+Absconditella annexa


Phytologia, 28: 488, 1974 - Parmelia mexicana Gyeln., Feddes Rep., 29: 488, 1931



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Phytologia, 28: 488, 1974 - Parmelia mexicana Gyeln., Feddes Rep., 29: 488, 1931.


C - Sar (Giordani & al. 2002b).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.i/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: vr, H: r/ PF: 1/ Note: on siliceous rocks wetted by rain, perhaps more widespread in Mediterranean Italy.


+Xanthoparmelia mougeotii (D. Dietr.) Hale

Phytologia, 28: 488, 1974 - Parmelia mougeotii [Schaer. ex] D. Dietr., Deutsch. Krypt. Gew., 4: 118, 1846.

Syn.: Parmelia conspersa v. quartzicola Moug., Parmelia discreta (Nyl.) Nyl., Parmelia mougeotii f. microphylla Anders

N - Lomb (TSB), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Giordani & al. 2002b), Emil (Giordani & al. 2002b). C - Marc (Giordani & al. 2002b), Sar (Giordani & al. 2002b).

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2, 4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: er, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mainly boreal-montane, circumpolar species, found on hard siliceous rocks, often near the ground, e.g. on pebbles, probably more widespread in the Alps, but never common.


+Xanthoparmelia perrugata (Nyl.) O.Blanco, A.Crespo, Elix, D.Hawksw. & Lumbsch

Taxon, 53: 968, 2004 - Parmelia perrugata Nyl., Flora, 68: 295, 1885.

Syn: Neofuscelia perrugata (Nyl.) Elix

N - TAA (Giordani & al. 2003), Lomb (Giordani & al. 2003), Piem (Giordani & al. 2003), VA (Giordani & al. 2003), Lig (Giordani & al. 2003). C - Tosc (Giordani & al. 2003), Sar (Giordani & al. 2003). S - Camp (Giordani & al. 2003), Pugl (Giordani & al. 2003), Cal (Giordani & al. 2003), Si (Giordani & al. 2003).

Fol.b/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: rr, C: rr, D: rr, E: r, F: rr, G: r, H: r/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a temperate to (mainly) mediterranean species, found on exposed siliceous rocks, incl. pebbles, exceptionally also on limestone. In the past it has been frequently confused with other species of the N. pulla group.


+Xanthoparmelia plittii (Gyeln.) Hale

Phytologia, 28: 485, 1974 - Parmelia plittii Gyeln., Feddes Rep., 29: 287, 1931.



C - Sar (Giordani & al. 2002b).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.i/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: vr/ PF: 1/ Note: perhaps more widespread in Mediterranean Italy.


+Xanthoparmelia pulla (Ach.) O.Blanco, A.Crespo, Elix, D.Hawksw. & Lumbsch

Taxon, 53: 969, 2004 - Parmelia pulla Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 206, 1814.

Syn.: Imbricaria dendritica auct. ital. p.p., Neofuscelia pulla (Ach.) Essl., Neofuscelia pulla v. locarnensis (Rosend.) Hafellner, Parmelia locarnensis Zopf ex Rosend., Parmelia olivacea v. saxicola auct. ital., Parmelia perrugata Nyl., Parmelia prolixa (Ach.) Carroll, Parmelia pulla v. locarnensis (Zopf) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Parmelia subprolixa Nyl. ex Kremp.

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA (Giordani & al. 2003, Nascimbene 2001b, 2005b), Lomb (Giordani & al. 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003, De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (Clerc & al. 1999, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, Favero-Longo & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 1998, 2001), Emil (Giordani & al. 2003), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & al. 2003, Rizzi & al. 2006). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2000a, Giordani & al. 2003, Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Genovesi & Ravera 2001, Panfili 2003, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Gigante & Petriccione 1995, Giordani & al. 2003), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Recchia & Villa 1996), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Giordani & al. 2003). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, Giordani & al. 2003. Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Giordani & al. 2003), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Giordani & al. 2003, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004, Scarciglia & al. 2007), Si (Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Nimis & al. 1996b, Grillo & al. 1996, Grillo 1998, Czeczuga & al. 1999, Giordani & al. 2003, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Fol.b/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: er, A1: r, B: rc, C: c, D: vc, E: r, F: ec, G: ec, H: vc/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a mainly temperate to mediterranean species, found on exposed siliceous rocks, incl. pebbles, exceptionally also on limestone, with a broad, but mainly Tyrrhenian distribution in Italy. Some records could refer to other, morphologically similar but chemically different taxa, P. pulla s. str.


+Xanthoparmelia protomatrae (Gyeln.) Hale

Phytologia, 28: 488, 1974 - Parmelia protomatrae Gyeln., Feddes Rep.: 155, 1931.

Syn.: Parmelia conspersa f. matrae Gyeln., Parmelia nigrescens Gyeln. non Stirt. nec (Huds.) Ach., Parmelia mitrovicensis Gyeln., Parmelia protomatrae f. angustifolia Gyeln., Parmelia protomatrae f. crustaeformis Gyeln., Parmelia serbica Gyeln., Parmelia subconspersa v. varazzana Gyeln., Xanthoparmelia somloensis v. protomatrae R.Sant. comb. inval.

N - Ven (Giordani & al. 2002b), TAA (Giordani & al. 2002b), Lomb (Giordani & al. 2002b), Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Giordani & al. 2002b), Emil (Giordani & al. 2002b), Lig (Giordani & al. 2002b). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2001, Giordani & al. 2002b), Laz (Giordani & al. 2002b), Sar (Giordani & al. 2002b). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, Giordani & al. 2002b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Giordani & al. 2002b), Si (Czeczuga & al. 1999, Giordani & al. 2002b).

Fol.b/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: vr, A1: vr, B: rr, C: r, D: r, E: a, F: rc, G: rc, H: rr/ PF: 1-2/ Note: on weathered siliceous rocks, near the ground.


+Xanthoparmelia stenophylla (Ach.) Ahti & D.Hawksw.

Lichenologist, 37, 4: 363, 2005 - Parmelia conspersa v. stenophylla Ach., Meth. Lich.: 206, 1803.

Syn.: Parmelia centrifuga v. stenophylla auct., Parmelia conspersa f. convoluta Rabenh., Parmelia conspersa v. imbricata A.Massal., Parmelia convoluta (Rabenh.) Gyeln., Parmelia hypopallida Gyeln., Parmelia imitans (Müll. Arg.) Gyeln., Parmelia molliuscula auct. non Ach., Parmelia somloensis Gyeln., Parmelia stenophylla (Ach.) Heugel, Parmelia taractica auct. non Kremp., Xanthoparmelia somloensis (Gyeln.) Hale , Xanthoparmelia taractica auct.

N - VG (Giordani & al. 2002b, Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Giordani & al. 2002b), Ven (Giordani & al. 2002b), TAA (Giordani & al. 2002b), Lomb (Tretiach 1996, Giordani & al. 2002b), Piem (Giordani & al. 2002b, Isocrono & al. 2003), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001, Giordani & al. 2002b), Emil (Giordani & al. 2002b), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & al. 2002b). C - Tosc (Benesperi 2000a, Giordani & al. 2002b), Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Gigante & Petriccione 1995, Giordani & al. 2002b), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, Giordani & al. 2002b). S - Camp (Giordani & al. 2002b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Giordani & al. 2002b), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Giordani & al. 2002b), Si (Giordani & al. 2002b).

Fol.b/ Ch/ S/ Sax-Terr/ 2-3, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: r, A1: rr, B: r, C: er, D: vr, E: er, F: rr, G: vr, H: vr/ PF: 1-2/ Note: on weathered siliceous rocks and mineral soil in open, dry situations, with a very wide altitudinal range.


+Xanthoparmelia sublaevis (Cout.) Hale

Mycotaxon, 33: 406, 1988 - Parmelia sublaevis Cout., Lich. Lusit. Cat.: 71, 1916.

Syn.: Imbricaria conspersa v. hypoclista (Nyl.) Jatta, Parmelia conspersa v. hypoclista Nyl., Parmelia hypoclista (Nyl.) Klement

N - TAA (Giordani & al. 2002b). C - Sar (Giordani & al. 2002b).

Fol.b/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 4, 4, 1-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: vr/ PF: 1/ Note: on siliceous rocks wetted by rain, hitherto known from the Mediterranean region and the dry-warm Alpine valleys


+Xanthoparmelia tinctina (Maheu & A. Gillet) Hale

Phytologia, 28: 489, 1974 - Parmelia tinctina Maheu & A. Gillet, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 72: 860, 1925.

Syn.: Parmelia algeriensis de Lesd., Parmelia conspersa ssp. tinctina (Maheu & A. Gillet) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Parmelia conspersa v. isidiosa Nyl., Parmelia tokajensis Gyeln.

N - TAA (Giordani & al. 2002b), Lomb (Valcuvia & Delucchi 2001, Giordani & al. 2002b, Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Giordani & al. 2002b, Favero-Longo & al. 2004), Emil (Valcuvia & Delucchi 2001, Giordani & al. 2002b), Lig (Giordani & Brunialti 2000, Giordani & al. 2002b). C - Tosc (Giordani & al. 2002b), Umbr (Panfili 2000b, Giordani & al. 2002b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Giordani & al. 2002b, Giordani & al. 2002b), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Giordani & al. 2002b). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2002, Giordani & al. 2002b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Giordani & al. 2002b, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b, Giordani & al. 2002b).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.i/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: c, G: vc, H: rc/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mainly southern species found on siliceous rocks, incl. serpentine, wetted by rain in sunny situations, also occurring in dry-warm Alpine valleys.


+Xanthoparmelia verrucigera (Nyl.) Hale

Smithsonian Contr. to Botany, 74: 220, 1990 - Parmelia verrucigera Nyl., Flora, 55: 426, 1872.

Syn.: Parmelia conspersa v. isidiophora Trevis., Parmelia conspersa v. verrucigera (Nyl.) Boistel, Parmelia isidiigera f. ligustica Gyeln., Parmelia lusitana Nyl., Parmelia pseudoservitiana Gyeln., Parmelia pulvinaris v. mediterranea Gyeln., Parmelia servitiana Gyeln., Parmelia tarpatakensis Gyeln., Xanthoparmelia lusitana (Nyl.) Krog

N - VG (Giordani & al. 2002b), Frl (Giordani & al. 2002b), Ven (Giordani & al. 2002b), Lig (Giordani & al. 2002b). C - Tosc (Giordani & al. 2002b), Sar (Giordani & al. 2002b). S - Camp (Giordani & al. 2002b), Bas (Giordani & al. 2002b).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.i/ Sax/ 2-3, 4-5, 4, 3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on siliceous rocks, related to P. conspersa, but chemically different (stictic acid, lusitana-unknown, lacking norstictic acid).

+Xanthoparmelia verruculifera (Nyl.) Essl. O.Blanco, A.Crespo, Elix, D.Hawksw. & Lumbsch

Taxon, 53: 972, 2004 - Parmelia verruculifera Nyl., Flora, 61: 247, 1878.

Syn.: Neofuscelia verruculifera (Nyl.) Essl., Parmelia glomellifera (Nyl.) Nyl., Parmelia isidiotyla v. glomellifera (Nyl.) Maas Geest., Parmelia loxodes v. verruculifera (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Parmelia massalongoana Gyeln., Parmelia olivacea v. leucocheila A.Massal., Parmelia prolixa v. sorediosa Sambo

N - VG (Giordani & al. 2003), Ven, TAA (Giordani & al. 2003), Lomb (Giordani & al. 2003), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig (Giordani & al. 2003). C - Tosc (Giordani & al. 2003), Laz, Sar (Giordani & al. 2003).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2-4, 3-4, 3-4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: r, E: er, F: r, G: vr, H: er/ PF: 1/ Note: on base-rich, sometimes slightly calciferous siliceous rocks, mostly on horizontal faces, characterized by the presence of divaricatic, rarely of stenosporic acids. Related to P. loxodes, but with a less suboceanic distribution in Europe. Earlier records from Puglia and Sicilia are dubuious.


+Xanthoria aureola (Ach.) Erichsen

§ - Parmelia aureola Ach. , Lich. Univ.: 437, 1810.

Syn.: Physcia ectaneoides Nyl., Xanthoria ectaneoides (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Xanthoria parietina ssp. ectanea (Ach.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Xanthoria parietina v. ectanea auct. non (Ach.) J. Kickx f.

N - Lig (Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc (Adamo & al. 1993), Sar (TSB). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994).

Fol.b/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 3-5, 2-3, 3-4/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: r, H: vr/ PF: 1/ suboc/ coast/ #/ Note: a mediterranean-atlantic species, with optimum on basic siliceous rocks near the coast, but also found on limestone and eutrophicated, acid siliceous rock. The species is delimited here following Purvis & al. (1992).


+Xanthoria calcicola Oksner

Viznachnik Lishainikiv URSR: 302, 1937.

Syn.: Xanthoria aureola auct. non (Ach.) Erichsen, Xanthoria ectanea auct. ital. p.p., Xanthoria parietina ssp. calcicola (Oksner) Clauzade & Cl.Roux

N - VG (Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (TSB), Ven, TAA, Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003, De Vita & Valcuvia 2004), Piem (Valcuvia 2002, 2002b), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Savino 2000), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000). C - Tosc (Pišút 1997), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2003, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Gigante & Petriccione 1995), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas, Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, 1995, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Poli & al. 1997, Soechting 1997, Grillo 1998, Czeczuga & al. 1999, Clocchiatti & al. 2002, Grillo & al. 2002, Mangiafico & Pitruzzello 2003, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Fol.b/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4-5, 4, 4-5/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: r, C: rr, D: rc, E: vr, F: ec, G: vc, H: c/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mainly mediterranean to mild-temperate lichen, found on the top of isolated calcareous and basic siliceous boulders, and, limited to the W side of the Peninsula, abundant on roofing tiles (an observation I did many times from the Venice-Rome airplane), in strongly eutrophicated siuations it can occasionally overgrow bryophytes and plant remains.


+Xanthoria candelaria (L.) Th.Fr.

Genera Heterolich. Eur. Recogn.: 61, 1861 - Lichen candelarius L., Sp. Pl., 1141, 1753.

Syn.: Imbricaria parietina v. candelaria (L.) Flot., Lecanora candelaria (L.) Ach., Parmelia parietina v. candelaria (L.) Spreng., Physcia controversa A.Massal., Xanthoria controversa (A.Massal.) Rabenh., Xanthoria lychnea (Ach.) Th.Fr. sed non auct. p.p.

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006), Lomb (Arosio & al. 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2007), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Giordani & al. 2002b, Brunialti & Giordani 2003). C - Umbr (Ravera 2000), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 2002).

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 2-4, 4-5, 4, 4-5/ Alt: 2-5/ A: vr, A1: rr, B: vr, C: r, D: er, E: er, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ subc/ Note: certainly not common in Italy, being restricted to upland areas with a subcontinental climate (continental Alpine valleys, E Apennines, etc.), sometimes on bark and lignum. The old record from Campania cited by Nimis (1993: 761) could be due to confusion with similar species (X. fallax, X. fulva, X. ulophyllodes), and is not accepted here.


+Xanthoria contortuplicata (Ach.) Boistel

Nouv. Flore Lich., 2: 70, 1903 - Parmelia contortuplicata Ach., Syn. Meth. Lich.: 210, 1814.

Syn.: Caloplaca elegans v. caespitosa (Müll.Arg.) Zahlbr., Teloschistes contortuplicatus (Ach.) Clauzade & Rondon

N - Frl, Ven (Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000), TAA (Nascimbene & al. 2004), Lomb, Piem, VA (TSB), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (TSB). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006, 2006b), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Frut/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4-5, 2-4/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: er, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ u/ Note: esp. in south-facing niches and underhangs of calciferous rocks in the mountains, locally frequent also in the central Apennines along the Adriatic side of the peninsula.


+Xanthoria elegans (Link) Th.Fr. v. elegans

N. Acta Reg. Soc. Sc. Upsal., ser. 3, 3: 69, 1861 - Lichen elegans Link, Ann. Naturges., 1: 37, 1791.

Syn.: Amphiloma elegans (Link) Körb., Caloplaca dissidens (Nyl.) Mérat, Caloplaca elegans (Link) Th.Fr., Caloplaca elegans v. tenuis (Wahlenb.) Th.Fr., Caloplaca tegularis (Ehrh.) Sandst. non auct., Gasparrinia elegans (Link) Th.Fr., Physcia miniata sensu A.Massal. et auct. ital. p.p., Placodium dissidens Nyl., Placodium elegans (Nyl.) DC., Xanthoria elegans v. granulifera Giralt, Nimis & Poelt ?

N - VG, Frl (TSB), Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, Favero-Longo & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001, 2004), Emil, Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Tosc, Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Tretiach & Pinna 2000), Umbr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar. S - Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Fol.n/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-5, 4-5, 4, 3-4/ Alt: 2-6/ A: vc, A1: vc, B: r, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a northern holarctic species, found both on natural rock outcrops and on man-made substrata (esp. tiles), mostly in upland areas, descending to lower elevations in continental sites, in strongly eutrophicated siuations it can occasionally overgrow bryophytes and plant remains.


+Xanthoria elegans ssp. orbicularis (Schaer.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux

Bull Soc. Bot. Centre-Ouest, n. sér., n. spéc. 7: 830, 1985 - Parmelia elegans v. orbicularis Schaer., Enum. Crit. Lich. Eur.: 51, 1850.



N - Frl (TSB), Ven (Nimis 1994), TAA (TSB), Piem (TSB).

Fol.n/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 4/ Alt: 5/ A: rr, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: I have the impression that, at least in the Alps, X. elegans is heterogeneous, some forms, provisionally treated under this name, might prove to belong to the X.calcicola complex, and well deserve further study.


+Xanthoria fallax (Hepp) Arnold

Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien: 121, 1880 - Placodium fallax Hepp, Sched. Flecht. Eur.: n. 633, 1860.

Syn.: Lecanora candelaria v. substellaris Ach., Physcia controversa auct. ital. p.p., Xanthoria substellaris (Ach.) Vain., Xanthoria ulophylla (Nyl.) Arnold

N - VG (Castello 1996), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996), Ven, (Caniglia & al. 1999, Lazzarin 2000, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Zieger & al. 2003, Nascimbene 2005b), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Valcuvia & Brusoni 1996, Brusoni & al. 1997, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Brusoni & Valcuvia 2000, Casarini & al. 2000, Arosio & al. 2000, 2003), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Arosio & al. 1998, Clerc & al. 1999, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Griselli & al. 2000, Castino 2004, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2007), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000b, Piervittori & Maffei 2001, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Bassi 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Marconi & al. 2006), Lig. C - Tosc, Abr (Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999). S - Camp, Pugl, Si.

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 3, 4-5, 4, 3-4/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: er, C: vr, D: r, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ subc/ Note: esp. near the base of wayside deciduous trees in subcontinental areas, common only in the Alps. Several records from C and S Italy could refer to X. fulva or X. ulophyllodes.


Xanthoria fulva (Hoffm.) Poelt & Petutschnig

Nova Hedwigia, 54, 1-2: 24, 1992 - Lobaria fulva Hoffm., Deutschl. Flora, 2: 159, 1796.

Syn.: Xanthoria candelaria f. fulva (Hoffm.) Zahlbr., Xanthoria ligustica M.Steiner ex Poelt nom. sol.

N - VG, Frl, Ven, TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, Lig. C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Ravera 2006). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 3, 4-5, 4, 3-4/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: r, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ subc/ Note: most frequent on isolated deciduous trees along roads in continental Alpine valleys. Often confused with X. fallax in the past, and with a similar ecology, but perhaps more xerophytic.


+Xanthoria mediterranea Giralt, Nimis & Poelt

J. Hattori Bot. Lab., 74: 275-276, 1993.

Syn.: Physcia parietina v. isidioidea Beltram. ?, Xanthoria isidioidea (Beltram.) Szatala ?

N - Frl (TSB). C - Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (TSB), Sar (TSB). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1996b).

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.i/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 4-5/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: vr, H: r/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly mediterranean species, found on the top of isolated calcareous outcrops, often together with X. calcicola, and with a similar ecology, but with a narrower altitudinal range.


+Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th.Fr.

N. Acta Reg. Soc. Sc. Upsal., ser. 3, 3: 67, 1861 - Lichen parietinus L., Sp. Pl.: 1143, 1753.



Syn.: Parmelia parietina (L.) Ach., Parmelia parietina v. viridilobata Opiz, Parmelia parietina v. vulgaris Schaer., Physcia parietina (L.) De Not., Physcia parietina v. microphylla Flot., Physcia parietina v. platyphylla Flot.

N - VG (Castello 1996, 2002, Castello 2002, Martellos & Castello 2004), Frl (Badin & Nimis 1996, Tretiach 1996, Tretiach & Baruffo 2001, 2001b), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, 2002, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Lazzarin 2000, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene 2003, 2005b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006), Lomb (Rivellini 1994, Arosio & Rinaldi 1995, Valcuvia & Gianatti 1995, Valcuvia & Brusoni 1996, Brusoni & al. 1997, Zocchi & al. 1997, Roella 1999, Brusoni & Valcuvia 2000, Casarini & al. 2000, Arosio & al. 2000, 2003, Valcuvia & al. 2003), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Piervittori & al. 1996, Arosio & al. 1998, Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Castino 2004, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2007), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999, Piervittori & Maffei 2001, Piervittori & al. 2001), Emil (Bassi 1995, Gasparo & Tretiach 1996, Nimis & al. 1996, Valcuvia & Grieco 1995, Tretiach 1997, Valcuvia & Savino 2000, Marconi & al. 2006, Tretiach & al. 2008), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999, Valcuvia & al. 2000, Giordani & al. 2002, Brunialti & Giordani 2003, Giordani 2006). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Loppi & Corsini 1995, Loppi & Putortì 1995, 1995b, Loppi & al. 1995, 1996, 1996b, 1996c, 1997, 1997b, 1998, 1998b, 1999a, Loppi 1995c, 1996, 1996b, Loppi & De Dominicis 1996, Loppi & Nascimbene 1998, Putortì & Loppi 1999, Benesperi 2000a, Senese & Critelli 2000, Del Guasta 2001, Paoli & Loppi 2004, Pisani & al. 2006, Benesperi & al. 2007), Marc (Gasparo & al. 1989, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Brunialti & al. 2004, Urbani & al. 2004), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Panfili 2000b, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Gigante & Petriccione 1995, Bartoli & al. 1998, Ravera & al. 1999, Ravera 2002, Massari & Ravera 2003, Honegger & al. 2004, Nimis & Tretiach 2004, Munzi & al. 2007), Abr (Recchia & al. 1993, Olivieri & Pacioni 1996, Olivieri & al. 1997, 1997b, Loppi & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Cantù & al. 2002, Urbani & al. 2004), Mol (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Cerroni & al. 2004, Giancola & al. 2006), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002, Zedda & Sipman 2001, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999, Aprile & al. 2002, 2003, 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Garofalo & al. 1999, Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Diederich & Puntillo 1995, Puntillo 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Merlo 1993, Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, 2006b, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995, Grillo 1996, 1998, Grillo & Carfì 1997, Poli & al. 1997, Di Benedetto & al. 2002, Grillo & al. 2002, Clocchiatti & al. 2002, Mangiafico & Pitruzzello 2002, 2003, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, 2006, Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Fol.b/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Sax/ 2-4, 3-5, 3-4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: vr, C: rc, D: ec, E: rr, F: ec, G: ec, H: vc/ PF: 1-3/ Note: absent only from heavily polluted areas, mainly epiphytic, but sometimes present on calciferous or basic siliceous rocks.


+Xanthoria polycarpa (Hoffm.) Rieber

[Th.Fr. ex] Rieber, Jahresb. Ver. vaterl. Naturk. Württ., 47: 252, 1891 - Lobaria polycarpa Hoffm., Deutschl. Flora: 136, 1796.

Syn.: Lecanora polycarpa (Hoffm.) Pollini non Anzi nec Röhl., Parmelia parietina v. polycarpa (Hoffm.) Th.Fr., Physcia parietina v. pulvinata A.Massal., Xanthoria lychnea v. polycarpa (Hoffm.) Th.Fr., Xanthoria parietina v. polycarpa (Hoffm.) Th.Fr.

N - Ven (Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2006), TAA (Lich. Graec. 20: Obermayer 1995, Hafellner 1997, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000, 2002c, Nascimbene 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Lomb (Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem, VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Ravera 2000, Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2002, Zedda & al. 2001). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Fol.n/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 2-3, 4-5, 3-4, 2-3/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mainly boreal-montane, circumpolar species, found on isolated trees and sun-exposed branches and small twigs, on wooden poles and fences, most frequent in the Alps, rarer in the E Apennines, down to Calabria.


+Xanthoria resendei Poelt & Tav.

Portug. Acta Biol., B, 9, 3-4: 302, 1968.

Syn.: Xanthoria subelegans Poelt & Tav.

C - Tosc (Senese & Critelli 2000).

Fol.n/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 3-4, 4-5, 4-5, 2-4/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: er, H: er/ PF: 1/ coast/ Note: an apparently western Mediterranean (Macaronesia, NW Africa, Iberian Peninsula to Italy), strictly coastal silicicolous species, most frequent on steeply inclined, basic siliceous rocks.


+Xanthoria sorediata (Vain.) Poelt

Mitt. bot. Staatss. München, 11: 29, 1954 - Lecanora elegans v. sorediata Vain., Medd. Soc. F. Fl. Fenn., 6: 143, 1881.

Syn.: Caloplaca sorediata (Vain.) Du Rietz, Parmelia elegans v. granulosa Schaer., Physcia elegans v. compacta Arnold ex Nyl., Xanthoria elegans ssp. compacta (Nyl.) Clauzade & Cl.Roux, Xanthoria scandinavica de Lesd.

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c), TAA (Nascimbene 2003, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (TSB), Lig (TSB). C - Umbr (Ravera & Di Toma 2003, Ravera & al. 2006), Abr (Recchia & Villa 1996, Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 3-4, 3-5/ Alt: 4-6/ A: rc, A1: c, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly arctic-alpine, circumpolar species, found on the top of exposed calcareous or dolomitic boulders, most frequent in the Alps, much rarer in the Apennines.


+Xanthoria steineri I.M.Lamb

J. Bot., 74: 350, 1936.



S - Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

Fol.b/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 4-5, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ coast/ Note: a poorly known taxon of the X. parietina complex, described from Iran, mostly occurring near the coast in Mediterranean Italy, it needs further study.


+Xanthoria stiligera Giralt, Nimis & Poelt

J. Hattori Bot. Lab., 74: 281, 1993.



S - Camp (Garofalo & al. 1999), Pugl.

Fol.b/ Ch/ A.i/ Sax/ 4-5, 4-5, 4, 4-5/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: vr/ PF: 1/ Note: a strictly mediterranean species, ecologically similar to X. mediterranea.


+Xanthoria ulophyllodes Räsänen

Die Flechten Estlands: 105, 1931.

Syn.: Parmelia parietina v. fibrillosa Schaer., Physcia controversa v. stenophylla A.Massal., Xanthoria substellaris v. isidiigera Räsänen

N - Frl (TSB), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA, Lomb, Piem (Castino 2004, Isocrono & al. 2004, 2007). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007)

Fol.n/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 3, 4-5, 4, 3-4/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: r, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-3/ subc/ Note: on isolated trees, often near the base of the trunks along roads, formerly often confused with X. fallax, in Italy hitherto known only from continental Alpine valleys.


+Xylographa parallela (Ach.: Fr.) Behlen & Desberger

J. Agric. Univ. Puerto Rico: 344, 1835 - Lichen parallelus Ach.:Fr.

Syn.: Hysterium abietinum Pers., Xylographa abietina (Pers.) Zahlbr., Xylographa abietina v. rubescens (Räsänen) Degel, Xylographa incerta A.Massal., Xylographa laricicola Nyl., Xylographa parallela v. sessitana Bagl. ex Arnold, Xylographa rubescens Räsänen

N - Frl, Ven (Nimis 1994, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Hinteregger 1994, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb (Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Lig (TSB). C - Abr. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl, Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Lign/ 1-2, 2-3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: vc, B: a, C: c, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar species, found on hard wood, on poles, fences and on flanks of decorticated boles, esp. of conifers, restricted to high altitudes in the south.


+Xylographa trunciseda (Th.Fr.) Redinger

[Minks ex] Redinger, Rabenhorst's Kryptogamenfl., 9, 2, 1: 216, 1938 - Lecidea trunciseda Th.Fr., Lichenogr. Scand., 1: 467, 1874.



S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Lign/ 1-2, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: on rotting wood, mostly of conifers, certainly present also in the Alps, and to be looked for there.


+Xylographa vitiligo (Ach.) J.R.Laundon

Lichenologist, 2: 147, 1963 - Spiloma vitiligo Ach., Meth. Lich.: 10, 1803.

Syn.: Agyrium rufum sensu Anzi, Agyrium spilomaticum Anzi, Xylographa corruscans Norman, Xylographa spilomatica (Anzi) Th.Fr.

N - Frl, Ven (TSB), TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, Piem, VA (TSB), Lig (TSB). C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ A.s/ Lign/ 1-2, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rc, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ Note: a mainly boreal-montane species, found on decaying, decorticated but still hard stumps, mostly of conifers, esp. near the base, or on fallen trunks.


+Zahlbrucknerella calcarea (Herre) Herre

J. Wash. Acad. Sc., 2: 384, 1912 - Zahlbrucknera calcarea Herre, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sc., 12: 129, 1910.

Syn.: Ephebe lanata f. tenuis H.Magn., Lecanephebe meylanii Frey

N - TAA. S - Cal.

Cr/ Cy.h/ S/ Sax/ 4-5, 3, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: er, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ l/ Note: on limestone and dolomite in sheltered seepages, on steeply inclined surfaces, certainly more widespread, but never common, in Italy.



Species of genera with non-lichenised fungi only, but traditionally treated by lichenologists

+Blastodesmia nitida A.Massal.

Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 180, n, 347, fig. 368, 1852.

Syn.: Polyblastia nitida (A.Massal.) Trevis., Pyrenula circumfusa (Nyl.) Trevis., Verrucaria massalongii Garov.



N - VG, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Emil. C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Laz. S - Si.

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 3-4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ p/ Note: a typically submediterranean early colonizer of smooth bark, esp. of Fraxinus ornus, doubtfully lichenized.


+Cecidonia umbonella (Nyl.) Triebel & Rambold

Nova Hedwigia, 47, 3-4: 284, 1988 - Lecidea umbonella Nyl. Flora, 49: 372, 1866.



N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), TAA, Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008). C - Sar. S - Si.

LF/ §/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: r, B: er, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Lecida lapicida s. lat./ Note: a lichenicolus fungus, found esp. on exposed rocks, certainly occurring throughout the Alps. Arct (Eur, N Amer).


+Cecidonia xenophana (Körb.) Triebel & Rambold

Nova Hedwigia, 47, 3-4: 291, 1988 - Placographa xenophana Körb., Parerga Lichen.: 464, 1865.

Syn.: Lecidea alumnula Nyl., Lecidea dealbatula Nyl., Lecidea deparcula Nyl., Lecidea hymeneliicola Alstrup & D.Hawksw., Lecidea subumbonata Nyl., Lecidea subumbonella Lamy, Lecidea umbonella v. alumnula (Nyl.) Hertel, Nesolechia xenophana (Körb.) Vouaux

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000).

LF/ §/ S/ Sax/ 2, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: r, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Porpidia spp./ Note: an obligately lichenicolous fungus, probably more widespread in the Alps.


+Chaenothecopsis consociata (Nádv.) A. F. W. Schmidt

Mitt. Staats. Allg. Bot. Hamburg, 13: 148, 1970 - Calicium consociatum Nadv., Stud. Bot. Cech., 5: 10, 1942.



N - Frl (TSB), Lig (TSB).

LF/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ paras Chaenotheca chrysocephala/ Note: parasitic or parasymbiontic, on trunks of old trees in ancient and humid coniferous forests, certainly more widespread in the Alps, but not common.


+Chaenothecopsis debilis (Sm.) Tibell

Symb. Bot. Upsal., 21, 2: 45, 1975 - Lichen debilis [Turner & Borrer ex Sm. in Sm. & Sowerby] Engl. Bot., 35: tab. 2462, 1813.

Syn.: Chaenothecopsis elevata (Vain.) Tibell, Calicium norvegicum Vain. ex Hav.

N - Frl. C - Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1996).

F/ §/ S/ Lign/ 2, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: on dry and weathered lignum of deciduous trees (Populus, Fraxinus, Ulmus), more rarely on conifers, in open situations, often in hollows of the trunks, in species-poor stands, probably overlooked and more widespread, but never common.


+Chaenothecopsis epithallina Tibell

Symb. Bot. Upsal., 21, 2: 116, 1975.



S - Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1996), Si (Grillo 1996).

LF/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 1-2, 1-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ paras Chaenotheca trichialis/ Note: parasitic or parasymbiontic in the thalli of the host, mainly on old conifers, much more rarely on lignum and deciduous trees, certainly occurring in the Alps, but very much overloooked.


+Chaenothecopsis hospitans (Th.Fr.) Tibell

[in Tibell & Ryman] Nova Hedwigia, 70, 1-2: 202, 1995 - Calicium hospitans Th.Fr., Bot. Notiser: 40, 1865.

Syn.: Calicium paroicum sensu Nádv. et auct., Calicium treichelianum Stein, Calicium paroicum ssp. exertum Nyl., Chaenothecopsis exerta (Nyl.) Tibell, Chaenothecopsis treicheliana (Stein) Kalb ?, Strongyleuma exertum (Nyl.) Vain. ssp. hemileucum Vain., Strongyleuma exertum ssp. albipes Vain.

S - Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1996).

LF/ §/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ paras Haematomma ochroleucum/ Note: parasitic or parasymbiont on the thalli of the host (in N Europe also on Lecanora carpinea), in underhangs of basic siliceous rocks protected from rain, probably more widespread in Tyrrhenian Italy.


+Chaenothecopsis nana Tibell

Publications from the Herbarium, University of Uppsala, Sweden 4: 4, 1987.



C - Sar (Zedda & Sipman 2001).

F/ §/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 2, 3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: a, B: er, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly boreal-montane species occurring on bark and lignum of coniferous trees in humid-shaded situations.


+Chaenothecopsis ochroleuca (Körb.) Tibell & Ryman

Nova Hedwigia, 60, 1-2: 208, 1995 - Calicium ochroleucum Körb., Parerga Lichenol.: 295, 1863.

Syn.: Chaenothecopsis koerberi (Nádv.) Tibell, Strongyleuma koerberi Nádv.

N - TAA (Tibell & Ryman 1995).

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ paras Haematomma ochroleucum. Note: perhaps more widespread in the beech belt of the Alps.


+Chaenothecopsis pusilla (Ach.) A. F. W. Schmidt

Mitt. Staatsinst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg, 13: 151, 1970 - Calicium claviculare v. pusillum Ach., K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Nya Handl.: 279, 1808.

Syn.: Calicium alboatrum Flörke, Calicium culmigenum De Not. & Bagl. ?, Calicium floerkei Zahlbr., Calicium italicum auct., Calicium nigrum Schaer., Calicium parasitaster (Bagl. & Carestia) Zopf, Calicium pusillum (Ach.) Flörke, Calicium pusillum v. parasitaster Bagl. & Carestia, Calicium subpusillum Vain., Chaenothecopsis alboatra (Flörke) Nádv., Chaenothecopsis parasitaster (Bagl. & Carestia) D.Hawksw., Chaenothecopsis culmigena (De Not. & Bagl.) Puntillo ?, Chaenothecopsis subpusilla (Vain.) Tibell, Embolidium culmigenum (De Not. & Bagl.) Vain. ?, Embolidium italicum Sacc.

N - Frl, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil. C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Abr, Sar. S - Camp, Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1996).

F/ §/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 1, 2, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: on trunks of old conifers in ancient forests, and on lignum, sometimes on old oaks, on squamules of Cladonia and even on soil, perhaps a parasite of free-living algal colonies, or possibly a saprophyte.


+Chaenothecopsis pusiola (Ach.) Vain.

Medd. Soc. F. Fl. Fenn., 57, 1: 70, 1927 - Calicium pusiolum Ach., K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl.: 231, 1817.

Syn.: Calicium lignicolum Nádv., Chaenothecopsis lignicola (Nádv.) A. F.W. Schmidt

N - Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). S - Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1996).

LF/ §/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ u/ paras Chaenotheca spp./ Note: on lignum of conifers, more rarely of deciduous trees, most often associated with Chaenotheca brunneola, Ch. trichialis and Ch. xyloxena, and probably a parasite or parasymbiont of these species, certainly more widespread, but not common, in the Alps.


+Chaenothecopsis subparoica (Nyl.) Tibell

[in Tibell & Ryman] Nova Hedwigia, 60, 1-2: 215, 1995 - Calicium subparoicum Nyl., Herb. Mus. Fenn.: 78, 1859.



N - TAA (Arnold Lich. Exs. 1132: Tibell & Ryman 1995). C - Tosc (Tretiach 2004)

LF/ §/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ paras Haematomma ochroleucum s.lat. and Tephromela grumosa/ Note: in underhangs of siliceous rocks.


+Chaenothecopsis vainioana (Nádv.) Tibell

Publications from the Herbarium, University of Uppsala, Sweden 4: 5: no. 37, 1979 - Calicium vainioanum Nádv., Preslia, 18-19: 128, 1940.



C - Sar (Zedda 2002).

F/ §/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 1, 2, 2, 1/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ Note: a species of old oaks, very rare throughout its range.



+Chaenothecopsis viridireagens (Nádv.) A.F.W.Schmidt

Mitt. Staatsinst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg, 13: 153, 1970 - Calicium viridireagens Nádv., Preslia, 18/19: 129, 1940.



N - Frl.

LF/ §/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 2-3, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ paras Chaenotheca and Calicium spp. ?/ Note: a mainly boreal-montane, perhaps circumpolar species, found on decorticated stumps, occasionally on acid bark inside forests, probably more widespread, but never common, in the Alps.


+Cyrtidula quercus (A.Massal.) Minks

§ - Arthopyrenia quercus A.Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 169, n. 317, fig. 337, 1852.

Syn.: Dermatina quercus (A.Massal.) Zahlbr., Mycoporellum quercus (A.Massal.) Müll.Arg., Mycoporum miserrimum Nyl., Mycoporum quercus (A.Massal.) Müll. Arg.

N - VG, Ven, Lomb. C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006).

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: r, E: a, F: r, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: on young twigs of trees, mainly oaks, but also on Alnus and other species.


+Epigloea bactrospora Zukal

Österr. bot. Z., 40: 327, 1890.



N - TAA.

F/ §/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 2, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: most common on rotting wood, certainly overlooked, and more widespread in the Alps.


+Epigloea grummannii Döbbeler

Beih. Nova Hedwigia, 29: 220, 1984.



N - TAA.

F/ §/ S/ Terr/ 2-3, 2, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on algal colonies developing on dying mats of Grimmia and Hypnum, certainly overlooked, and more widespread in the Alps.


+Epigloea medioincrassata (Grummann) Döbbeler

Beih. Nova Hedwigia, 29: 223, 1984 - Voralbergia medioincrassata Grummann, Sydowia, 22: 220, 1969.



N - TAA.

. F/ §/ S/ Terr/ 2-3, 2, 2, 1/ Alt: 4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C a:, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on algal colonies on muribund bryophytes and, more rarely, on lignum, certainly overlooked, and more widespread in the Alps.


+Epigloea soleiformis Döbbeler

Beih. Nova Hedwigia, 29: 229, 1984.



N - TAA.

F/ §/ S/ Terr-Lign/ 2-3, 2, 2, 1/ Alt: 4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on algal colonies developing on muribund bryophytes, squamules of Cladonia, decaying wood and humus, certainly overlooked, and more widespread in the Alps.


+Julella fallaciosa (Arnold) R.C.Harris

[in Egan] The Bryologist, 90: 163, 1987 - Polyblastia fallaciosa [Stizenb. ex] Arnold, Flora: 604, 1863.

Syn.: Polyblastiopsis fallaciosa (Arnold) Zahlbr.

N - Ven.

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: on smooth bark, esp. of Betula.


+Julella lactea (A.Massal.) M.E.Barr

Sydowia: 13, 1985 - Blastodesmia lactea A.Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 181, 1852.

Syn.: Blastodesmia lactea v. deaureolata A.Massal., Polyblastia lactea v. decipiens Bagl., Polyblastiopsis lactea (A.Massal.) Zahlbr., Polyblastiopsis naegelii (Hepp) Zahlbr., Sporodictyon lacteum (A.Massal.) Trevis., Verrucaria lactea (A.Massal.) Garov., Verrucaria naegelii (Hepp) Nyl.

N - Ven, TAA, Piem, Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Laz.

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 3-4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: r, E: a, F: rr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: on smooth bark, mostly of Fraxinus.


+Julella myrticola (de Lesd.) M.E. Barr

§ - Polyblastiopsis myrticola de Lesd.

C - Tosc.

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3, 3, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: poorly known, perhaps overlooked in Mediterranean Italy.


+Julella sericea (A.Massal.) Coppins

[in Coppins & al.] Lichenologist, 24: 367, 1992 - Polyblastia sericea A.Massal., Symmicta Lich.: 99, 1855.

Syn.: Microglaena sericea (A.Massal.) Lönnr., Polyblastiopsis sericea (A.Massal.) Zahlbr., Sporodictyon sericeum (A.Massal.) Trevis., Verrucaria sericea (A.Massal.) Garov.

N - VG, Ven. C - Laz (Ravera 2006), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002).

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ §/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: perhaps identical to J. fallaciosa.


+Leptorhaphis amygdali (A.Massal.) Zwackh

Flora, 65: 565, 1862 - Campylacia amygdali A.Massal., Sched. Crit., 10: 184, n. 351, 1856.

Syn.: Leiophloea amygdali (A.Massal.) Trevis., Leiophloea amygdali (A.Massal.) Trevis., Sagedia amygdali (A.Massal.) Jatta, Verrucaria amygdali (A.Massal.) Nyl. ex Zwackh

N - Ven. S - Pugl.

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: r, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: vr/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: mostly on Prunus amygdalus.


+Leptorhaphis atomaria (Ach.) Szatala

Magy. bot. Lapok, 26: 31, 1928 ("1927") - Lichen atomarius Ach., Lich. Suec. Prodr.: 16, 1799.

Syn.: Arthopyrenia analepta v. atomaria (Ach.) Jatta, Arthopyrenia atomaria (Ach.) Müll.Arg., Arthopyrenia persoonii f. atomaria (Ach.) A.Massal., Arthopyrenia punctiformis v. atomaria (Ach.) Anzi, Campylacia atomaria (Ach.) Vain., Didymella atomaria (Ach.) Szatala, Leiophloea punctiformis v. atomaria (Ach.) Trevis., Leptorhaphis tremulae auct. ital. non Körb, Microthelia adspersa Körb., Microthelia atomaria (Ach.) Körb. non auct., Mycomicrothelia atomaria (Ach.) Keissl., Sagedia salicis A.Massal. ?, Verrucaria epidermidis v. atomaria (Ach.) Schaer., Verrucaria punctiformis v. atomaria (Ach.) Ach., Verrucaria populicola Nyl. ?

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb (Brusoni & al. 1997, Brusoni & Valcuvia 2000), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Tosc. S - Cal (Puntillo & Puntillo 2004).

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: rr, E: a, F: r, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: on Populus, Fraxinus, etc.


+Leptorhaphis epidermidis (Ach.) Th.Fr.

N. Acta Reg. Soc. Sc. Upsal., ser. 3, 3: 373, 1861 - Lichen epidermidis Ach., Lich. Suec. Prodr.: 16, 1799.

Syn.: Arthopyrenia consequens Arnold, Arthopyrenia epidermidis (Ach.) A.Massal., Arthopyrenia oxyspora (Nyl.) Mudd, Campylacia epidermidis (Ach.) Vain., Campylacia oxyspora (Nyl.) Anzi, Campylacia oxyspora v. fusispora (Garov.) Bagl. & Carestia, Lecidea oxyspora Nyl., Leptorhaphis oxyspora (Nyl.) Körb., Pyrenula oxyspora (Nyl.) Hepp, Sagedia oxyspora (Nyl.) Tuck., Spermatodium epidermidis (Ach.) Trevis., Spermatodium oxysporum (Nyl.) Trevis., Verrucaria epidermidis (Ach.) Ach., Verrucaria epidermidis v. fusispora Flot. ex Garov., Verrucaria oxyspora Nyl.

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig.

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: on the smooth bark of Betula.


+Leptorhaphis maggiana (A.Massal.) Körb.

Parerga Lichenol.: 386, 1865 - Campylacia maggiana A.Massal., Sched. Crit., 4: 74, n. 109, 1856.

Syn.: Spermatodium maggianum (A.Massal.) Trevis., Verrucaria maggiana (A.Massal.) Stizenb.

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: on the smooth bark of Carpinus, Corylus, more rarely of young Quercus (e.g. on twigs). S Temp.


+Leptorhaphis oleae (A.Massal.) Körb.

Parerga Lichenol.: 386, 1865 - Sagedia oleae A.Massal., Symmicta Lich.: 96, 1855.

Syn.: Leptorhaphis epidermidis v. olivetorum Samp., Limboria oleae (A.Massal.) Trevis.

N - Ven, Lig. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004),

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 1/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: on Olea.


+Leptorhaphis parameca (A.Massal.) Körb.

Parerga Lichenol.: 368, 1865 - Sagedia parameca A.Massal., Symmicta Lich.: 97, 1855.

Syn.: Leptorhaphis xylographoides Norman, Spermatodium paramecum (A.Massal.) Trevis., Verrucaria parameca (A.Massal.) Stizenb.

N - Ven, TAA.

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: r, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: mostly on Prunus.


+Lichenothelia macrocarpa Henssen

Bibl. Lichenol., 25: 260, 1987.



N - Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

F/ §/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: vr, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ #/ Note: hitherto known only from the type collection, on mica-schist.


+Lichenothelia metzleri (J.Lahm) D.Hawksw.

Lichenologist, 13: 143, 1981 - Microthelia metzleri J.Lahm [in Körb.] Parerga Lichenol.: 398, 1865.



N - Piem.

F/ §/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/


+Lichenothelia scopularia (Nyl.) D.Hawksw.

Lichenologist, 13: 147, 1981 - Verrucaria scopularia Nyl., Not. Sällsk. F. Fl. Fenn. Förh., 6: 282, 1861.

Syn.: Anzia aterrima (Anzi) Garov., Buellia anthracina Anzi, Microthelia anthracina (Anzi) Arnold, Microthelia aterrima (Anzi) Norman, Microthelia scopularia (Nyl.) Blomb. & Forssell, Rinodina aterrima Kremp. ex Anzi

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem.

F/ §/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-5, 2-4, 1/ Alt: 3-5/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on metamorphic rocks, sometimes, but only in N Europe, on rocks inundated by the sea, the Italian distribution seems to be restricted to the Alps.


+Merismatium deminutum (Arnold) Cl.Roux & Nav.-Ros.

[in Cl. Roux & al.] Mycotaxon, 84: 33, 2002 - Polyblastia deminuta Arnold, Flora, 44: 264, 1861.

Syn.: Amphoroblastia deminuta (Arnold) Servít

N - TAA (Roux & al. 2002), Lomb.

LF/ §/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3, 3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rr, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras endolithic lichens/ Note: on steeply inclined calcareous rocks above treeline, often with Hymenelia coerulea. Records from Venezia Giulia reported by Nimis (1993: 555), being dubious, are not accepted here.


+Microcalicium ahlneri Tibell

Bot. Notiser, 131: 234, 1978.



N - Frl, TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007).

F/ §/ S/ Lign/ 1-2, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on decorticated stumps of conifers heavily attacked by brown rot fungi, more rarely of deciduous trees, often in cavities and cracks, confined to humid areas, probably overlooked in the Alps, but certainly never common.


+Microcalicium arenarium (A.Massal.) Tibell

Bot. Notiser, 131: 237, 1978 - Cyphelium arenarium [Hampe ex] A.Massal., Miscell. Lichenol.: 20, 1856.

Syn.: Calicium arenarium (A.Massal.) Körb., Calicium citrinum sensu Jatta, Coniocybopsis arenaria (A.Massal.) Vain.

N - TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C- Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006). S - Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1995, 1996).

F/ §/ S/ Sax/ 1-2, 2-3, 2, 1/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ u/ Note: on silicicolous lichens, soil, rootlets, decorticated stumps and algal colonies in underhangs of siliceous rocks, often together with Psilolechia lucida, more widespread in the Alps than the few records would suggest, perhaps facultatively lichenised.


+Microcalicium disseminatum (Ach.) Vain.

Acta Soc. F. Fl. Fenn., 57, 1: 77, 1927 - Calicium disseminatum Ach., K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl.: 227, 1817.

Syn.: Calicium atomarium (Ach.) Fr., Calicium subpedicellatum (Ach.) Schaer., Calicium viridulum (Ach.) Fr., Cyphelium atomarium Ach., Cyphelium viridulum Ach., Microcalicium subpedicellatum (Ach.) Tibell, Strongylopsis commixta Vain., Strongylopsis leucopus Vain., Strongylopsis stichococci Vain.

N - Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb.

LF/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 1-2, 2-3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C vr:, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Caliciales/ Note: on lignum and bark of both deciduous trees and conifers, often parasitic on calicioid lichens, esp. Chaenotheca species, with the conidiomata forming much earlier than the ascomata, saprophytic on bark, lignum and algal colonies, probably more widespread in the Alps.


+Mycocalicium subtile (Pers.) Szatala

Magyar Bot. Lapok, 24: 47, 1926 - Calicium subtile Pers., Tent. Disp. Meth. Fung. Suppl.: 60, 1797.

Syn.: Calicium minutellum Ach., Calicium parietinum Ach., Mycocalicium minutellum (Ach.) Nádv., Mycocalicium parietinum (Ach.) Vain.

N - Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1996).

F/ §/ S/ Lign/ 1-2, 4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: rr, B: er, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a saprophyte on dry, hard lignum, esp. of conifers, in open situations.


+Mycomicrothelia confusa D.Hawksw.

Bull. Br. Mus. nat. Hist., Bot. 14, 2: 76, 1985.



N - Piem (Isocrono & al. 2007). C - Marc (Frati & al. 2004), Tosc (Loppi & Putortì 1995, Loppi & al. 1994, 1995, 1997b, Ravera 2006b) , Laz (Ravera 2006, Ravera & al. 2006), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 2-3, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: on smooth bark of deciduous trees in shaded-humid situations.


+Mycomicrothelia macularis (A.Massal.) Keissl.

Rabenhorst's Krypt.-Fl., 9, 1, 2: 36, 1936 - Microthelia macularis [Hampe ex] A.Massal., Miscell. Lichenol.: 58, 1856.

Syn.: Didymosphaeria analeptoides (Bagl. & Carestia) Sacc., Microthelia analeptoides Bagl. & Carestia, Verrucaria analeptoides (Bagl. & Carestia) Hue

N - Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ p/ Note: on twigs of shrubs, mostly of Ribes.


+Mycomicrothelia melanospora (Hepp) D.Hawksw.

Lichenologist, 14: 134, 1982 - Pyrenula melanospora Hepp, Flecht. Eur.: n. 710, 1860.

Syn.: Mycrothelia atomaria auct. non (Ach.) Keissl., Microthelia koerberi Trevis., Verrucaria cinerella Zwackh nom. inval., Verrucaria micula v. cinereolutescens Garov.

N - VG, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: vr, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: on Mespilus.


+Mycoporum antecellens (Nyl.) R.C.Harris

More Florida Lichens, Incl. 10 Cent Tour Pyrenol. (New York): 67, 1995 - Verrucaria antecellans Nyl., Flora, 49, 1866.

Syn.: Arthopyrenia analeptoides (Nyl.) A.L.Sm., Arthopyrenia antecellens (Nyl.) Arnold, Pyrenula zwackhii Hepp

N - Frl (TSB), Ven (Lazzarin 2000), TAA, Lomb (Brusoni & al. 1997, Brusoni & Valcuvia 2000), Piem (Caniglia & al. 1992, Isocrono & al. 2003), Lig. C - Abr (TSB).

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: r, E: er, F: r, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: an early colonizer of smooth bark, esp. on twigs of broad-leaved trees and shrubs (e.g. Corylus and Fagus), in humid woodlands.


+Nigropuncta rugulosa D.Hawksw.

Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. ser., 9: 46, 1981.



N - TAA.

LF/ §/ S/ Sax/ 2-3, 3-4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 4-5/ A: vr, A1: er, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Bellemerea spp/ Note: on smooth, hard, steeply inclined rocks.


+Phaeocalicium compressulum (Vain.) A.F.W.Schmidt

Mitt. Staatsinst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg, 13: 130, 1970.- Mycocalicium praecedens v. compressulum [Nyl. ex] Vain., Acta Soc. F. Fl. Fenn., 57, 1: 85, 1827.



N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, Caniglia & al. 1999, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb (Nascimbene 2006), Piem (TSB), VA (TSB), Lig (TSB).

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vc, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: on Alnus viridis, certainly widespread throughout the Alps.


+Phaeocalicium mildeanum (Hepp) Puntillo

Studia Geobotanica: 64, 2001 - Calicium mildeanum Hepp [in Rabenhorst] Lich. Eur. 718, 1864.

Syn: Mycocalicium mildeanum (Hepp) Nádv., Mycocalicium ornicolum (Stein) Nádv., Stenocybe mildeana (Hepp) Jatta

N - TAA. C - Umbr (Genovesi & al. 2001, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 3, 2-3, 2-3/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: mostly on Fraxinus, certainly declining: the record from Marche is the first one from Italy in this century.


+Phaeocalicium populneum (Duby) A. F. W. Schmidt

Mitt. Staatsinst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg, 13: 132, 1970 - Calicium populneum [Brond. ex] Duby, Bot. Gall., 2: 638, 1830.

Syn.: Calicium exile Anzi ?, Embolidium populneum (Duby) Vain., Phacotium populneum (Duby) Trevis.

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem. C - Sar.

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 3-4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: saprophytic on thin, mostly decaying twigs of Populus tremula.


+Sarea difformis (Fr.) Fr.

Elench. Fung., 2: 14, 1828 - Peziza difformis Fr., Syst. Mycol., 2: 151, 1822.

Syn.: Biatorella difformis (Fr.) Vain., Tromera difformis (Fr.) Rehm, Tromera myriospora f. sarcogynoides (Arnold) Anzi, Tromera sarcogynoides A.Massal. ex Arnold

N - Ven, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ §/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: § (Eur, N Amer).


+Sphinctrina anglica Nyl.

Mém. Soc. Imp. Sc. Nat. Cherbourg, 5: 334, 1858.

Syn.: Sphinctrina microscopica Anzi, Calicium microscopicum (Anzi) Jatta, Phacotiella microcephala "(Sm.)" Vain., Sphinctrina pinicola Körb., Sphinctrina microcephala "(Sm.)" Körb. non Nyl.

N - Lomb.

LF/ §/ S/ Lign-Epiph/ 1-2, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ paras Protoparmelia oleaginea/ Note: certainly extremely rare, although quite widespread in the Northern Hemisphere.


+Sphinctrina leucopoda Nyl.

Syn. Lich., 1, 2: 144, 1860.

Syn.: Sphinctrina kylemorensis (Larbal. ex Leight.) Cromb., Sphinctrina obscurata sensu Nádv., Sphinctrina pedata (Stenh.) R.Sant.

C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Caniglia & Grillo 2003, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

LF/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Pertusaria spp./ suboc/ Note: mostly on Pertusaria pertusa, certainly declining.


+Sphinctrina tubiformis A.Massal.

Mem. Lichenogr.: 155, n. 380, fig. 190, t. 28, 1853.

Syn.: Sphinctrina microcephala Nyl. non "(Sm.)" Körb.

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem, Lig. C - Tosc, Laz, Sar. S - Camp, Pugl, Cal (Puntillo 1994, 196).

LF/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 2, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Pertusaria spp./ suboc/ Note: mostly on Pertusaria leioplaca.


+Sphinctrina turbinata (Pers.: Fr.) De Not.

Giorn. Bot. Ital., 2: 314, 1846 - Calicium turbinatum Pers., Tent. Disp. Fung.: 59, 1797: Fr., Elench. Fung., 2: 148, 1828.

Syn.: Acolium stigonellum (Ach.) De Not., Calicium stigonellum Ach., Sphinctrina gelasinata (With.) Zahlbr.

N - Lomb, Piem, Emil. C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Tosc, Laz (Ravera 2001, 2002, Massari & Ravera 2003), Sar. S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl, Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1994, 1995, 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Grillo & Cristaudo 1995).

LF/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3, 2, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: vr, E: a, F: r, G: er, H: a/ PF: 0/ paras Pertusaria spp./ suboc/ Note: mostly on Pertusaria pertusa in humid beech forests.


+Stenocybe major Körb.

[Nyl. ex] Körb., Syst. Lich. Germ.: 306, 1855.

Syn.: Stenocybe euspora (Nyl.) Anzi

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

LF/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 1-2, 2-3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ paras Loxospora spp./ suboc/ Note: § N Amer


+Stigmidium microspilum (Körb.) D.Hawksw.

Kew Bull. 30, 1: 201, 1975 - Arthopyrenia microspila Körb., Parerga Lichenol.: 392, 1865.



N - Frl, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Abr (TSB).

LF/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2-3, 2-3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: rr, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ paras Graphis scripta/ suboc/ Note: certainly more widespread in the Apennines, and to be looked for there.


+Stenocybe pullatula (Ach.) Stein

[in Cohn] Krypt- Fl. von Schlesien, 2, 2: 298, 1879 - Calicium pullatulum Ach., K. Sv. Vetensk.-Acad. Handl. 1816: 121, tab. 5, fig. 5, 1816.

Syn.: Calicium byssaceum Fr., Stenocybe byssacea (Fr.) Körb.

N - Frl, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004). C - Tosc.

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 2-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: saprobic or parasitic on branches of Alnus, on decaying branches and trunks, esp. along streams and lakes.


+Tomasiella arthonioides (A.Massal.) A.Massal.

Flora, 18-19: 2, 1856 - Arthopyrenia arthonioides A.Massal., Ric. Auton. Lich. Crost.: 169-170, n. 319, fig. 339, 1852.

Syn.: Melanotheca arthonioides (A.Massal.) Nyl., Pyrenula arthonioides (A.Massal.) Trevis.

N - VG, Frl, Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr, Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Nimis & al. 1994).

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 3-4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: rr, E: a, F: rc, G: r, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ p/ Note: a mild-temperate fungus, most frequent on the smooth bark of Fraxinus ornus.


+Tomasiella diffusa (Leight.) J.Lahm

(1885) - Melanotheca diffusa Leight., Lich. Fl. Gr. Brit.: 467, 1871.



C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 1999, Ravera & al. 2006).

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C:, D: a, E: a, F: v, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: esp. on Alnus.


+Tomasiella gelatinosa (Chevall.) Zahlbr.

Cat. Lich. Univ., 1: 474, 1922 - Arthonia gelatinosa Chevall., J. Phys. Chem. Hist. Nat., 94: 54, 1822.

Syn.: Athrismidium gelatinosum (Chevall.) Trevis., Melanotheca leightonii (A.Massal.) Garov., Tomasiella leightonii A.Massal.

N - Ven, Lig. C - Umbr (Ravera 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2006, Munzi & al. 2007). S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ / 2, 3-4, 3, 1/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: vr, E: a, F: r, G: vr, H: a/ PF: 1/ p/ Note: a mainly temperate, pioneer fungus of smooth bark.


+Tromera resinae (Fr.) Körb.

§ - Peziza resinae [Fr. ex] Fr., Syst. Mycol., 2: 149, 1822.

Syn.: Biatorella resinae (Fr.) Th.Fr., Sarea resinae (Fr.) Kuntze, Tromera myriospora (Hepp) Anzi, Tromera xanthostigma A.Massal. ex Arnold, Nectriella resinae (Fr.) Sacc.

N - Frl, TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), Lomb. C - Tosc.

F/ §/ S/ Epiph/ / 1-2, 2-3, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: vr, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly boreal-montane, probably circumpolar fungus, growing on resin of coniferous trees.



dubious records (for references see Nimis 1993)
Amandinea coniops (Wahlenb.) Scheidegger & H.Mayrhofer

- Lecidea coniops Wahlenb.

Syn.: Buellia coniops (Wahlenb.) Th.Fr.




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