duby, Bot. Gall, 2: 595, 1830 - Lichen cylindricus L., Sp. Pl.: 1144, 1753.

Syn.: Gyrophora cylindrica (L.) Ach., Gyrophora cylindrica v. nudiuscula (Schaer.) Zahlbr, Umbilicaria crinita Hoffm.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003), Lomb (Rivellini 1994), Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, 2006), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 1998, 2001, 2004, Valcuvia 2000), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc, Abr, Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Fol.u/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 3-5, 3-4, 1-3/ Alt: 3-6/ A: c, A1: vc, B: r, C: rr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an ecologically wide-ranging, cool-temperate to arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichen, found on wind-exposed boulders with a short snow-covering period, often on or near the top, common only in the Alps, becoming much rarer southwards, also for the scarcity of suitable substrata.


+Umbilicaria cylindrica v. delisei Nyl.

[Despr. ex] Nyl., Lichenes Scand.: 117, 1861.

Syn.: Gyrophora cylindrica v. delisei (Nyl.) Syd., Umbilicaria canescens (Dombr.) Dombr., Umbilicaria delisei (Nyl.) Despr.

N - TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2006, 2006b), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Fol.u/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 3-4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: rr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: more hygrophytic than the typical variety, and often found in sheltered situations, such as in niches of the rock.


+Umbilicaria cylindrica v. tornata (Ach.) Nyl.

Lichenes Scand.: 117, 1861 - Gyrophora tornata Ach., K. Vetensk.-Acad. Nya Handl.: 274, 1808.



N - Frl, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001). C - Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Fol.u/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 3-4, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 4-6/ A: c, A1: rc, B: r, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on very exposed surfaces, a weakly differentiated variety, apparently adapted to more xeric conditions.


+Umbilicaria decussata (Vill.) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ, 8: 490, 1924 - Lichen decussatus Vill., Hist. Plant. Dauphiné, 3: 964, 1789.

Syn.: Gyrophora decussata (Vill.) Zahbr., Gyrophora discolor Th.Fr., Gyrophora reticulata Schaer., Omphalodiscus decussatus (Vill.) Schol., Umbilicaria reticulata (Schaer.) Carestia

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2004).

Fol.u/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2, 4, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 3-6/ A: c, A1: rc, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ u/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on steeply inclined to slightly underhanging, wind-exposed siliceous rocks.


+Umbilicaria deusta (L.) Baumg.

Fl. Lips.: 571, 1790 - Lichen deustus L., Sp. Pl.: 1150, 1753.

Syn.: Gyrophora aenea v. flocculosa (Wulfen) Schaer., Gyrophora deusta (L.) Ach., Gyrophora flocculosa (Wulfen) Turner & Borrer, Gyrophora polyphylla v. deusta (L.) Rabenh., Umbilicaria flocculosa (Wulfen) Hoffm.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003), Lomb (Zocchi & al. 1997), Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, 2006), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2007, Tretiach & al. 2008), Sar. S - Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Fol.u/ Ch/ A.i/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 3, 3-4/ Alt: 3-5/ A: c, A1: ec, B: r, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on rocks near the ground with a long snow-lie and wetted by rain, one of the most common Umbilicarias in the Alps.


+Umbilicaria freyi Codogno, Poelt & Puntillo

Pl. Syst. Evol., 165: 63, 1989.

Syn.: Umbilicaria hirsuta v. pyrenaica Frey

N - VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil. C - Tosc, Sar (Narui & al. 1996). S - Cal (Codogno 1995, Puntillo 1996).

Fol.u/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: r, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on siliceous rocks, ecologically intermediate between U. grisea and U. deusta, probably more widespread in the Alps.


+Umbilicaria grisea Hoffm.

Deutschl. Flora: 111, 1796.

Syn.: Gyrophora grisea (Hoffm.) Turner & Borrer, Gyrophora murina Ach., Umbilicaria murina (Ach.) DC.

N - TAA, Lomb (De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (TSB), VA (Valcuvia 2000). C - Sar. S - Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Caniglia & Grillo 2003).

Fol.u/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2, 3-4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: r, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: on steeply inclined to underhanging siliceous rocks only slightly wetted after rain.


+Umbilicaria hirsuta (Westr.) Hoffm.

Deutschl. Flora: 112, 1796 - Lichen hirsutus [Sw. ex] Westr., K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl.: 47, 1793.

Syn.: Gyrophora hirsuta (Westr.) Ach., Gyrophora hirsuta v. melanotricha Flot., Gyrophora hirsuta v. vestita Th.Fr., Gyrophora vellea v. hirsuta (Westr.) Rabenh.

N - Frl, TAA, Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003), Emil, Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Lig (TSB). C - Tosc, Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Fol.u/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-5, 2-3, 3-4/ Alt: 2-5/ A: c, A1: vc, B: rr, C: r, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a widespread, arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on steeply inclined to slightly underhanging siliceous rocks, often in somehow dusty situations, common in the Alps, rarer in the Apennines, also for the scarcity of suitable substrata.


+Umbilicaria hyperborea (Ach.) Hoffm.

Deutschl. Flora, 2: 110, 1796 - Lichen hyperboreus Ach., K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl., 15: 89, 1794.

Syn.: Gyrophora aenea v. hyperborea (Ach.) Schaer., Gyrophora hyperborea (Ach.) Ach., Gyrophora hyperborea v. primaria Th.Fr., Gyrophora ustulata (Vain.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Fol.u/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, probably circumpolar lichen, found on low siliceous boulders wetted by rain, probably restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Umbilicaria laevis (Schaer.) Frey

Hedwigia, 71: 117, 1931 - Gyrophora atropruinosa v. laevis Schaer., Naturwiss. Anz., 1: 8, 1818.

Syn.: Agyrophora laevis (Schaer.) Llano, Gyrophora laevis (Schaer.) Du Rietz

N - TAA (Lich.Alpium 320: Narui & al. 1996), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 2004).

Fol.u/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rr, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: on inclined, sun-exposed siliceous rocks, generally in dry situations.


+Umbilicaria leiocarpa DC.

[in Lam. & DC.] Fl. Franç, éd. 3, 2: 410, 1805.

Syn.: Agyrophora leiocarpa (DC.) Gyeln., Agyrophora lyngeyi (Schol.) Llano, Gyrophora leiocarpa (DC.) Du Rietz, Umbilicaria atropruinosa Schaer.

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999).

Fol.u/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rr, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly arctic-alpine, probably circumpolar lichen, found on vertical, wind- and sun- exposed, large siliceous boulders wetted by rain and with a short snow-lie period, restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Umbilicaria microphylla (Laurer) A.Massal.

Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 62, 1852 - Umbilicaria albopruinosa v. microphylla Laurer [in Sturm] Deutschl. Fl., 2, 24: 13, 1832.

Syn.: Agyrophora microphylla (Laurer) Llano, Gyrophora anthracina v. microphylla (Laurer) Jatta, Gyrophora microphylla (Laurer) A.Massal.

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004).

Fol.u/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 4-6/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on steeply inclined, wind-exposed, hard siliceous rocks, often forming monospecific stands, probably restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Umbilicaria nylanderiana (Zahlbr.) H.Magn.

Lich. Sel. Scand. Exs. 252, 1937 - Gyrophora nylanderiana Zahlbr., Cat. Lich. Univ, 4: 720, 1927.

Syn.: Gyrophora corrugata (DC.) Nyl., Umbilicaria corrugata (DC.) Nyl.

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001, 2004). C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996) , Si (Otttonello & Isocrono 2004, Iacolino & Ottonello 2006).

Fol.u/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2, 4-5, 3-4, 3-4/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rr, A1: r, B: vr, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, probably circumpolar lichen, found on the top of isolated siliceous boulders, most frequent in the Alps.


+Umbilicaria polyphylla (L.) Baumg.

Fl. Lips.: 571, 1790 - Lichen polyphyllus L., Sp. Pl.: 1150, 1753.

Syn.: Gyrophora aenea v. glabra (Ach.) Schaer., Gyrophora anthracina (Wulfen) Körb., Gyrophora heteroidea v. anthracina (Wulfen) Ach., Gyrophora glabra Ach., Gyrophora polyphylla (L.) Funck, Umbilicaria anthracina (Wulfen) Hoffm.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, 2006), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil. C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Caniglia & Grillo 2003, Ottonello 2005, Iacolino & Ottonello 2006).

Fol.u/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 1-2, 4-5, 2-3, 1-3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: r, A1: rr, B: vr, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: optimum on inclined siliceous rocks wetted by rain, a variable and ecologically wide-ranging species of rainy areas.


+Umbilicaria polyrrhiza (L.) Fr.

Sched. Crit., fasc. 5-6: 3, 1825 - Lichen polyrrhizos L., Sp. Pl.: 1151, 1753.

Syn.: Actynogyra polyrrhiza (L.) Schol., Gyrophora polyrrhiza (L.) Körb.

N - Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil. C - Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006), Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Fol.u/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2, 4-5, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rr, A1: r, B: vr, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on steeply inclined siliceous rocks wetted by rain in humid-rainy areas. Earlier records from Marche, Lazio and Sicilia (see Nimis 1993: 719), being dubious, are not accepted here.


+Umbilicaria proboscidea (L.) Schrad.

Spicil. Fl. Germ., 1: 103, 1794 - Lichen proboscideus L., Sp. Pl.: 1150, 1753.

Syn.: Gyrophora polymorpha v. proboscidea (L.) Schrad., Gyrophora proboscidea (L.) Ach.

N - TAA (Nascimbene 2003), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & al. 1998, Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Fol.u/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4-5, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rc, A1: r, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichen, found on siliceous rocks, often on small boulders, ecologically similar to U. cylindrica, but with a narrower range, with optimum in colder and less continental areas.


+Umbilicaria ruebeliana (Du Rietz & Frey) Frey

Hedwigia, 71: 112, 1931 - Gyrophora ruebeliana Du Rietz & Frey, Hedwigia, 69: 244, 1929.

Syn.: Omphalodiscus ruebelianus (Du Rietz & Frey) Schol.

N - TAA (Nascimbene 2002), Lomb (Codogno 1995), Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999).

Fol.u/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 5-6/ A: r, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on steeply inclined, often south- or west-facing siliceous rocks, hitherto known only from the C and W Alps.


+Umbilicaria spodochroa Hoffm.

[Ehrh. ex] Hoffm., Deutschl. Fl., 2: 113, 1796 as U. spadochroa.

Syn.: Gyrophora cirrhosa auct., Gyrophora spodochroa (Hoffm.) Ach., Omphalodiscus spodochrous (Hoffm.) Schol.

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999). C - Sar.

Fol.u/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 3-4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rr, A1: r, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: on inclined siliceous rocks. Most Italian records need confirmation.


+Umbilicaria subglabra (Nyl.) Harm.

Lich. France, 4: 707, 1910 - Gyrophora subglabra Nyl., Lich. Envir. Paris: 135, 1896.

Syn.: Agyrophora subglabra (Nyl.) M.Choisy, Umbilicaria subglabra v. schmidtii Frey ?

N - Frl (Codogno 1995), TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2006).

Fol.u/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: r, A1: rr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on steeply inclined, exposed siliceous rocks, certainly widespread throughout the Alps.


+Umbilicaria torrefacta (Lightf.) Schrad.

Spicil. Fl. Germ., 1: 104, 1794 - Lichen torrefactus Lightf., Fl. Scot., 2: 862, 1777.

Syn.: Gyrophora erosa (Weber) Hoffm., Gyrophora erosa v. torrefacta (Lightf.) Frey, Gyrophora torrefacta (Lightf.) Cromb., Gyrophora torrida (Ach.) Nyl., Umbilicaria erosa (Weber) Hoffm.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Fol.u/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4-5, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: er, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichen of siliceous rocks. An earlier record from Emilia (see Nimis 1993: 721) is very dubious, and is not accepted here, several records from the Alps need confirmation.


+Umbilicaria vellea (L.) Hoffm.

Descr. Adumbr. Pl. Lich., 2: 9, 1794 - Lichen velleus L., Sp. Pl.: 1150, 1753 p.p.

Syn.: Gyrophora vellea (L.) Ach., Gyrophora vellerea Nyl.

N - Frl (TSB), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Fol.u/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2, 4, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rr, A1: vr, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ w/ Note: an arctic-alpine, probably circumpolar lichen, found on steeply inclined, exposed siliceous rocks with some water seepage. Earlier records from Marche and Lazio (see Nimis 1993: 721) plus the record from Umbria by Ravera & al. (2004) are dubious, and are not accepted here.


+Umbilicaria virginis Schaer.

Bibl. Univ. de Genève, 36: 153, 1841.

Syn.: Gyrophora stipitata (Nyl.) Branth., Gyrophora virginis (Schaer.) Frey, Omphalodiscus virginis (Schaer.) Schol., Umbilicaria rugifera Nyl., Umbilicaria stipitata Nyl.

N - TAA, Lomb (Rivellini 1994), Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Fol.u/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 4-5, 4, 1/ Alt: 6/ A: vr, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ u/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, probably circumpolar lichen, found on wind-exposed siliceous cliffs, often in small niches and under overhangs, strictly limited to the nival belt in the Alps.


+Usnea articulata (L.) Hoffm.

Deutschl. Fl., 2: 133, 1796 - Lichen articulatus L., Sp. Pl.: 1156, 1753.

Syn.: Usnea articulata ssp. mediterranea Motyka

N - Ven, Lomb, Emil. C - Tosc, Laz, Abr, Sar (Loi & al. 2000, Zedda 2001). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 2006b).

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.f/ Epiph/ 2, 3-5, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a mediterranean-macaronesian lichen with subtropical affinities, found on branches of ancient trees in humid forests of the south, probably extinct in the north.


+Usnea cavernosa Tuck.

[in Agassiz] Lake Superior: 171, 1850.

Syn.: Usnea arnoldiana Zahlbr., Usnea microcarpa Arnold

N - Frl, TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb, Piem, Lig.

Frut.f/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 1-2, 4-5, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C: rr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ Note: restricted to damp forests, on branches of coniferous and deciduous trees.


+Usnea ceratina Ach.

Lich. Univ.: 610, 1810.

Syn.: Usnea ceratina f. incurvescens (Arnold) H.Olivier

N - Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2005b, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb (Nascimbene 2006, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999). C - Tosc, Marc, Laz, Abr, Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, 2003b), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999), Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.f/ Epiph/ 2, 4-5, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: rr, C: rc, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane lichen, found on branches of trees in damp forests with frequent fog, most common in the Alps, but also found throughout the Apennines in mixed beech-fir stands and in relict forests with Taxus (e.g. in Sardegna).


+Usnea cornuta Körb.

Parerga Lichenol.: 2, 1859.

Syn.: Usnea constrictula Stirt., Usnea inflata (Delise ex Duby) Motyka, Usnea inflata v. cornuta (Körb.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Usnea intexta Stirt., Usnea subpectinata Stirt.


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