+Absconditella annexa



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N - Ven, TAA, Emil, Lig. C - Tosc. S - Si (Caniglia & al. 2005).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 4, 3, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: er, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ p/ Note: on calciferous, often slightly decalcified soil in rather disturbed habitats, chiefly southern in Europe, closely related to B. hemisphaerica. Most Italian records must be checked against the latter species.


+Biatorella germanica Körb.

[A.Massal. ex] Körb., Parerga Lichenol.: 125, 1860.



N - Frl., Piem (TSB).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 5, 3, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on sheltered calcareous rocks, perhaps overlooked, but certainly not common.


+Biatorella hemisphaerica Anzi

Cat. Lich. Sondr.: 78, 1860.

Syn.: Biatorella fossarum f. hemisphaerica (Anzi) Vain., Biatorella fossarum v. rubicunda (Th.Fr.) Th.Fr.

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene 2002, 2003b), TAA, Lomb, Lig. C - Tosc.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 3-4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: er, A1: vr, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on calciferous soil and amongst bryophytes, most often in rock fissures, see note on B. fossarum.


+Biatorella microhaema Norman

[in Th.Fr.] Bot. Notiser, 1865: 99, 1865.

Syn.: Strangospora microhaema (Norman) R.A. Anderson

N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph-Lign/ 2-3, 4-5, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, perhaps circumpolar species of base-rich bark and slightly eutrophicated lignum.


+Piccolia ochrophora (Nyl.) Hafellner

Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses. 34:87-96, 1995- Lecidea ochrophora Nyl., Flora, 48: 355, 1865.

Syn.: Biatorella ochrophora (Nyl.) Arnold, Biatorella ochrophora v. planiuscula Vězda, Strangospora ochrophora (Nyl.) R.A.Anderson

N - Emil (Nimis & al. 1996, Tretiach & al. 2008). C - Tosc, Umbr (Ravera 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2001), Sar (Zedda 2002). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1996, 1998), Cal (Puntillo 1996, Puntillo & Puntillo 2004), Si (Ottonello & Puntillo 1995).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 4-5, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-2/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: a, D: er, E: a, F: vr, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate species, found on Populus, but also on Sambucus and other trees with base-rich bark, overlooked, but certainly rare and declining.


+Biatoridium monasteriense Körb

[J. Lahm ex] Körb., Parerga Lichenol.: 172, 1860.

Syn.: Biatorella elegans (A.Massal.) Stizenb., Biatorella monasteriensis (“J.Lahm”) J.Lahm, Biatoridium elegans (A.Massal.) Reinke, Chiliospora elegans A.Massal.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Carvalho 1993), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Carvalho 1993), Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006, 2006b), Laz (Munzi & al. 2007), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Epiph/ 3, 2-3, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: vr, D: er, E: a, F: r, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ Note: a mild-temperate lichen found on deciduous trees with base-rich bark (Acer, Fraxinus, Sambucus), much overlooked in the past, but locally not unfrequent on Sambucus along brooks.


+Bilimbia accedens Arnold

Flora, 45: 391, 1862.

Syn.: Bacidia accedens (Arnold) Lettau, Mycobilimbia accedens (Arnold) V.Wirth & Hafellner, Myxobilimbia accedens (Arnold) Hafellner

N - Frl, TAA, Piem (TSB), Emil (Tretiach & al. 2008). C - Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 2004). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2-3, 2-4, 2-3, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: r, A1: r, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on mosses overgrowing soil and siliceous rocks. The record from Sicilia (Nimis 1993: 442) was due to a misidentification, for synonymies see Ekman (1996).


+Bilimbia lobulata (Sommerf.) Hafellner & Coppins

[in Veldekamp] Lichenologist, 36, 3, 4: 195, 2004 - Lecidea lobulata Sommerf., Kungl. Norske Vidensk. Srifter, 2, 2: 54, 1827.

Syn.: Bacidia sabulosa (A.Massal.) Lettau, Biatora regeliana Hepp, Bilimbia leucophaea v. perpallescens (Nyl.) A.L.Sm., Bilimbia milliaria v. terrestris Körb., Bilimbia regeliana (Hepp) Körb., Bilimbia sabulosa A.Massal., Bilimbia syncomista (Flörke) Körb., Lecidea claudeliana Harm., Lecidea sabuletorum v. syncomista Flörke, Lecidea subnegans Nyl., Mycobilimbia lobulata (Sommerf.) Hafellner, Myxobilimbia lobulata (Sommerf.) Hafellner ,Toninia claudeliana (Harm.) H.Olivier, Toninia lobulata (Sommerf.) Lynge, Toninia sabulosa (A.Massal.) Samp., Toninia syncomista (Flörke) Th.Fr., Toninia syncomista v. regeliana (Hepp) Lönnr.

N - Frl, Ven (Nimis 1994, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c, Nascimbene 2005c, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, Hafellner & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil, Lig. C - Tosc (TSB), Laz (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Umbr (Ravera & al. 2006, 2006b), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar. S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Bas (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Ottonello & al. 1994).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 3-4, 2-4, 1-2/ Alt: 2-5/ A: c, A1: vc, B: rc, C: rr, D: vr, E: a, F: vr, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a cool-temperate to arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichen, found on terricolous mosses and bare calciferous soil, from the Alps to the high Mediterranean mountains.


+Bilimbia microcarpa (Th.Fr.) Th.Fr.

Bot. Not., 1863: 8, 1863 - Bilimbia obscurata v. microcarpa Th.Fr., N. Acta Reg. Soc. Sc. Upsal., 3, 3: 283, 1861.

Syn.: Bacidia hypnophila ssp. microcarpa (Th.Fr.) Th.Fr., Bacidia microcarpa (Th.Fr.) Lettau, Bilimbia hypnophila ssp. microcarpa (Th.Fr.) Th.Fr., Lecidea meiobola Nyl., Mycobilimbia microcarpa (Th.Fr.) Brunnb., Myxobilimbia microcarpa (Th.Fr.) Hafellner

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven (Nascimbene 2003b, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA, Piem (TSB), Lig (TSB). C - Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 4-5, 3-4, 3-4, 1-2/ Alt: 3-5/ A: rr, A1: rc, B: er, C: vr, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine lichen found on mosses in dry grasslands of upland areas, sometimes on epilithic bryophytes. The S Italian records should be checked, but not excluded: several "northern" species reach the mountains of Calabria and sometimes of Sicilia.


+Bilimbia sabuletorum (Schreb.) Arnold

Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien 19: 637, 1869 - Lichen sabuletorum Schreb., Spicil. Fl. Lips.: 134, 1771.

Syn.: Bacidia borborodes (Körb.) Lettau, Bacidia descendens (Hepp) Mig., Bacidia fuscorubella v. propinqua (Stizenb.) Trevis, Bacidia hypnophila (Turner ex Ach.) Th.Fr., Bacidia propinqua (Stizenb.) Arnold, Bacidia sabuletorum (Schreb.) Lettau, Biatora propinqua Stizenb., Bilimbia borborodes Körb., Bilimbia hypnophila (Ach.) Zahlbr., Bilimbia hexamera De Not., Lecidea hypnophila (Ach.) Ach., Lecidea sabuletorum (Schreb.) Ach. non Fr., Mycobilimbia sabuletorum (Schreb.) Hafellner, Myxobilimbia sabuletorum (Schreb.) Hafellner

N - VG, Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2003c), TAA (Nascimbene 2003, 2005b), Lomb (Rossi & al. 1998), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999), Emil (Nimis & al. 1996), Lig. C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach, 1999, 2004), Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Benesperi & al. 2007, Tretiach & al. 2008), Umbr (Panfili 2000, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz (Ravera 2001, Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002). S - Camp (Nimis & Tretiach 2004), Pugl, Bas (Bartoli & Puntillo 1998, Nimis & Tretiach 1999, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1996), Si (Nimis & al. 1994, Ottonello & Salone 1994, Ottonello & al. 1994, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 3-4, 2-4, 2-3, 2-3/ Alt: 1-5/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: r, D: c, E: rc, F: c, G: rc, H: er/ PF: 1-3/ Note: a holarctic, mainly temperate lichen found on mosses overgrowing soil, calciferous, tree bark, also found in urban areas (e.g. on walls). For synonymies see Ekman (1996).


+Botryolepraria lesdainii (Hue) Canals, Hernández-Mariné, Gómez-Bolea & Llimona

Lichenologist, 29, 4: 340, 1997 - Crocynia lesdainii Hue, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 71: 350, 1924.

Syn.: Botryolepraria lesdainii (Hue) Canals, Hernandez-Mariné, Gomez-Bolea & Llimona, Crocynia grevilleana de Lesd., Lepraria aeruginosa sensu Sm. non (Weis) Sm., Lepraria lesdainii (Hue) R.C.Harris

N - VG (Baruffo & al. 2006), Frl (Baruffo & al. 2006), Ven (Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb (Baruffo & al. 2006), Emil (Baruffo & al. 2006). C - Tosc (Baruffo & al. 2006), Sar (Kümmerling & Leuckert 1993, Baruffo & al. 2006). S - Si (Kümmerling & Leuckert 1993, Grillo 1998, Grillo & Caniglia 2004, Baruffo & al. 2006).

Lepr/ Ch/ A.s/ Sax-Epiph/ 3-5, 1-2, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 1-3/ A: a, A1: a, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: rr, G: r, H: er/ PF: 1-2/ suboc/ u/ Note: on limestone, calcareous sandstone, epilithic mosses and soil, sometimes on walls, esp. in fissures, in sites protected from rain, certainly much more common throughout Italy. According to Baruffo & al. (2006) this is the most shade-loving of all species of Lepraria s.lat.


+Brodoa atrofusca (Schaer.) Goward

The Bryologist, 89: 220, 1987 - Parmelia ceratophylla v. atrofusca Schaer., Enum. Crit. Lich. Eur.: 42, 1850.

Syn.: Hypogymnia atrofusca (Schaer.) Räsänen, Hypogymnia intestiniformis v. atrofusca (Schaer.) Poelt, Parmelia atrofusca (Schaer.) Cromb., Parmelia intestiniformis v. atrofusca (Schaer.) Hasselrot

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA, Lomb (Nascimbene 2006), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004, 2006), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 2001, 2004). C - Sar.

Fol. n/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4-5, 4, 2-3/ Alt: 3-6/ A: rr, A1: vr, B: r, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on wind-exposed siliceous rocks wetted by rain, less bound to situations with a long snow cover than B. intestiniformis.


+Brodoa intestiniformis (Vill.) Goward

The Bryologist, 89: 220, 1987 - Lichen intestiniformis Vill., Hist. Pl. Dauphiné, 3: 947, 1798.

Syn.: Hypogymnia encausta (Sm.) Walt.Watson, Hypogymnia intestiniformis (Vill.) Räsänen, Imbricaria encausta (Sm.) DC., Menegazzia encausta Sm., Parmelia ceratophylla v. multipuncta (Ehrh.) Schaer., Parmelia encausta (Sm.) Ach., Parmelia encausta v. multipuncta (Ehrh.) Th.Fr., Parmelia intestiniformis (Vill.) Ach.

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c), Lomb (Rivellini 1994), Piem (Isocrono & Falletti 1999, Isocrono & al. 2003, 2004, 2006), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999). C - Sar. S - Cal (Puntillo 1996).

Fol. n/ Ch/ S/ Sax/ 2, 4, 3, 2-3/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rc, A1: c, B: vr, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found in more sheltered and less wind-exposed situations than B. atrofusca, on faces with a long snow-cover, most frequent in the Alps.


+Bryodina rhypariza (Nyl.) Hafellner & Türk

Stapfia, 76: 150, 2001 - Lecanora rhypariza Nyl., Öfv. K. Vetensk.-Akad. Förh.: 296, 1860.

Syn.: Bryonora rhypariza (Nyl.) Poelt

N - TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2, 4, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rr, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly arctic-alpine species, found on mosses (Andraea, Grimmia), often associated with cyanobacteria (Stigonema), almost certainly restricted to the Alps in Italy.


+Bryonora castanea (Hepp) Poelt

Nova Hedwigia, 38: 86, 1983 - Biatora castanea Hepp [in Th.Fr.] N. Acta Reg. Soc. Sci. Upsal., ser. 3, 3: 295, 1861.

Syn.: Lecanora castanea (Hepp) Th.Fr., Lecanora castanea v. septata Arnold

N - Frl (Tretiach & Hafellner 2000), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1999).

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2-3, 4-5, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: rc, A1: rr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichen, found on soil, mosses, plant remains and on other lichens in Alpine grasslands.


+Bryonora curvescens (Mudd) Poelt

Nova Hedwigia, 38: 93, 1983 - Pannaria curvescens Mudd, Man. Brit. Lich.: 125, 1861.

Syn.: Biatora curvescens (Mudd) Th.Fr., Lecania curvescens (Mudd) A.L.Sm., Lecanora castanea f. curvescens (Mudd) Th.Fr., Lecanora curvescens (Mudd) Nyl. ex Carroll

N - TAA.

Cr/ Ch/ S/ Terr/ 2, 4-5, 2, 1-2/ Alt: 4-5/ A: r, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine, circumpolar lichen, found on bryophytes (e.g. Andraea, Grimmia) in sites with periodic seepage of water.


+Bryoria bicolor (Ehrh.) Brodo & D.Hawksw.

Opera Bot., 42: 99, 1977 - Lichen bicolor Ehrh., Beitr. Naturk., 3: 82, 1788.

Syn.: Alectoria bicolor (Ehrh.) Nyl., Bryopogon bicolor (Ehrh.) Elenkin, Bryopogon jubatus v. bicolor (Ehrh.) Rabenh., Bryoria bicolor "f. melaneira (Ach.) Nyl." ?, Cornicularia bicolor (Ehrh.) Ach.

N - Frl (TSB), Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.f/ Epiph/ 2, 3-4, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a mainly boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found esp. on mossy trunks of old, more or less isolated trees in areas with frequent fog, sometimes on mossy rocks.


+Bryoria capillaris (Ach.) Brodo & D.Hawksw.

Opera Bot., 42: 115, 1977 - Parmelia jubata v. capillaris Ach., Meth. Lich.: 273, 1803.

Syn.: Alectoria cana (Ach.) Leight., Alectoria capillaris (Ach.) Cromb., Alectoria fuscidula auct., Alectoria implexa auct. p.p., Alectoria implexa v. cana (Ach.) Flagey, Alectoria jubata f. rufescens Anzi, Alectoria setacea (Ach.) Motyka, Bryopogon canum (Ach.) M.Choisy, Bryopogon capillaris (Ach.) Makar., Bryopogon jubatus f. canum (Ach.) Jatta, Bryopogon jubatus f. capillaris (Ach.) Jatta, Bryoria setacea (Ach.) Brodo & D.Hawksw.

N - Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Caniglia & al. 2002, Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c, Nascimbene 2003, 2006b, 2006e, De Marco & al. 2003), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002), Lig. C - Tosc (Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, Ravera & al. 2006), Laz, Abr, Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Pugl (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Bas (Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo & Vězda 1994, Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si.

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3-5, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C: rr, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ suboc/ Note: a temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, with optimum in humid Fagus-Abies forests, mostly on twigs, but also on boles of isolated trees in areas with frequent fog.


+Bryoria chalybeiformis (L.) Brodo & D.Hawksw.

Opera Bot., 42: 81, 1977 - Lichen chalybeiformis L., Sp. Pl., 2: 1153, 1753.

Syn.: Alectoria chalybeiformis (L.) Gray, Alectoria jubata v. chalybeiformis (L.) Ach., Alectoria prostratosteola Gyeln., Alectoria valparolae Sambo, Bryopogon chalybeiforme (L.) Link

N - Ven, TAA, Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999, Piervittori & al. 2004). C - Sar (Zedda 2002).

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.s/ Terr-Sax/ 2, 4-5, 2-3, 2-3/ Alt: 3-5/ A: r, A1: rr, B: er, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: an arctic-alpine to boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on wind-exposed rocks, but also on soil, mosses and plant remains in exposed habitats with frequent fog.


+Bryoria fremontii (Tuck.) Brodo & D.Hawksw.

Opera Bot., 42: 136, 1977 - Alectoria fremontii Tuck., Am. J. Arts Sc., ser. 2, 25: 422, 1858.



N - TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 2-3, 4-5, 1, 1/ Alt: 3-4/ A: a, A1: er, B: a, C: er, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 0/ suboc/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, easily recognizable species found on twigs of conifers in damp forests, there is no recent record from Italy, and no other record from the Alps.


+Bryoria furcellata (Fr.) Brodo & D.Hawksw.

Opera Bot., 42: 103, 1977 - Cetraria furcellata Fr., Syst. Orb. Veget., 1: 283, 1825.

Syn.: Alectoria nidulifera Norrl.

N - Ven.

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 4-5, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 4/ A: a, A1: r, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a mainly boreal-montane, circumpolar lichen, found on isolated conifers near treeline, sometimes on lignum.


+Bryoria fuscescens (Gyeln.) Brodo & D.Hawksw.

Opera Bot., 42: 83, 1977 - Alectoria fuscescens Gyeln., Nyt Mag. Naturvid., 70: 55, 1932.

Syn.: Alectoria achariana Gyeln. ?, Alectoria crispa Motyka, Alectoria haynaldii Gyeln., Alectoria jubata auct. p.p., Alectoria positiva (Gyeln.) Motyka ?, Alectoria prolixa v. subcana Stizenb., Alectoria subcana (Nyl. ex Stizenb.) Gyeln., Bryopogon jubatus (L.) Link, Bryopogon subcanum (Nyl.) Gyeln., Bryoria fuscescens v. positiva (Gyeln.) Brodo & D.Hawksw. ?, Bryoria positiva (Gyeln.) Bystrek ?, Bryoria subcana (Stizenb.) Brodo & D.Hawksw., Evernia jubata (L.) Fr.

N - VG (TSB), Frl, Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2000b, 2002c, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene 2005c, Nascimbene & al. 2006e, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2000b, 2002c, Caniglia & al. 2002, Thell & al. 2002, Nascimbene 2001b, 2003, 2006b, Nascimbene & al. 2005, 2006, 2006e, Thor & Nascimbene 2007), Lomb (Valcuvia & al. 2003, Chiappetta & al. 2005, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Emil (Dalle Vedove & al. 2002), Lig (TSB). C - Tosc (Tretiach & Nimis 1994, Benesperi & al. 2007), Umbr (Ravera 1998, 1999, Ravera & al. 2006), Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Abr (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Mol (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Sar (Zedda 2001, 2002). S - Bas (Potenza & Fascetti 2005, Potenza 2006), Cal (Puntillo 1995, 1996), Si (Falco Scampatelli 2005).

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-3, 3-5, 1-2, 1-2/ Alt: 1-4/ A: a, A1: rc, B: er, C: rr, D: er, E: a, F: er, G: er, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar species, which is the most common species of Bryoria in Italy, and that with the broadest ecological range, sometimes reaching (in humid situations) the mediterranean belt (e.g. in Sardegna), extinct in the Po-plain and certainly declining, esp. in disturbed areas.


+Bryoria implexa (Hoffm.) Brodo & D.Hawksw.

Opera Bot., 42: 121, 1977 - Usnea implexa Hoffm., Deutschl. Flora, 2: 134, 1796.

Syn.: Alectoria catharinae Räsänen, Alectoria implexa (Hoffm.) Nyl. non auct., Alectoria osteola Gyeln., Alectoria pseudofuscescens Gyeln., Alectoria subachariana Gyeln., Alectoria vrangiana Gyeln., Alectoria zopfii Asahina, Bryopogon implexus (Hoffm.) Elenkin, Bryoria friabilis Brodo & D.Hawksw., Bryoria osteola (Gyeln.) Brodo & D.Hawksw., Bryoria pseudofuscescens (Gyeln.) Brodo & D.Hawksw., Bryoria vrangiana (Gyeln.) Brodo & D.Hawksw.

N - Frl (TSB), Ven (Nascimbene & Caniglia 1997, 2003c, Caniglia & al. 1999, Nascimbene & al. 2006e), TAA (Nascimbene & Caniglia 2002c), Lomb, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004), VA (Borlandelli & al. 1996, Piervittori & Isocrono 1997, 1999), Lig (Brunialti & al. 1999). C - Marc (Nimis & Tretiach 1999), Laz (Ravera 2001), Sar (Zedda 1995, 2001, 2002). S - Camp (Aprile & al. 2003b), Cal (Puntillo 1996)

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph/ 1-2, 3-5, 1-2, 1/ Alt: 2-4/ A: a, A1: rc, B: vr, C: r, D: a, E: a, F: er, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: a cool-temperate to boreal-montane, circumpolar, chemically heterogeneous species, most common on branches of coniferous, more rarely of deciduous trees in areas with frequent fog, frequent in the Alps, much rarer in the south.


+Bryoria lanestris (Ach.) Brodo & D.Hawksw.

Opera Bot., 42: 88, 1977 - Alectoria jubata v. lanestris Ach., Lich. Univ.: 593, 1810.

Syn.: Alectoria lanestris (Ach.) Gyeln., Bryopogon lanestris (Ach.) Gyeln.

N - TAA, Piem (Isocrono & al. 2004).

Frut.f/ Ch/ A.s/ Epiph-Lign/ 1-2, 4, 2-3, 1/ Alt: 4/ A: a, A1: vr, B: a, C: a, D: a, E: a, F: a, G: a, H: a/ PF: 1/ Note: on bark of conifers, and on hard wood in humid areas, the two Italian records need confirmation, but the presence of this species in the Alps is probable. The record by Iacolino & Ottonello (2006) from Sicilia is very dubious.


+Bryoria nadvornikiana (Gyeln.) Brodo & D.Hawksw.

Opera Bot., 42: 122, 1977 - Alectoria nadvornikiana Gyeln., Acta Fauna Fl. Univ., ser. 2, 1: 6, 1932.

Syn.: Alectoria altaica (Gyeln.) Räsänen, Alectoria implexa v. nadvornikiana (Gyeln.) Zahlbr., Alectoria spinulosa Ahlner nom. nud.


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