+Absconditella annexa



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N - Frl, TAA, Lig. C - Tosc. S - Camp.

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Sax/ 2, 4-5, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ oc/ Note: a chemically and morphologically variable species, also occurring on siliceous rocks, restricted to damp sites with frequent fog.


+Usnea dasaea Stirt.

Scottish Natur., 6: 104, 1881.

Syn.: Usnea dolosa Motyka

N - Ven, Lomb.

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2, 4-5, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: on twigs in moist woodlands, exceptionally on rocks. Italian records require confirmation.


+Usnea diplotypus Vain.

Medd. Soc. F. Fl. Fenn., 48: 172, 1925.

Syn.: Usnea barbata v. saxicola Anders, Usnea saxicola (Anders) Anders

N - TAA. C - Sar.

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Sax/ 2, 4-5, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: both on siliceous rocks and on tree bark in humid open forests with frequent fog.


+Usnea esperantiana P. Clerc

Candollea, 47: 514, 1992.



N - Lig. C - Laz (Ravera 2006), Sar (Zedda 2002).

Frut.f/ Ch/ §/ Epiph/ 2, 4-5, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mediterranean-macaronesian, recently-described, species, also known from E North America, found in damp forests with frequent fog, mostly on branches of ancient trees, perhaps somehow more widespread in Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Usnea filipendula Stirt.

Scottish Natur., 6: 104, 1881.

Syn.: Usnea barbata auct. p.p., Usnea dasypoga (Ach.) Motyka, Usnea dasypoga ssp. bicolor Motyka, Usnea dasypoga ssp. eudasypoga Motyka, Usnea dasypoga ssp. stramineola Motyka ?, Usnea dasypoga ssp. tuberculata Motyka, Usnea dasypoga ssp. melanopoga Motyka, Usnea dasypoga v. tuberculata (Motyka) Räsänen, Usnea esthonica Räsänen ?, Usnea fibrillosa Motyka ?, Usnea flagellata Motyka ?, Usnea hirtella (Arnold) Motyka ?, Usnea meylanii Motyka ?, Usnea muricata Motyka ?, Usnea sublaxa Vain. ?

N - Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb (Alessio & al. 1995), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002), Lig. C - Tosc, Umbr (Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo & Vězda 1994, Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3-5, 1-3, 1/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: vr, C: rc, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a variable species, most common in humid montane deciduous forests with frequent fog, both on branches and on boles. Although most Italian records need confirmation, the species is certainly widespread in the Alps and along the Apennines.


+Usnea flammea Stirt.

Scottish Natur., 6: 102, 1881.

Syn.: Usnea dalmatica Motyka, Usnea rupestris Motyka

N - Ven, Lig.

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Sax/ 2, 4-5, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ oc/ Note: mainly epiphytic, but also found on rocks and soil in damp situations. Italian records need confirmation.


+Usnea florida (L.) F.H.Wigg.

[Weber ex] F. H.Wigg, Primit. Florae Holsat.: 91, 1780, em. P. Clerc, Cryptogamie, Bryol. Lichénol., 5, 4: 333-360, 1984 - Lichen floridus L., Sp. Pl.: 1156, 1753.

Syn.: Usnea barbata v. florida (L.) Fr., Usnea florida ssp. arbuscula Motyka, Usnea florida ssp. fagophila Motyka, Usnea florida ssp. floridula Motyka, Usnea florida ssp. pseudostrigosa Motyka, Usnea tominii Räsänen

N - Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA (Nascimbene 2001b, 2003, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb (Alessio & al. 1995, Tretiach 1996), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc (Tretiach & Ganis 1999, Loppi & Putortì 2001), Laz, Abr, Sar. S - Camp, Pugl, Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Frut.f/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 1-2, 4-5, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: a, C: rc, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a boreal-montane to cool-temperate lichen, found in forests with frequent fog, on twigs and branches. An earlier record from Venezia Giulia (see Nimis 1993: 724) is excluded, as it was from Slovenia.


+Usnea fulvoreagens (Räsänen) Räsänen

Lich. Fenn. Exs.: n. 13, 1935 - Usnea glabrescens v. fulvoreagens Räsänen, Suom. Tideak Toim. A, 34, 4, 1935.



N - Frl, Ven, Lomb (Alessio & al. 1995), Emil. C - Umbr (Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002).

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 1-2, 4-5, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on twigs and branches of conifers, more rarely of deciduous trees in cold-humid, open woodlands with frequent fog, chemically heterogeneous. Some Italian records could refer to U. lapponica.


+Usnea glabrata (Ach.) Vain.

Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., A 6, 7: 7: 1915 - Usnea plicata v. glabrata Ach., Lich. Univ.: 624, 1810.

Syn.: Usnea barbata v. sorediifera Arnold, Usnea kujalae Räsänen, Usnea sorediifera (Arnold) Lynge non sensu Motyka nec auct.

N - Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2003c), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb (Alessio & al. 1995), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999). C - Tosc, Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 1-2, 4-5, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rc, B: a, C: rr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on bark, sometimes on lignum, in cold-humid, but open situations.


+Usnea glabrescens (Vain.) Vain.

Medd. Soc. F. Fl. Fenn., 48: 173, 1925 - Usnea barbata v. glabrescens [Nyl. ex] Vain., Medd. Soc. F. Fl. Fenn., 2: 46, 1878.

Syn.: Usnea compacta Motyka, Usnea distincta Motyka, Usnea extensa Vain., Usnea glabrella (Motyka) Räsänen, Usnea laricina Vain. ex Räsänen non auct.

N - Ven (Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb (Alessio & al. 1995), Piem (TSB), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999). C - Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 4-5, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ #/ Note: on bark and lignum in cold-humid but open situations. The record from Puglia, as most of those from Italy, requires confirmation.


+Usnea hirta (L.) F.H.Wigg.

[Weber ex] F.H.Wigg., Primit. Florae Holsat.: 91, 1780 - Lichen hirtus L., Sp. Pl.: 1155, 1753.

Syn.: Usnea barbata v. hirta (L.) Fr., Usnea florida v. hirta (L.) Ach., Usnea foveata Vain., Usnea glaucescens Vain., Usnea glaucescens v. glabrella Motyka, Usnea hirta ssp. comiformis Motyka, Usnea hirta ssp. helvetica Motyka, Usnea hirta ssp. laricicola Motyka, Usnea hirta ssp. villosa (Ach.) Motyka, Usnea plicata v. foveata (Vain.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Usnea pulvinata Räsänen, Usnea variolosa Motyka

N - Frl (Tretiach 1996), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Alessio & al. 1995, Serio & al. 2001, Valcuvia & al. 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Isocrono & al. 2005), Emil, Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & al. 2002). C - Tosc, Marc, Laz, Abr (Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999), Sar (Loi & al. 2000). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b), Pugl, Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & al. 2000), Si (Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 2006b).

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 4-5, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: c, B: a, C: rc, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: most common in continental, but humid areas, on bark (branches and boles) of isolated trees and on lignum (e.g. wooden fences and poles), widespread throughout the Alps, restricted to upland areas, and mostly to those with siliceous substrata, in the Apennines. Several records - esp. those from S Italy - might be due to confusion with other species.


+Usnea lapponica Vain.

Medd. Soc. F. Fl. Fenn., 48: 173, 1925.

Syn.: Usnea arnoldii Motyka, Usnea fulvoreagens auct. non (Räsänen) Räsänen, Usnea laricina auct. p.p. non Vain., Usnea monstruosa Vain., Usnea perplectans auct. europ. non Stirt., Usnea sorediifera sensu Motyka non (Arnold) Lynge

N - Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA, Piem, VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999). C - Tosc, Abr, Sar (Zedda 2002).

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3-4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ Note: on branches of conifers in montane, cold-humid forests with frequent fog. Two dubious records from Campania (see Nimis 1993: 727, and Aprile & al. 2002) are not accepted here, many records from the Alps probably refer to U. substerilis.


+Usnea longissima Ach.

Lich. Univ.: 626, 1810.

Syn.: Dolichousnea longissima (Ach.) Arcticus, Usnea longissima v. contorta Elenkin

N - Frl (Lich. Graec. 60: Obermayer 1996), Ven (Nascimbene 2003b), TAA, Lomb, Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.f/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3-5, 1, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ Note: a mainly cool-temperate to boreal-montane species, found on branches of old (mostly coniferous) trees in closed, semi-natural forests in areas with high rainfall and frequent fog, restricted to a few localities and very much declining.


+Usnea madeirensis Motyka

[in Tavares] Rev. de Biol. Lisboa, 4(1-2): 131-144, 1964.



C - Sar (Zedda 2002).

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.f/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3-5, 1, 1/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a maily western species of humid montane forests.


+Usnea mutabilis Stirt.

Scottish Nat., 6: 107, 1881.

Syn: Usnea marocana Motyka

C - Laz.

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2, 4-5, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: on bark of ancient deciduous and evergreen, isolated trees in semi-natural, open forests subject to frequent humid winds, to be looked for elsewhere in Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Usnea rigida (Ach.) Motyka nom. illegit.

Lich. Gen. Usnea Stud. Monogr., 1-2: 177, 1936 - Usnea florida v. rigida Ach., Lich. Univ.: 621, 1810.

Syn.: Usnea carpathica Motyka, Usnea barbata v. intermedia A.Massal., Usnea faginea Motyka, Usnea florida ssp. fistulosa Motyka, Usnea florida ssp. floridula Motyka, Usnea florida ssp. rubrireagens Vězda, Usnea glauca Motyka, Usnea hapalotera (Harm.) Motyka, Usnea harmandii Motyka, Usnea intermedia (A.Massal.) Jatta, Usnea leiopoga Motyka, Usnea montana Motyka, Usnea neglecta Motyka, Usnea protea Motyka, Usnea pseudoflorida Motyka ?, Usnea rigida v. hapalotera (Harm.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Usnea rigida v. protea (Motyka) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Usnea smaragdina Motyka

N - Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Nascimbene 2003), Lomb (Alessio & al. 1995), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999). C - Abr. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si.

Frut.f/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 4-5, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rc, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a polymorphic and not clearly understood taxon, most common on conifers in humid montane forests.


+Usnea rubicunda Stirt.

Scottish Natur., 6: 102, 1881.

Syn.: Usnea barbata f. rubiginosa Bagl., Usnea ferruginea auct. non (Michx.) A.Massal., Usnea protensa Stirt., Usnea rubiginea auct. non (Michx.) A. Massal, Usnea sublurida Stirt.

N - Ven, TAA, Lig. C - Tosc, Laz (Massari & Ravera 2003), Sar. S - Camp (Puntillo & al. 2000, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Cal (Nimis & Puntillo 2003), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ Note: a mild-temperate, chiefly mediterranean-atlantic species, found on ancient specimens of Quercus cerris, Q. suber, and other acid-barked broad-leaved trees in open, but semi-natural, warm-humid forests, locally abundant only in parts of Tyrrhenian Italy, from Toscana to Calabria, mostly not far from the coast, there is no recent record from the north, where the species might be extinct.


+Usnea scabrata Nyl.

Flora, 58: 103, 1875.

Syn.: Usnea alpina Motyka ?, Usnea barbata sensu P.James & M.Jørg. ?, Usnea catenulata Motyka ?, Usnea caucasica Motyka ?, Usnea cembricola Motyka ?, Usnea ferox Motyka ?, Usnea freyi Motyka ?, Usnea maxima Motyka ?, Usnea prostrata Räsänen ?, Usnea rugulosa Vain. ?, Usnea scabrata v. cembricola (Motyka) Clauzade & Cl.Roux ?, Usnea scrobiculata Motyka ?, Usnea sylvatica Motyka ?, Usnea tenax Motyka ?, Usnea tortuosa De Not. ?

N - Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb, Piem, VA (Valcuvia 2000). C - Umbr (Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006) , Laz (Ravera 2006), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002). S - Bas (Potenza 2006).

Frut.f/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3-4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ #/ Note: a boreal-montane species, found in oroboreal-montane forests of the Alps with high rainfall and frequent fog, esp.on branches and twigs of Picea.


+Usnea subfloridana Stirt.

Scottish Natur., 6: 294, 1882.

Syn.: Usnea comosa (Ach.) Vain. non Pers., Usnea comosa ssp. eucomosa Motyka, Usnea comosa ssp. similis Motyka, Usnea comosa ssp. sordidula (Motyka) H.Magn., Usnea comosa v. scabriuscula Motyka, Usnea plicata v. comosa (Ach.) Ach., Usnea similis (Motyka) Räsänen, Usnea similis ssp. gorganensis Motyka

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c), Lomb (Nascimbene 2006, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem. C - Tosc (Loppi & al. 1998), Umbr (Ravera 2000, Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Gigante & Petriccione 1995), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Potenza 2006), Si.

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2, 3-5, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: rc, B: a, C: r, D: r, E: a, F: r, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: on branches of trees in relatively closed forests (but then in the upper parts of the crowns), and on isolated trees, one of the few species of Usnea which, albeit with stunted specimens, is also found at low altitudes and in relatively disturbed habitats.


+Usnea subscabrosa Motyka

[Nyl. ex] Motyka, Lich. Gen. Usnea Stud. Monogr., 1-2: 306, 313, 1937.



C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006). S - Camp, Bas.

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Sax/ 2, 4, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: a poorly-understood taxon, found both on basic siliceous rocks and on bark in humid situations.


+Usnea substerilis Motyka

Wyd. Muz. Slask. Katowic.3, 2: 24, 1930.

Syn.: Usnea sorediifera sensu Motyka non (Arnold) Lynge, Usnea sorediifera v. substerilis (Motyka) Keissl., Usnea stuppea (Räsänen) Motyka

N - VA (TSB). C - Umbr (Ravera 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2006). S - Bas (Potenza 2006).

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 1-2, 4-5, 1-3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rc, B: a, C: rr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a subcontinental species, often confused, in the past, with the related U. lapponica. Probably one of the most frequent Usneas of the Alps.


+Usnea wasmuthii Räsänen

Ann. Acad. Sc. Fenn., ser. A, 34, 4: 17, 1932.



N - Lig. C - Umbr (Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Si (Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994).

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2, 4-5, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a chemically heterogeneous species, ecologically similar to U. florida, but more frequent at lower altitudes in warm-humid areas, such as in parts of Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Varicellaria rhodocarpa (Körb.) Th.Fr.

Lichenogr. Scand., 1: 322, 1871 - Pertusaria rhodocarpa Körb., Syst. Lich. Germ.: 384, 1855.

Syn.: Varicellaria kemensis Räsänen, Varicellaria microsticta Nyl.

N - Frl, Ven, TAA (Hinteregger 1994), Lomb.

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr-Lign-Sax/ 1-2, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rr, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly arctic-alpine species, found on acid soil, and plant remains, more rarely on lignum or on rocks, in tundra-like environments, restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Verrucaria aethiobola Wahlenb.

[in Ach.] Meth. Lich. Suppl.: 17, 1803.

Syn.: Lithoicea aethiobola (Wahlenb.) Stein, Lithoicea cataleptoides (Nyl.) Arnold, Lithoicea chlorotica (Hepp) Stein, Pyrenula aethiobola (Wahlenb.) Ach., Verrucaria aquilella Nyl., Verrucaria catalepta Schaer. non Ach., Verrucaria cataleptoides (Nyl.) Nyl., Verrucaria chlorotica Hepp non Ach., Verrucaria csernaensis Zschacke, Verrucaria fuscocinerascens Nyl., Verrucaria hydrela v. aethiobola (Wahlenb.) A.Massal., Verrucaria laevata Ach. non auct. nec sensu Körb., Verrucaria viridicana Erichsen

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil. C - Tosc, Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: vr, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ l/ Note: periodically submerged on hard siliceous rocks along creeks. Some dubious records from S Italy reported by Nimis (1993: 732) are not accepted here.


+Verrucaria amylacea Arnold

[Hepp ex] Arnold Flora, 61: 537, 1858.



N - Ven, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc.

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3, 2-3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: rr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ u/ PF: 1/ Note: on limestone and dolomite in sheltered situations protected from rain, e.g. with Caloplaca cirrochroa, perhaps overloooked, and more widespread.


+Verrucaria anceps Kremp.

[in Hepp] Flecht. Eur.: n. 686, 1860.

Syn.: Polyblastia anceps (Kremp.) Servít

N - Ven, TAA (Dalla Torre & Sarnthein 1902), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rr, A1: r, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: reported from a few localities in the mountains of Central Europe and the S Alps, on limestone and dolomite in humid situations near or above treeline, this critical taxon is worthy of further study.


+Verrucaria apatela (A.Massal.) Trevis.

Consp. Verruc.: 71, 1860 - Lithoicea apatela A.Massal., Framm. Lichenogr.: 23, n. 59, 1855.



N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig. S - Camp.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1: r, B: vr, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ #/ Note: on steeply inclined faces of limestone and dolomite. Reported from many sites in Central and southern Europe, but closely related to V. macrostoma, and a good candidate-synonym of this species.


+Verrucaria apomelaena (A.Massal.) Hepp

Flecht. Eur.: n. 684, 1860 - Lithoicea apomelaena A.Massal., Framm. Lichenogr.: 23, 61: 1855.



N - Ven, Emil, Lig.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 3-4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: on limestone and calciferous sandstone. A very poorly known species, which badly needs revision.


+Verrucaria aquatilis Mudd

Man. Brit. Lich.: 285, tab. 5, fig. 121, 1861.

Syn.: Bachmannia maurula (Müll.Arg.) Zschacke, Verrucaria aquatilis v. aerimontana Servít, Verrucaria maurula Müll.Arg., Verrucaria retecta Zschacke ?, Verrucaria vitricola Nyl. ?

N - Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 1, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: vr, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ l/ Note: on siliceous rocks submerged in cold creeks. Probably overlooked, like many amphibious lichens in Italy.


+Verrucaria attica J.Steiner

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 61: 39, 1911.



S - Si (Ottonello & Salone 1994).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: vr/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: a very poorly-known species of calciferous rocks, with a few records from the E Mediterranean. Ecological indices refer to the situation observed in Sicilia (Marettimo Isl.).


+Verrucaria caerulea DC.

[in Lam. & DC.] Fl. Franç., éd. 3, 2: 318, 1805.

Syn.: Involucrothele bormiensis (Servít) Servít, Involucrothele plumbea (Ach.) Servít, Verrucaria amylacea f. compacta Arnold, Verrucaria bormiensis Servít, Verrucaria fusca f. benacensis A.Massal. ex Anzi, Verrucaria fusca f. caesia Anzi, Verrucaria fusca f. geographica Bagl. ex Arnold, Verrucaria glaucina Ach. non auct., Verrucaria plumbea Ach., Verrucaria truncatula Nyl.

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc, Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003), Pugl, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 2-5/ A: vr, A1: vr, B: vr, C: rr, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on steeply inclined calciferous rocks, restricted to upland areas in the south, where it exceptionally reaches above treeline. Related to Staurothele.


+Verrucaria caesiopsila Anzi

Comm. Soc. Critt. Ital., 2, 1: 23, 1864.

Syn.: Amphoridium caesiopsilum (Anzi) Arnold, Verrucaria integrella (Nyl.) Nyl.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3-4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: a poorly known species of calcareous rocks. The ecological indicator values are tentative.


+Verrucaria cinereorufa Schaer.

Lich. Helv. Spicil., 7: 338, 1836.



N - Frl, Lomb, Lig.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ #/ Note: a poorly known species of calcareous rocks, also reported from the W Pyrenées and from several sites of W and C Europe.


+Verrucaria coccinearia Zehetl.

Nova Hedwigia, 29: 729, 1978.



C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4-5, 4, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Caloplaca coccinea/ Note: overlooked and more widespread, certainly present in the Alps.


+Verrucaria compacta (A.Massal.) Jatta

Sylloge Lich. Italic.: 501, 1900 - Placidium compactum A.Massal., Miscell. Lichenol.: 32, 1856.

Syn.: Catapyrenium compactum (A.Massal.) R.Sant., Dermatocarpon compactum (A.Massal.) Blomb. & Forssell, Dermatocarpon crassulum (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Endopyrenium crassulum Müll. Arg., Rhodocarpon compactum (A.Massal.) Lönnr.

N - VG, TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Lig (Breuss 1994). C - Sar (Breuss 1994). S - Si.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 4, 4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-5/ A: er, A1: er, B: er, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Lecanora muralis?/ #/ Note: often found on other crustose lichens. This name probably includes several taxa, related to V. fuscula, whose taxonomic status is in need of clarification.


+Verrucaria cryptica (Arnold) J.Steiner

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 61: 41, 1911 - Amphoridium crypticum Arnold, Lich. Frank. Jura: 258, 1885.



N - Frl, TAA, Lig.

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 5-6/ A: r, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: on dolomite, a very critical taxon, related to V. hochstetteri s.lat., which needs further study.


+Verrucaria dinarica Zahlbr.

Oesterr. bot. Z., 68: 66, 1919.



S - Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: a very poorly known species of calcareous rocks. Indicator values refer to the situation observed in Sicilia.


+Verrucaria dolosa Hepp

Flecht. Eur.: n. 689, 1860.

Syn.: Verrucaria floerkeana Dalla Torre & Sarnth. ?, Verrucaria krempelhuberi Lindau ?, Verrucaria mutabilis auct. p.p. non Leight.

N - Frl, TAA, Lomb, VA (Favero-Longo & al. 2006), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig. C - Tosc, Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 3, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: r, D: rr, E: a, F: rr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: a probably holarctic early colonizer of small pebbles near the ground, both on calcareous and base-rich siliceous rocks, in sheltered situations such as in open woodlands, perhaps overlooked in Italy.

+Verrucaria eggerthii J.Steiner

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 61: 40, 1911.



S - Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/§/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: vr/ PF: 1/ Note: a saxicolous eu-mediterranean species, known only from the type locality in Corfu (Greece), and from Sicilia. The first Italian record was probably identified by Servìt, see Nimis 1993: 738).


+Verrucaria elaeomelaena (A.Massal.) Arnold

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 18: 958, 1868 - Lithoicea eleaomelaena A.Massal., Atti Ist. Ven. Sc. Lett. Arti, ser. 3, 2: 380, figg. 1-4, t. 5, 1856.

Syn.: Verrucaria davosiensis Zschacke ?, Verrucaria degenerascens A.L.Sm., Verrucaria jurana Zschacke

N - Ven, TAA. C - Tosc, Sar (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 2-4, 1, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: vr, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ l/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, perhaps circumpolar species, almost perennially submerged in cold montane to Alpine creeks, emerging only in very shaded situations, perhaps more widespread in the Alps. In N Europe this name was often used for V. funckii (Spreng.) Zahlbr.


+Verrucaria foveolata (Flörke) A.Massal.

Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 172, 1852 - Verrucaria schraderi v. foveolata Flörke, Deutsch. Lich.: 6, 1815.

Syn.: Amphoridium dolomiticum (A.Massal.) A.Massal., Amphoridium foveolatum (Flörke) A.Massal., Amphoridium veronense (A.Massal.) A.Massal. ?, Verrucaria dolomitica A.Massal., Verrucaria veronensis A.Massal. ?

N - VG, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (TSB), Sar. S - Camp, Pugl, Si (Ottonello & Salone 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 2-3, 2-4/ Alt: 2-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: r, C: rr, D: rr, E: a, F: r, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ #/ Note: an ecologically wide-ranging species of limestone and dolomite, found both on large boulders and small pebbles. It belongs to the the poorly understood complex of V. hochstetteri, for further details see Nimis (1993: 738-739).


+Verrucaria fuscula Nyl.

Bot. Notiser, 1853: 161, 1853.

Syn.: Dermatocarpon insulare (A.Massal.) Mig., Endocarpon insulare (A.Massal.) A.Massal., Endopyrenium insulare (A.Massal.) Dalla Torre & Sarnth., Placidium insulare A.Massal., Placidium iranicum Szatala, Verrucaria insularis (A.Massal.) Jatta, Verrucaria insularis v. major Zehetl.

N - VG, Frl (TSB), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig (Lich. Alpium 261: Breuss 1994). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc (Benesperi 2000a), Sar (Breuss 1994). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Breuss 1994, Puntillo 1996), Si (Breuss 1994, Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 4-5, 3-4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: rr, C: rc, D: ec, E: er, F: ec, G: vc, H: rr/ PF: 1-2/ paras Aspicilia calcarea s.lat./ Note: a common lichen throughout Italy, with optimum in the submediterranean belt, but ascending - albeit rarely - to above treeline in the Apennines.


+Verrucaria geophila Zahlbr.

Österr. Bot. Z., 59: 317, 1909.



C - Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 4, 3, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: vr/ PF: 1/ Note: a rare species of slightly calciferous soil in Mediterranean grasslands.


+Verrucaria hochstetteri Fr.

Lichenogr. Eur. Ref.: 435, 1831.

Syn.: Amphoridium dolomiticum v. obtectum Arnold, Amphoridium hochstetteri (Fr.) A.Massal., Amphoridium koerberi Arnold, Amphoridium mastoideum A.Massal., Amphoridium obtectum (Arnold) Arnold, Verrucaria arnoldii J.Steiner ?, Verrucaria dolomitica v. gibbosa Werner, Verrucaria dolomitica v. obtecta (Arnold) Zahlbr., Verrucaria hiascens auct. non (Ach.) Hepp, Verrucaria hochstetteri f. insculpta Zschacke, Verrucaria hochstetteri f. nivalis Zahlbr., Verrucaria hochstetteri f. obtecta (Arnold) Zahlbr., Verrucaria hochstetteri f. praecellens Zahlbr., Verrucaria hochstetteri v. alpina Zschacke, Verrucaria hochstetteri v. arnoldii (J.Steiner) Clauzade & Cl.Roux ?, Verrucaria hochstetteri v. mastoidea (A.Massal.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Verrucaria hochstetteri v. obtecta (Arnold) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Verrucaria hochstetteri v. rosaeformis (Asta, Clauzade & Cl.Roux) Clauzade & Cl.Roux nom. inval., Verrucaria integra auct. non Nyl., Verrucaria mastoidea (A.Massal.) Trevis., Verrucaria papularis v. platyspora Garov.

N - VG (Piervittori & al. 2006), Frl, Ven (Tretiach & Nascimbene 2006), TAA (Nascimbene 2003), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig. C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 2-3, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 2-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: vr, C: r, D: vr, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on limestone and dolomite in sheltered situations, restricted to upland areas in the south, where sometimes it reaches the oromediterranean belt. See also note on V. foveolata. See also Tretiach & Nascimbene (2006).


+Verrucaria hydrela Ach.

Syn. Meth. Lich.: 94, 1814.

Syn.: Lithoicea hydrela (Ach.) A.Massal., Verrucaria calcaria Zschacke, Verrucaria denudata auct. p.p. non Zschacke, Verrucaria hibernica Servít non Zschacke, Verrucaria laevata auct. p.p. non Ach., Verrucaria mougeotii (Zschacke) Servít ?, Verrucaria silicea Servít ?, Verrucaria submersa Schaer. non Borrer

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008), Laz. S - Camp, Pugl, Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 2-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rc, B: r, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ l/ Note: on siliceous pebbles in humid-shaded situations (e.g. in open woodlands), sometimes on boulders in creeks, but never submerged for long periods. Several records, and esp. those from the south, need confirmation.


+Verrucaria latebrosa Körb.

Syst. Lich. Germ.: 349, 1855.

Syn.: Polyblastia anziana (Garov.) Servít ?, Verrucaria anziana Garov. ?, Verrucaria delita Nyl., Verrucaria griseocinerascens (Vain.) Zschacke

N - Ven, TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil. C - Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 3-4, 1, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: vr, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ l/ Note: a freshwater species, periodically submerged on hard acid rocks, but occasionally also on calcareous substrata. All records need confirmation.


+Verrucaria macrostoma DC.

[Dufour ex] DC. [in Lam. & DC.] Fl. Franç., éd. 3: 319, 1805.

Syn.: Lithoicea macrostoma (Dufour) A.Massal., Lithoicea macrostoma f. euganea (Trevis.) Garov., Lithoicea macrostoma f. intermedia Anzi, Verrucaria macrostoma f. terrestris de Lesd., Verrucaria euganea Trevis., Verrucaria thrombioides A.Massal., Verrucaria viridula auct. p.p. non (Schrad.) Ach.

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Nimis & Salvadori 1998), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Grieco 1995, Valcuvia & Savino 2000), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc, Umbr (Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Laz, Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl, Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Poli & al. 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 3-4, 3-4, 3-5/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: vc, E: r, F: vc, G: c, H: rr/ PF: 1-3/ u/ p/ Note: an early colonizer of walls (mortar, brick, cement, limestone) in urban settlements, more rarely found on calcareous rocks in natural environments, with a wide ecological amplitude, from horizontal to steeply inclined faces visited by birds. See note on V. tectorum.


+Verrucaria margacea (Wahlenb.) Wahlenb.

Fl. Lappon.: 465, 1812 - Thelotrema margaceum Wahlenb. [in Ach.] Meth. Lich. Suppl.: 30, 1803.

Syn.: Lithoicea margacea (Wahlenb.) A.Massal., Verrucaria alpicola Zschacke, Verrucaria applanata Zwackh nom. nud., Verrucaria divergens Nyl. ?, Verrucaria filarszkyana Szatala, Verrucaria leightonii Hepp non A.Massal., Verrucaria tiroliensis Zschacke, Verrucaria vallis-flüelae Zschacke ?, Verrucaria zegonensis Zschacke

N - Ven, TAA (Dalle Vedove & al. 2003), Lomb (Nascimbene 2006), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 3-4, 1, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: r, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ l/ Note: an amphibious freshwater lichen of siliceous rocks, related to V. hydrela (the relationship with this and related taxa is well worthy of further study), it prefers constantly inundated and even permanently submerged rocks to those merely in the spray zone. Earlier records from Emilia and Toscana (see Nimis 1993: 743), being very dubious, are not accepted here.

+Verrucaria minuta (Hepp) Zschacke

Rabenhorst's Krypt.-Fl., 9, 1, 1: 262, 1933 - Verrucaria lecideoides v. minuta Hepp, Flecht. Eur.: n. 683, 1860.

Syn: Verrucaria gebennica Nyl. ?, Verrucaria minuta f. viridis Anzi ?

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Lig. C - Tosc, Sar.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: r, E: a, F: rr, G: r, H: vr/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: closely related to V. lecideoides, but more frequent on basic siliceous rocks.


+Verrucaria muralis Ach.

Meth. Lich.: 115, 1803.

Syn.: Verrucaria argillacea Fr. ?, Verrucaria confluens A.Massal., Verrucaria muralis v. confluens (A.Massal.) Körb., Verrucaria rupestris Schrad. non (Scop.) Weber ex F.H.Wigg., Verrucaria subdendritica Servít, Verrucaria submuralis Nyl.

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA, Lomb (De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc, Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz, Abr, Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & al. 1994, Poli & al. 1996, 1997, Grillo 1998, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 3-4, 1-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: r, D: rc, E: vr, F: rc, G: rr, H: vr/ PF: 2-3/ p/ Note: an early colonizer of pebbles, mortar walls, brick and roofing tiles.


+Verrucaria murina Leight.

Angioc. Lich.: 44, tab. 9, fig. 3, 1851.

Syn.: Amphoridium myriocarpum (Hepp) Servít, Verrucaria brachyspora Arnold ?, Verrucaria murina f. geographica Arnold, Verrucaria murina v. pusilla Arnold, Verrucaria myriocarpa Leight., Verrucaria pazientii A.Massal. ?

N - Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA, Lomb, Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Sar.

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 2-5/ A: vr, A1: vr, B: er, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: on limestone and dolomite in upland areas. Earlier records from S Italy (see Nimis 1993:745), being dubious, are not accepter here.


+Verrucaria nigrescens Pers.

Usteri's Ann. Bot., 14: 36, 1795.

Syn.: Lithoicea acrotelloides (A.Massal.) A. Massal, Lithoicea controversa (A.Massal.) A.Massal., Lithoicea controversa v. protothallina A.Massal., Lithoicea controversa v. pseudocatalepta Garov., Lithoicea funckii sensu A.Massal., Lithoicea nigrescens (Pers.) A.Massal., Verrucaria acrotelloides A.Massal., Verrucaria collematodes Garov., Verrucaria constricta Zschacke ?, Verrucaria controversa A.Massal., Verrucaria funckiana Servít, Verrucaria fusca auct. non Pers., Verrucaria fuscoatra Pers., Verrucaria nigrescens v. acrotelloides (A.Massal.) Trevis., Verrucaria nigrescens v. funckii (A.Massal.) Zwackh non Verrucaria funckii (Spreng.) Zahlbr., Verrucaria nigrescens v. subcontigua Garov., Verrucaria praerupta Anzi ?, Verrucaria protothallina A.Massal., Verrucaria umbrina (Ach.) Ach., Verrucaria umbrina v. nigrescens (Pers.) Ach., Verrucaria velana (A.Massal.) Zahlbr.

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Nimis & Salvadori 1998), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c, Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA (Nascimbene 2005b, Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000b, 2003, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1998), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Poli & al. 1996, 1997, Grillo 1998, Di Benedetto & al. 2002, Grillo & al. 2002, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Genco & al. 2007).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 3-5, 2-5, 2-5/ Alt: 1-5/ A: rc, A1: c, B: c, C: ec, D: ec, E: c, F: ec, G: ec, H: vc/ PF: 1-3/ p/ Note: a subcosmopoitan species, one of the most common saxicolous lichens throughout Italy, found both in urban and natural habitats, with a very wide ecological tolerance, several morphs from natural habitats, however, well deserve further study.

+Verrucaria pachyderma Arnold

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 30: 146, 1880.

Syn.: Verrucaria pissina Nyl.

N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 3-4, 1, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ l/ Note: a freshwater species of periodically submerged siliceous rocks, also known from Scandinavia.


+Verrucaria phaeosperma Arnold

Flora, 57: 382, 1874.

Syn.: Amphoridium phaospermum (Arnold) Servít

N - TAA, Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008). S - Si (Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

LF/ §/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras endolithic lichens/ #/ Note: a certainly more widespread non-lichenised fungus, which does not belong into Verrucaria.


+Verrucaria pinguicula A.Massal.

Lotos, 6: 80, 1856.

Syn.: Involucrothele pinguicula (A.Massal.) Servít, Verrucaria integra Nyl. non auct., Verrucaria lilacina A.Massal.?, Verrucaria peloclita Nyl.

N - Ven, TAA, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999), Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003, 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3-4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: r, D: rc, E: a, F: rc, G: vr, H: vr/ PF: 1/ Note: on hard, compact limestones, much overlooked, probably more frequent in Italy.


+Verrucaria porphyricola Servít

Stud. Bot. Cech., 7: 74-75, 1946.



N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3, 4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 5/ A: vr, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a rarely-collected species of basic siliceous rocks (see Nimis 1993: 747-748).


+Verrucaria praetermissa (Trevis.) Anzi

Comm. Soc. Critt. Ital., 2, 1: 24, 1864 - Leiophloea praetermissa Trevis., Consp. Verruc.: 10, 1860.

Syn.: Verrucaria laevata sensu Körb. non Ach. nec auct., Verrucaria subturicensis Zahlbr., Verrucaria turicensis Zschacke non (G.Winter) Stizenb., Verrucaria zahlbruckneri Zschacke ?

N - TAA. C - Tosc (Tretiach & al. 2008).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 3-4, 1-2, 1-3/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ l/ Note: a silicicolous, probably circumboreal freshwater species, submerged only for very short periods, mostly found along creeks, on mineral-rich siliceous rocks, more rarely on calcareous substrata, perhaps more widespread in the Alps. Related to Staurothele.

+Verrucaria ruderum DC.

[in Lam. & DC.] Fl. Franç., 3 éd., 2: 318, 1805.

Syn: Amphoridium ruderum (DC.) Servít

N - Ven, Lomb, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996). S - Si (Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: r, C: vr, D: rr, E: er, F: rr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 2-3/ suboc/ #/ Note: mostly on walls made of mortar and cement. A poorly known taxon, perhaps a synonym of other species.


+Verrucaria saprophila (A.Massal.) Trevis.

Consp. Verruc.: 8, 1860 - Amphoridium saprophilum A.Massal., Symmicta Lich.: 79, 1855.

Syn.: Thelidium saprophilum (A.Massal.) Servít, Verrucaria incertula (Arnold) Zahlbr. ?

N - Ven, TAA.

Cr.end/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: a rare, poorly known S- to C- European species of calcareous rocks, which needs further study.


+Verrucaria sphaerospora Anzi

Cat. Lich. Sondr.: 110, 1860.

Syn.: Catapyrenium sphaerosporum (Anzi) Arnold, Dermatocarpon anzianum Servít, Dermatocarpon pulvinosum (Harm.) Zahlbr. ?, Dermatocarpon sphaerosporum (Anzi) Servít, Involucrocarpon sphaerosporum (Anzi) Servít

N - Lomb, Piem, Emil. C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4, 4, 3, 2-4/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: r, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a very characteristic species of calciferous sandstone that perhaps does not belong into Verrucaria.


+Verrucaria tectorum (A.Massal.) Körb.

Parerga Lichenol., 368, 1855 - Lithoicea tectorum A.Massal. [in Anzi] Lich. Ven. 156, 1863.

Syn.: Verrucaria macrostoma v. imbricum Garov., Verrucaria macrostoma f. furfuracea de Lesd., Verrucaria viridula f. tectorum (A.Massal.) J.R.Laundon

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Nimis & Salvadori 1998), Ven, Lomb, Piem, Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4, 3-4, 4-5/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: vc, E: rr, F: vc, G: rr, H: vr/ PF: 2-3/ #/ Note: mainly on man-made substrata, incl. mortar walls, on steeply inclined faces.


+Verrucaria transiliens Arnold

Denkschr. K. Bayer. Bot. Ges., 6: 42, 1890.



N - Ven (TSB), TAA (Nascimbene 2005), Piem, Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2002, Ravera & al. 2006). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3, 2-3, 2-3/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: er, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on calcareous pebbles (e.g. on calciferous sandstone) near the ground, esp. in clearings of woodlands and on track sides, more widespread, having being overlooked, or confused with similar species.


+Verrucaria tristis (A.Massal.) Kremp.

Flora, 40: 376, 1857 - Lithoicea tristis [Kremp. ex] A.Massal., Atti Ist. Ven. Sc. Lett. Arti, 3, 2: 28, figg. 12-16, t. 4, 1856.

Syn.: Lithoicea tristis f. deformata A.Massal. ex Arnold, Lithoicea tristis v. depauperata Kremp ex A.Massal., Verrucaria tristis f. acrustacea Asta, Clauzade & Cl.Roux nom. inval., Verrucaria tristis f. albida Asta, Clauzade & Cl.Roux nom. inval., Verrucaria diffracta Anzi

N - Frl (TSB), Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2006), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig. C - Abr.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3-4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rc, A1: rr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on steeply inclined faces of compact limestone and dolomite in open habitats, mostly above treeline. All earlier and recent (e.g. Grillo 1998) records from S Italy, and that from Toscana (see Nimis 1993: 749), being very dubious, are not accepted here. Related to Staurothele.


+Verrucaria viridula (Schrad.) Ach.

Meth. Lich. Suppl.: 16, 1803 - Endocarpon viridulum Schrad., Spicil. Fl. Germ.: 192, 1794.

Syn.: Amphoridium viridulum (Schrad.) Servít, Arthopyrenia viridula (Schrad.) A.L.Sm. non sensu A.L.Sm., Lithoicea murorum Arnold ?, Verrucaria griseorubens Mig., Verrucaria leightonii A.Massal. non Hepp, Verrucaria mauroides sensu Schaer. non Körb. ?, Verrucaria murorum (Arnold) Lindau ?, Verrucaria obductilis (Nyl.) Zschacke, Verrucaria papillosa Ach., Verrucaria polygonia Körb.

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Marc, Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006, 2006b), Laz (Bartoli & al. 1998), Abr, Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 3-4, 3-4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: c, E: er, F: c, G: rr, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ Note: an early colonizer of calciferous substrata, most common on small pebbles, also in urban areas (e.g. on roofing tiles), easily mistaken for V. macrostoma.


+Verrucaria xyloxena Norman

Bot. Notiser, 1867: 87, 1867.

Syn.: Thelidium velutinoides (Hellb.) Servít, Thelidium xyloxenum (Norman) Norman, Verrucaria acrotella f. terrestris Arnold, Verrucaria floerkei Trevis., Verrucaria melaenella Vain., Verrucaria sibirica v. moravica Servít, Verrucaria terrestris (Arnold) Vain. non (Th.Fr.) Tuck., Verrucaria velutinoides Hellb.

N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on calciferous soil, often associated with acrocarpous mosses, easily overlooked, and perhaps more widespread in the Alps.


+Verrucaria zamenhofiana Clauzade & Cl.Roux

Bull. Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest, n. sér., n. spéc. 7: 823, 1985.

Syn.: Dermatocarpon compactum sensu Clauzade & Rondon

N - Frl (vidi!), Ven (Nimis 1994), TAA (TSB), Piem (TSB), VA (TSB), Lig (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4, 3, 3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rc, A1: rr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Staurothele areolata/ Note: certainly common throughout the Alps, to be looked for in the central Apennines.



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