Acknowledgements 5 Glossary 6 List of Tables 8 List of Figures 9 List of Boxes 10 Pakistan Fact Sheet 11 Executive Summary 12

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1 Forest Working Plans are legally binding management plans that are prepared by provincial forestry departments; these are normally for ten to twenty years. The plans concentrate on the sustainable yield of timber and not on sustainable forestry. (See also Chapter 4 for details)

2 Case Study prepared by Tahir Rashid Fellow LEAD-Pakistan

3 Source Mr. Kaleemulah Malik, Mymo Dawakhana and Cheap Medical Store Mianwali.

4 Please also see section 2.1.7 ‘Thorn Forest’ in Chapter 2 for the descriptive part.

5 Nomadic tribe that keeps mainly hairy goats and descend to the low hills in winter for grazing

6 Case Study Prepared by Fauzia Bilqis Malik Fellow LEAD- Pakistan

7 Prepared after literature review by Mahpara Raza, LEAD Pakistan consultant

8 Case Study by Ghulam Ali Awan Lecturer Government College Wazirabad

9 Case Study Prepared by Naeem Ashraf Raja Fellow LEAD- Pakistan

10 Fish that ascends rivers from the sea to spawn-The New Shorter Oxford Dictionary

11 Fine guage nets that catch small fish

12 Case Study prepared by Dr. Fehmida Firdaus Sindh Wildlife Department Karachi


14 Hawkes (1983) has described eight centres of biodiversity of cultivated plants. These centres are in China, Indo-Malaya, Central Asia, the Near East, the Meditorraneas, Abysinia, Southern America. These are the centres where maximum plant variability exists or most of the plants have originated in these centres. This diversity of germplasm provides a sustainable basis for food supply and security, which in the future, will become extremely important. The future sustainability of the human race also depends upon these resources.

15 The author made a survey of the District Gazeteers of Mianwali, Dera Ghazi Khan, Bahawalpur and the Shahpur districts of the last century (British era) specifically for this section of the report.

16 Personal interview with Dr. Hasan Aziz Javed, Director Livestock, Livestock Department, Government of the Punjab, Lahore.

17 Case study based on site visit by LEAD-Pakistan team comprising Dr Aslam Malik and Syed Mahmood Nasir to the Livestock farm Kallurkot. Persons contacted were Dr. M. Ajmal Jalvi, Farm Superintendent, Dr. M. Fayyaz, Veterinary Officer. LEAD-Pakistan expresses its gratitude for the courtesy extended by the farm management and the entire staff.

18 UNEP has observed that the draft report did not mention the status of the Kashmiri Deshi breed of poultry. This breed is reported to be the carrier of Rani Khet disease but is not affected itself. The author contacted the scientists at the VRI (Veterinary Research Institute, Lahore). After a thorough search, the VRI scientists have requested that available information on this breed should be provided and the Livestock Department shall focus on this breed for conservation and research.

19 Personal interview by the authors (Dr. Aslam Malik and Syed Mahmood Nasir). Livestock scientists contacted were: Dr. Saeed Ahmed, Deputy Director, Veterinary Research Institute, Lahore, Dr. Hasan Aziz, Director Livestock, Lahore, Dr. Sajjad Zaheer Malik Director Planning and Evaluation, Livestock Department, Lahore, Dr. Muhammad Fayyaz and Dr. Ajmal Alvi of the Government Livestock Farm Ghulaman district Bhakkar.

20 SUNGI is a NGO with headquarters in Islamabad, and concentrates on the equitable distribution of benefits from natural resources. It is an advocacy NGO. Its main area of operation is the forests of Abbottabad civil division, NWFP. It has also played an active role in ensuring that the local people receive fair compensation for their lands acquired for the construction of the Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project.

21 Source: article by Latif Baloch dated June 15, 2000 in Daily Dawn.

22 Personal interview by Nasir Ali Panhwar Fellow LEAD-Pakistan, conducted for the preparation of this report.

23 Case Study by Mehjabeen Habib Fellow LEAD Pakistan

24 Although prior to this report, the dolphin was reported only between the two barrages, during interviews for this report with the Deputy Director Fisheries, Chashma, it was learnt that this species also occurs upstream of the Chashma Barrage. Through the LEAD-Pakistan network, this fact was reported to the concerned agencies. The process of this report also highlighted that organisations like the Directorate of Fisheries, WAPDA should be on the panels that deal with biodiversity as they have rich first hand information.

25 Based on personal visit by Syed Mahmood Nasir LEAD-Pakistan Fellow to Kallar Kahar for this report. Moreover, reference to the book locally available ‘Ghaus Ul Azam Key Sahibzaday’ by M. Mustafa. There are many other shrines of Sufi saints all over Pakistan and each has a similar story. There is a need to catologue all such cases and use them as a tool for conservation.

26 Research conducted specifically for this report by Syed Mahmood Nasir Fellow LEAD- Pakistan cohort 5

27 Haqdari is a legal term that means the right of the local inhabitants of the Murree and Kahuta hilly areas. This right is for trees to be used for personal purposes such as house construction or repairs, etc. The sale of trees is prohibited.

28 Case study prepared by Shabbir Ahmed, Conservator of Forests, Murree Kahuta Development Authority and Syed Mahmood Nasir, Fellow, LEAD-Pakistan, Cohort 5, specifically for this country report.

29 The timber mafia is a term used in Pakistan for influential persons who illegally log and market timber. Due to their power and influence they cannot be apprehended.

30 Case study by Javeed Kausar Conservator of Forests, Punjab Forest department

31 Case Study by Naeem Ashraf Raja Fellow LEAD Pakistan

32 Case Study by Naeem Ashraf Raja Fellow LEAD Pakistan

33 Personal observations by the author.

34 Sprouting of plants from stumps after the tree is cut, this is used as a tool for regeneration of tree crops.

35 Plants produce certain chemicals that inhibit others from growing near them.

36 Prepared by Dr. Nazir Bhatti, Director General, Fisheries, Government of Punjab, especially for this report

37 Adapted from the article in The Dawn by Baghwan Das

38 An animal product is anything originating or made, in whole or in part from any animal or from carcasses and any other substance of animal origin, which is specified by the federal government by notification in the official Gazette.

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