Acre code 645 Caribbean Conservation Practice Specification Guide



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Upland Wildlife Habitat

Management (ACRE)



Code 645

Caribbean Conservation Practice Specification Guide

BACKGROUND
All land provides habitat for some wildlife species. Term “wildlife” means non-domesticated birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, invertebrates, and mammals. The term “wildlife habitat” means the aquatic and terrestrial environments required for fish and wildlife to complete their life cycles, providing air, food, cover, water, and spatial requirements. Not all elements may apply to every habitat type.


  • Food – Types of food, quantity, quality, distribution, and seasonal availability;

  • Cover - Types of cover (for nesting, brood rearing, fawning, resting, roosting, escape from predators, summer shade, travel corridors), quantity, quality, and distribution;

  • Water - Quantity, quality, accessibility, and seasonal availability;

  • Interspersion and Connectedness – Distance and connections to food, cover, and water.

Cropland, pastureland and woodland all produce and support wildlife to the extent of providing some or all of the basic habitat elements. Landowners can address some habitat shortcomings on their property by providing food plots, nest boxes, brush piles, watering facilities, etc. However, maintaining a sustainable population often requires cooperation of multiple landowners. Simply having considerable amounts of food, cover, or water does not ensure a sustainable wildlife population. Within any area, large quantities of potential food, water, or cover may go unused because they are too far apart in relation to the customary travels of the animals in an area. An animal could travel a long distance to find water if necessary, but it would do little good if the animal was preyed upon along the way. Properly arranging the habitat components across a landscape is important to ensure that each component benefits the species of concern. Accomplishing this goal requires an understanding of the specific habitat needs of the managed species.


Habitat value depends on the quality, quantity, and interspersion of food, water, cover, and living space. To provide complete habitat, all requirements for the target species must be found within its home range.
Upland Wildlife Habitat Management is a resource management system−not a single practice. In order to accomplish the goals of the resource management system, a variety of NRCS practices can be employed to maintain and enhance wildlife habitat.

Planning assistance may apply to two levels of wildlife habitat management. The first is for situations where wildlife production is the primary land use. The second applies to planning units where wildlife is a secondary land use.



Steps to use this guide

  1. Identifies land use and client objective use the General Consideration section.



  1. Using the Planning Consideration section, identified Animal Habitat Degradation _Inadequate Habitat for Fish and Wildlife resource concern. (Where, benchmark and planning level, target specie and others)




  1. Use the Target specie in order to create, protect or enhance the habitat to guarantee their life cycles, providing air, food, cover, water, and spatial requirements. Not all elements may apply to every habitat type. The data included in Appendixes 1 to 10 include specific information regarding several requirements or characteristic for numerous species and conservation practices. This information we can use for develop recommendations or for conduct farm inventory.



GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
The following items must be considered when managing an area for upland wildlife:


  • Purpose of the project, including identification of the wildlife species or groups of species to be supported and the habitat needs that can be met on the managed property;




  • Surrounding landscape and its relationship to the project location; farms located adjacent or near State forest, secondary forest, federal forest, reserve, waterbody are requiring establish a buffer zone or transitional zone;




  • Site conditions such as soils, available water sources, water quality and quantity, and existing vegetation; all habitats will be planned and managed according to soil capabilities;







  • When recommend establish plants include documentation of the essential fish or wildlife species that will be benefited. Encourage plant diversity and native vegetation;




  • The positive and negative impacts that upland wildlife may have on the successful management of the site as well as on surrounding areas. Also consider the potential for attracting nuisance wildlife into an area;




  • The effects of management on plants and plant diversity, including the potential for invasion by undesirable and invasive species;




  • The effects of timing of management on wildlife;




  • The effects of management on non-targeted species, especially threatened and endangered species, and other species of concern; NRCS wildlife habitat planning assistance will not adversely impact a federally listed Threatened, Endangered, or Candidate species or its habitat. This also applies to State Species of Special Concern;




  • The potential use of ecological services in place of mechanical or chemical treatments to achieve management goals (e.g., services provided by grazers);




  • The effects of management actions on compliance with federal and state hunting regulations (e.g., baiting);




  • Other constraints such as recurring costs, availability of equipment, access to the site, regulatory or cost-share program requirements, social effects, and visual aspects such as compatibility with the natural landscape.



PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS:
Planning Criteria
A planning criterion is a quantitative or qualitative method to assess the existing condition of the natural resources on a site to determine whether additional treatment is needed to address an Animal Habitat Degradation _Inadequate Habitat for Fish and Wildlife resource concern.
Planning Consideration
A planning consideration is a description of potential actions or activities that should be considered to help address an identified resource concern and/or to address unintended consequences of an action.
Screening Level_ Screening level criteria are defined, when appropriate, to identify sites with conditions that have little or no probability of needing additional treatment to address the specific resource concern. If the site meets the screening level criteria, then no other assessment is needed to document that planning criteria are met on this site.
Basic Assessment Level_ Basic assessment level criteria are used when a site does not meet screening level criteria, or when no screening level criteria are defined. Assessment levels are also used when formulating and evaluating alternatives.

Make sure that you document in the CPA-52 the resource concern: Animal Habitat Degradation _Inadequate Habitat for Fish and Wildlife. Maintain in the case file the planning tools and document to support the resource concern.


Use one of the following tools for the Basic Assessment level (as is necessary, select the tool according the resource concern as established in National and State Resource Concerns and Planning Criteria included in FOTG Section III):

a. Generalized Caribbean Wildlife Habitat Evaluation Guide (WHEG) according with the land use (crop, pastureland, forest, riparian)

b. Specie-specific wildlife habitat assessment tool

c. Stream Visual Assessment Protocol_2

Element 11: Barrier to movement

Element 12: Fish Habitat Complexity

Element 13: Aquatic invertebrate habitat

d. Document that

Conservation practice or management activities are in place does meet species or guild-specific habitat model thresholds or

Food cover or water are available in quality and extent to support habitat requirements for the species of Interest or

Connectivity of habitat components is adequate to support stable populations of targeted species.

Planning alternatives for wildlife will be based on a habitat appraisal. The Caribbean Area Wildlife Habitat Evaluation Guide (WHEG) will generally be used. These guides evaluate habitat for overall wildlife species diversity. When a habitat appraisal for a particular wildlife species is desired, consult the United States Department of Interior (USDI), Fish and Wildlife Service or local agency.



NOTE: Specific cost-sharing programs or other funding sources may dictate criteria in addition to, or more restrictive than, those specified in this guide.

All underlined items throughout the document are required to meet the Field Office Technical Guide (FOTG), Section IV, Practice Standard and Specification for Upland Wildlife Habitat Management (Code 645).


Wildlife Species Information

The NRCS conservationist’s primary wildlife management tool is the manipulation of vegetative habitat components. Use the information in this section as guidance in the identification and evaluation of the wildlife species requirement, habitats, distribution and for planning to improve or establish habitat.





  1. River Fish

A healthy river support aquatic live such as shrimps, crabs, snails, aquatic insects and insect larvae. In Puerto Rico most of the fish and shrimp river species have a complex life cycles, requiring them to spend a portion of their lives in the estuary or sea, they move downstream or upstream. Dams, water intakes, or river channelization affect most of these species preventing a free movement. Rivers have also been impacted either accidentally or deliberately by discharges that carry toxic substances or increase nutrients and organic load, thus decreasing available oxygen.


The high, steep streams are dominated by shrimp species and the Sirajo goby, a fish. Coastal plain streams are dominated by large shrimp, fish, and eels.

Consider conservation measures such as:



  • Maintaining minimum river flows,

  • Reducing obstructions to migration (dams, water intake) and

  • Maintaining habitat variety (riffles, polls, meanders)

  • Avoid to use agricultural chemical near the river streams

  • Enhance and maintain riparian forest buffer, don’t cut any trees or shrubs in the riparian area

  • Reduce bank erosion

  • Clean up trash in rivers, creek or guts,

  • Don’t release unwanted fish

See Appendix 1 for Native Puerto Rican River Fauna. Table developed by, Beverly Yoshioka, US Fish and Wildlife Service



  1. Birds

The ornithological fauna is one of the representations we have in Puerto Rico of the wildlife. Most bird species are shared with Virgin Island. Birds provide a service for the agricultural activities but not all the time is beneficial; sometimes the birds impact the agricultural yield production. The intensive agricultural also threaten birds. Appendix 2 include the habitat, nest and feeding description for endemic birds. Appendix 3 identify the nesting period. In order to planning to attract birds in the farm consider conservation measures such as:

  • Plant native trees.

  • Plant a variety of flowering trees and shrubs to provide year-round food

for birds.

  • Pruning tree and shrub to promote healthier plants that tend to provide

more flowers and fruits which can be benefit to wildlife.

  • Promote agroforestry conservation practices

  • Provide wildlife scape ramp in the water though

  • Avoid using agricultural chemical in the bird habitat

  • Recommended buffers, hedgerows and similar plant structure



  1. Reptiles

Reptiles work as biological control to several crops because they feeding with invertebrates and insect that are harmful. Also are important component in the food web for their diversity and abundance. Appendix 4 identified endemic reptiles for PR and USVI. The USVI has 16 native and in Puerto Rico there are51 are native species.

Diet consists mainly of terrestrial prey, such as insects.

Conservation Measures:



  • Build brush pile (creating cover, providing additional structure to existing

habitat, enhancing prey availability).

  • Plant Native trees.

  • Avoid the introduction of exotic reptile.

  • Maintain structures using for shelter or protection such as ponds

  • Increase the area of habitat suitable for reptiles.

  • Rocks piled in a sunny spot will provide basking sites.

    • Consider planting shade-tolerant groundcovers under trees and leaving a thick layer of leaves to provide temperature shelter.

  • Stumps, logs, and rock piles in a shady spot can be valuable.

  • Maintain a mosaic of open habitats and scrub.

  • Maintain a diversity vegetation structure.

  • Avoid using agricultural chemical in the reptile habitat.




  1. Amphibian

Amphibians are characterized by being dependent on water for reproduction. They have smooth semi-permeable skin, unlike the scaly skin of reptiles. With some exceptions, amphibians come together at a freshwater source to spawn and their aquatic larvae hatch out of gelatinous eggs to mature in the water.

They are important for agricultural activity. Example coquis represent a biological control of animals that harmful to crops. See Appendix 5 for information regarding several amphibians.
Diet consists mainly of insects, termites and small ants, spiders, and other invertebrates.

Conservation measures



  • Build a rock pile under some shrubs,

  • Avoid to use agricultural chemical,

  • Enhance and maintain riparian forest buffer,

  • Reduce bank erosion,

  • Clean up trash in rivers, creek or guts,

  • Maintain ground terrestrial and leaf-litter,

  • Do not use pesticides: even those considered “safe” by industrial standard might have a potential toxic effects on amphibians,

  • Protect stream waterbody, ponds and guts.




  1. Pollinators

The word pollinator bring to mind honey bees. However, pollinator may include also butterflies, moths, wasps, flies, beetles, ants, bats and even some birds.
A pollinator habitat enhancement include the improvement, restoration, enhancement, or expansion of flower-rich habitat that supports native and/or managed pollinators. This action provide pollen, nectar and nesting sites. Also is very important protect the pollinator form pesticides. For this reason when recommend a conservation practice focus on the fundamentals: forage, nest sites and protection from pesticide. Follow this tree rules 1) diversity; 2) variety of flowers (different size, color and shape) 3. Blooming entire year. Appendix 6 include detail information regarding bees and their relation with several crops Appendix 7 include several plants that will be recommended in order to provide habitat for support bees.


  1. Bees


To establish bee pollinator habitat:
Recommend native plant, flowering legumes, trees or forbs, in grazing lands consider long rest periods for allows for pollinators and plant recovery
Plant a variety of flowering forbs, legumes, trees and shrubs to provide year-round food for pollinator.

Locate pollinator habitat where chemical drift will not be a concern.


Avoid spraying herbicides or insecticides on field borders, filter strips, hedgerows and field windbreaks.
Select undisturbed areas, the best site for habitat area on the least erosive portion of the field, do not install pollinator habitat across areas of concentrated water flow

Implementing no-till farming to reduce disturbance of ground-nesting insects, especially for cropland adjacent to diverse herbaceous or woody cover.


Reduce or eliminate the use of insecticides. If possible select pesticides formulations that are less toxic to pollinators (for example, liquid forms are generally less toxic than granular powders, which are less noxious than dust) or break down faster. Avoid microencapsulated formulations, since they mimic pollen. Choose ground applications over aerial spraying. Time spray operations very early or late in the day when pollinators are less active.
Provide woody structure such as downed tree structures, make so an artificial nest site, using soil removed from drainage ditches can be piled to create potential bee ground-nesting habitat.


Photos Sara G. Prado
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Photos of a nest of Xylocopa mordax (cigarron);   second photo shows the interior of the nest - each cell holds a larva and a pollen ball; third photo shows a larva with its pollen ball and nectar.

  1. Bats

Bats are beneficial to agricultural activity. Bat species could provide pollination and pest management. Appendix 8 has a summary of bats species. The book Biodiversidad de Puerto Rico on chapter 4 identifies some species that provide food for bats: Higuillos (Piper sp.), Maria (Calophyllum calaba), Moca (Andira inermis), Mameyuelo (Colubrina arborescens), Maga (Thespesia grandiflora), Jagüey (Ficus sp.), Berenjena cimarrona (Solanum torvum), Yagrumo (Cecropia schreberiana), Ausubo (Manilkara bidentata), Palma de sierra (Prestoea montana)

  1. Plant Species for Wildlife

Many tree and shrub species are excellent sources of food for wildlife. Proper selection of plant material can meet both the aesthetic needs of the land owner and the food and shelter needs of wildlife. When recommend to establish plants, include documentation of the essential fish or wildlife species that will be benefited.


Encourage plant diversity and native vegetation that occur in the area. It is extremely important to recommend native species. Native plants provide shelter and food for diversity of wildlife are adapted to local soil, rainfall and temperature conditions, and have developed natural defenses to many insects and diseases, require minimal irrigation, flourish without fertilizers, promotes local biological diversity, and are unlikely to become weedy.
Several fruit crop such as citrus, papaya, soursop and others are suitable food for wildlife, however an establishment of monoculture crop is not consider adequate manage for wildlife. Is necessary diversity ( Example:5 citrus trees, 5 soursop, 5 papayas or others), a multi-storied plant canopy of forbs, as well as juvenile and mature shrubs and trees, to provide a variety of above-ground habitat for birds and other wildlife, and below-ground habitat for burrowing animals and soil organisms.
Appendix 9 identifies some plant species to consider for wildlife habitat. This list does not include all options. The objective of the list is provide a guide to use for inventory the existing plants or select plants to establish, enhance or create habitat.



  1. Conservation Practices

Application of conservation practices is generally considered to be beneficial for wildlife; other, practices can reduce wildlife food and cover when applied without consideration for wildlife habitat. The effect of conservation practice installation on wildlife habitat largely depends on practice selection, design and plant species used.
Planners that provide technical assistance to land users need to assess the impact of practice installation and explain to their clients the effect of a planned system of conservation practices on wildlife. When provided with this information, clients are able to make informed decisions about their land. See Appendix 10 for a summary the effect for a wildlife for each practice that have important benefit and those that have negative impact for a wildlife.

Appendix 1_ NATIVE PUERTO RICAN RIVER FAUNA 1



SPECIES

Group

LH

Use

Preferred Habitat

Feeding Type

Atya innocous

Shrimp

A

E

mid-high river

filter/deposit

A. lanipes

Shrimp

A

E

mid-high river

filter/deposit

A. scabra

Shrimp

A

E

mid-high river

filter

Micratya poeyi

Shrimp

A




mid-high river

deposit/filter

Potimirim americana

Shrimp

A




low-mid river

deposit/filter

P. mexicana

Shrimp

A




low-mid river

deposit/filter

P. glabra ?

Shrimp

A




low-mid river

deposit/filter

Janga serrei

Shrimp

A




low river

deposit/filter

Xiphocaris elongata

Shrimp

A

B

whole river

deposit, omnivore

Macrobrachium carcinus

Shrimp

A

E

whole river

predator

M acanthurus

Shrimp

A

E

low river

predator

M faustinum

Shrimp

A

B

entire river

predator

M creriulatum

Shrimp

A

B

whole river

predator

M heterochirus

Shrimp

A

E

whole river

predator

Epilobocera sinuatifrons

Crab

NM

E

whole river

predator

Anguilla rostrate/American eel

Fish

C

E

whole river

predator

Awaous tajasica

Fish

A

E

low-mid river

predator

Eleotris Pisonis/morón

Fish

A

B

low river

predator

Gobiomorus dormitar/bigmouth sleeper/guabina

Fish

A

E

whole river

predator

Sicydium plumieri/sirajo goby/cetí

Fish

A

E

mid-high river

herbivore

Agonostomus monticola/ mountain mullet/dajao

Fish

A

E

whole river

omnivore

  1. Source Puerto Rico River Fauna , Beverly Yoshioka, US Fish and Wildlife Service

A - amphidromus, adult life and reproduction in the river, eggs or larvae released to move downstream and develop in the estuary, juveniles migrate back upstream.

C - catadromous, adults migrate to ocean to reproduce, larvae enter into rivers and develop

NM- non-migratory, larval stages passed in the eggs

E - edible, fished for sport and artesanally for human consumption

B - used for bait



Habitat preferences do not consider obstacles such as dams or high falls.


Appendix 2_ Characteristics of Birds
Scientific (Spanish/English Name )

Photo

Identification

Habitat

Nest

Feeding

Agelaius xanthomus (Mariquita de Puerto Rico/Yellow-shouldered blackbird)

a


Black bird with yellow "shoulder" patches, and a pointed bill

Open, dry forests and mangroves of southwestern Puerto Rico.

Cup nest in mangroves, palms, and other trees or in a tree cavity or nest box.

Insects and seeds. Prey includes weevils, other beetles, caterpillars, moths, crickets, earwigs, wasps, flies, spiders, and occasional snails and seeds.

Amazona vittata (Cotorra de Puerto Rico/Puerto Rican parrot)

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Green with a red forehead and white eye ring

Yunque Forest, Rio Abajo Forest (Utuado y Arecibo) and Maricao Forest

A large tree cavity in a tree trunk, usually palo colorado tree (Cyrilla racemiflora).

Seeds, fruits and flowers, important food tree: sierra palm (Prestoea montana).

Anthracothorax viridis (Zumbador verde de P.R/Green Mango)


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Hummingbird with a curved bill. Both sexes are green above and below, with a bluish tail. The intensity of the color depends on the sun’s angle.

Coffee plantations, forest central and western mountains.

Cup-shaped nest that is coated with lichens, typically placed on a tree limb.

Insects (such as beetles, flies, lantern flies), spiders, and flower nectar.

Caprimulgus noctitherus (Guabairo/Puerton Rican Nightjat)

d

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Night bird that is well camouflaged with mottled brown plumage.

Dry, semideciduous forest with open understory and dense leaf litter layer on the ground for nesting, Forest areas of southwestern Puerto Rico.

Normal clutch and these are laid directly on the leaf litter on the forest floor beneath the brush.

Nocturnal flying insects

Chlorostilbon maugaeus (Zumbadorcito de Puerto Rico/Puerto Rican Emerald)

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Body is iridescent green, with a black, forked tail. The lower bill is flesh-colored or red with a black tip. The female is light below and has a white-tipped tail.

Mountain forest, it is also found irregularly on the coast (drier south).

Tiny cup made of lichens, tree ferns, and other plant material.

Insects (lantern flies, mosquitoes, and other fly species), spiders, and nectar.

Scientific (Spanish/English Name )

Photo

Identification

Habitat

Nest

Feeding

Coccyzus vieilloti (Pájaro Bobo Mayor/Puerto Rican Lizard-Cuckoo)

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A large forest bird with a gray breast and rufous belly. It has a red eye ring, a long tail with prominent white spots underneath, and a long, relatively straight bill.

Thick forests, coffee plantations limestone hills, and even suburban neighborhoods adjacent to dense vegetation.

Twig platform in a tree or bush.

Small lizards, large spiders and insects spiders and insects, including cicadas, beetles, stick insects, and caterpillars.

Dendroica adelaidae (Reinita Mariposera/ Adelaide's Warbler)

g

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Underparts bluish-gray, throat and breast yellow, eyebrow stripe yellow or white. Female is similar but the crown stripe edge is less pronounced and less white in tail.

Dry, lowland forests and some moist forest areas, with tangles of vines and thickets, especially in the southwest and the northern limestone hills.

Finely woven cup-shaped located in a tree or dense thicket, cup placed 3-20 feet high in a tree or shrub.

Lantern flies, grasshoppers, caterpillars, stink bugs, flies, weevils, other beetles and spiders.

Dendroica angelae (Reinita del Bosque Enano/Elfin-woods Warbler)

h

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Black dorsally, white ventrally. White eyebrow stripe, white patches on ears and neck, incomplete eyeing. Immature is grayish-green dorsally.

Mountain cloud forest and lower montane forest from 370-1030 meters in elevation (Sierra de Luquillo, Siera de Cayey, Toro Negro and Maricao State Forest)

Tightly woven cup in aerial leaf litter trapped in vegetation or vines.

Insects

Icterus portoricencis (Calandria de Puerto Rico/Puerto Rican oriole)

i

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The adult is black, with a yellow wing patch, and yellow patches on the rump and on the underside at the base of the tail. Immature birds are olive green.

Dry and moist forests, including shade-grown coffee plantations, citrus orchards, mangroves, palm groves, urban gardens.

Fibrous, hanging nest and is often placed in a palm tree.

Eats mostly insects (earwigs, crickets, grasshoppers, roaches, cicadas, weevils, caterpillars, ants and wasps). Also eats spiders, and consume forest fruits and juices of overripe oranges.

Scientific (Spanish/English Name )

Photo

Identification

Habitat

Nest

Feeding

Loxigilla portoricensis (Come ñame de Puerto Rico/Puerto Rican bullfinch)

j

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A thick-billed, black, with large reddish patches above the eyes, on the throat, and under the base of the tail. The female is slightly smaller and duller colored than the male.

Moist and dry forest with thick brushy areas, and coffee plantations (not found from Fajardo to Ceiba).

Open or domed with an entrance in the side.

Seeds, fruits and buds.

Megascops nudipes (Múcaro Común/Puerto Rican Screech-Owl)

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White "eyebrows"; dark brown above and white below, with dark vertical streaking on the breast

Wooded areas, dense tree stands. Prefers woods with a well-developed understory, plus large hardwood trees or palms for nest cavities.

Tree cavity, hole in a tree.

Large insects (crickets, grasshoppers, roaches, beetles, moths, caterpillars).

Melanerpes portoricensis (Carpintero de Puerto Rico/Puerto Rican woodpecker)

l

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Solid black upper parts, with a bright red throat and breast, and a white forehead. The lower abdomen and flanks are buffy colored. Its white rump patch is striking in flight. The female has less red below than the male.

Forest, coffee plantations, mangroves, palm grove, parks and gardens.

Nest cavities are usually high in trees.

Insects, lizards, scorpions, frogs and several native tree fruits.

Myiarchus antillarum (Jui/Puerto Rican flycatcher)

m

Dark brown back and light undersides. There is sometimes a slight hint of two faint, buff wing bars.

Shade coffee plantations and lower elevation forests, especially in coastal scrub forests.

Tree hole

Weevils, caterpillars, bees, wasps, dragonflies, and hemipteran insects, wild fruit and berries, occasionally snails, lizards and frogs.

Scientific (Spanish/English Name )

Photo

Identification

Habitat

Nest

Feeding

Nesospingus speculifrus (Llorosa de P.R. /Puerto Rican tanager)

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A noisy forest bird with an olive-brown back, darker on top of the head and white below with dusky stripeson the breast and conspicuous white spot in the wing.The adult has a small, square, white wing patch.

Mountain forests, shade coffee plantations, and gardens at higher elevations.

Cup-shaped made of roots, vines and strands of fungus, lined with strips of palm leaves.

Insects, (moths, caterpillars, beetles, grasshoppers, ants), spiders, snails, and lizards) fruit and some seeds.

Spindalis portoricensis (Reina Mora/Puerto Rican Spindalis)

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Male has a white stripe in the black head, yellow ventrally, reddish-orange neck and breast. Female is olive-brown dorsally, dull white with gray streaks ventrally.

Forests, suburban gardens, and plantations with fruiting plants

Ranging from a small cup, to bulky, deeper nests.

Berries and fruits such as figs, blackberries and Cecropia fruits, but will consume some aphids and other insects.

Todus mexicanus (San Pedrito de Puerto Rico/Puerto Rican Tody)

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Small bright green compact body, red throat and bill, yellow flanks

Forest types with dense thickets and vines, as long as there are earthen banks or road cuts for nesting, arid area in the south.

Excavates a curved burrow with a terminal nest chamber into an earth bank.


Insects, including katydids, grasshoppers, crickets, earwigs, dragonflies, flies (Diptera), and beetles (Coleoptera), as well as spiders, and occasional small lizards and fruits.

Vireo latimeri (Bien-Te-Veo de Puerto Rico/Puerto Rican vireo)

q

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Gray head, white breast and light yellow belly. There are white crescents above and below the eye.

Mountain forest, coffee plantation, coastal karst and thorn forest with vine tangles.

Deep, cup-shaped, low to moderate elevation.

Insects (grassshoper, cicadas, beetles, aphid and caterpillars).

Sources: Puerto Rico's Birds in Photographs, Mark W. Oberle, A Guide to the Birds of Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands, Herbert A. Raffaele.

Aves de Puerto Rico, Virgilio Biaggi, AvesPR.org, Sociedad Ornitológica Puertorriqueña (SOPI, BirdLife in Puerto Rico)


Photos


a) G. Lasley,Puerto Rico's Birds in Photographs, Mark W. Oberle

b) US Fish and Wildlife Service

c) José R. Almodóvar, SOPI

d) Alcides L Morales _SOPI

e) José A. Colon, SOPI

f ) José A. Colon, SOPI

g) Gabriel Lugo, SOPI

h) Gloria Archilla, SOPI

i) PWSantana 2012 http://avespr.org/

j) Gloria Archilla_SOPI

k) Raúl Cruz Tirado_SOPI

l) G08 Barceloneta _ SOPI http://www.avesdepuertorico.org/

m) G Beaton, PR Birds in Photographs, Mark W Oberle

n) G08 Maricao PR _ SOPI

o) G08, Morovis, SOPI

p) L. Miranda, SOPI



q) Jose A Colon SOPI webpage (http://www.avesdepuertorico.org/bienteveo.html)


Appendix 3_Endemic Birds Nesting Period

Month

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Spanish name

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

Agelaius xanthomus (Mariquita de Puerto Rico/Yellow-shouldered blackbird)

 

 

 

 

l

l

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amazona vittata (Cotorra de Puerto Rico/Puerto Rican parrot)

 

l

l

l

l

l

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anthracothorax viridis (Zumbador verde de P.R/Green Mango)

l

l

 




 

 

 

 

 

l

l

l

Caprimulgus noctitherus (Guabairo/Puerton Rican Nightjat)

 

l

l

l

l

l

l

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorostilbon maugaeus (Zumbadorcito de Puerto Rico/Puerto Rican Emerald)

 

l

l

l

l

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coccyzus vieilloti (Pájaro Bobo Mayor/Puerto Rican Lizard-Cuckoo)

 

l

l

l

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dendroica adelaidae (Reinita Mariposera/ Adelaide's Warbler

 

 

l

l

l

l

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dendroica angelae (Reinita del Bosque Enano/Elfin-woods Warbler)

l

l

l

l

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

l

Icterus portoricencis (Calandria de Puerto Rico/Puerto Rican oriole)

 

 

l

l

l

l

 

 

 

 

 

 

Loxigilla portoricensis (Come ñame de Puerto Rico/Puerto Rican bullfinch)

 

l

l

l

l

l

 

 

 

 

 

 

Megascops nudipes (Múcaro Común/Puerto Rican Screech-Owl)

 

 

 

l

l

l

 

 

 

 

 

 

Melanerpes portoricensis (Carpintero de Puerto Rico/Puerto Rican woodpecker)

l

l

l

l

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Myiarchus antillarum (Jui/Puerto Rican flycatcher

 

l

l

l

l

l

l

 

 

 

 

 

Nesospingus speculifrus (Llorosa de P.R. /Puerto Rican tanager)

l

l

l

l

l

l

l

l

 

 

 

 

Spindalis portoricensis (Reina Mora/Puerto Rican Spindalis)

l

l

l

l

l

l

 

 

 

 

 

 

Todus mexicanus (San Pedrito de Puerto Rico/Puerto Rican Tody)

 

l

l

l

l




 

 

 

 

 

 

Vireo latimeri (Bien-Te-Veo de Puerto Rico/Puerto Rican vireo)

 

 

 

l

l

l

 

 

 

 

 

 








































Sources:





































Puerto Rico's Birds in Photographs, Mark W. Oberle



















A Guide to the Birds of Puerto Rico and Virgin Islans, Herbert A. Raffaele

Aves de Puerto Rico, Virgilio Biaggi




































Appendix 4_Charateritics of Reptiles

Scientific (Spanish/English) Name

Habitat-Range

Trachemys s. stejnegeri (Hicotea, Jicotea)

Lives in ponds, lakes, reservoirs, rivers and streams.Laguna Tortuguero,(vega Baja) Wildlife Refuge Humacao, Caño Tiburones, Irrigation canals Guanica, Mans made ponds in Isabela and Piñones. Feeds in water but sunbath are taken on exposed rocks or trees trunks lying near water edge. Feeds on both animal and vegetable (snails, shrimps, pice of fish, lettuce or some other tender leaf)

Sphaerodactylus gaigeae (Salamanquita de Pandura/Gaige's Dwarf Gecko)

Under leaf litter, rock and logs in coffee plantations. Sierra de Panduras between Maunabo and Yabucoa, Cayo Santiago, Vieques, Isla Piñeros

Sphaerodactylus klauberi (Salamanquita Negra/Klauber's Dwarf Gecko)

It is an inhabitant of interior, upland moist habitats occurring mostly in leaf-litter, and it’s present in tabonuco forest type. Carite, Toro Negro and Río Abajo state forests.

Sphaerodactylus levinsi (Salamanquita del Desecheo/Desecheo Gecko)

It has been observed in areas densely forested with Bursera simaruba and Amyris elemifera, where the floor consisted of loose soil and a dense layer of leaves and forest litter over it. Is only found in the Island of Desecheo

Sphaerodactylus macrolepis (Salamanquita Común/Common Dwarf Gecko )

Moist forests but also semi-xeric coastal coconut groves in northeastern Puerto Rico. Vieques, Culebra and their keys, and the US Virgin Islands. Central Mountain Range at 2,800 ft., being also identified at Boquerón, Susúa, and Playa de Ponce.

Sphaerodactylus micropithecus (Salamanquita de Monito/Monito Gecko)

Xeric scrub vegetation which consists of cacti, shrubs, and stunted trees. Is only found in Monito Island.

Sphaerodactylus monensis (Salamanquita de la Mona/Mona Dwarf Gecko)

Under coral rock, under palm trash and during the daytime over leaf covered floor of mahogany and Casuarina forests. It is considered a xerophilic to semimesophilic species. Is only found in Mona Island.

Sphaerodactylus nicholsi (Salamanquita Pigmea/Puerto Rican Crescent Sphaero)

This species has been found in a range of habitats including both xeric and coastal forests, open areas and beaches, plantations, semi-evergreen ravines, and grass and brush scrubland. Individuals of this species are known to occur in anthropogenic environments, such as gardens.Puerto Rico (Puerto Rico (main island)) This species is found along the southern, western and north-central coasts of Puerto Rico

Sphaerodactylus roosevelti (Salamanquita de Roosevelt/Roosevelt’S Dwarf Gecko)

It is considered a xerophilic species inhabiting dry forests. This species is found along the south west Puerto Rico, Caja de Muertos and Vieques islands

Sphaerodactylus townsendi (Salamanquita del sureste/Townsend'S Dwarf Gecko)

Xerophilic to semi-mesophilic, and inhabits leaf litter, decomposing logs, and palm trash Is found in Cabezas de San Juan in northeastern Puerto Rico, south-central coast west to Playa de Ponce, Caja de Muertos Island, Piñeros Island, Platillo or Morillito Island, and Vieques Island.

Ameiva alboguttata (Siguana de la Mona/Puerto Rican Ground Lizard)

Xeric environments, more commonly encountered on sandy soils in somewhat arid open areas. Is only found in Mona Island.

Ameiva desechensis (Siguana del Desecheo/Puerto Rican Ground Lizard)

This species prefers xerophitic environments, more commonly encountered on sandy soils in somewhat arid open areas. Is only found in Desecheo Island

Ameiva exsul (Siguana Común/Puerto Rican Ground Lizard)

Lawns, sugar cane fields, vacant lots, roadsides, city parks and plazas, around human habitations, and along mangrove border. Is found in Puerto Rico mainland, offshore islands Vieques and Culebra and many cays. Has been observed in the US Virgin Islands.

Scientific (Spanish/English) Name

Habitat-Range

Ameiva wetmorei (Siguana de Rabo Azul/Blue-Tailed Ground Lizard)

It has been classified as xerophilic. Found in southwestern Puerto Rico including Magueyes, Caja de Muertos, and Morrillito islands.

Diploglossus pleei (Culebra de Cuatro Patas/Puerto Rican Galliwasp)

Deep forest, widely distributed in Puerto Rico,at the Cambalache State Forest, coffee plantations, and other mesic wooded situations such as borders of pastures and sugarcane fields, limestone ridges and semi-dry haystack hills.

Anolis cooki (Lagartijo del Seco/Cook's Anole)

Dry forest and coastal scrub in portions of the subtropical dry forest life zone. It has also been associated with dry evergreen seasonal woodland found in the lowlands of southwestern Puerto Rico (Cabo Rojo to Guayanilla, and Caja de Muertos Island).

Anolis cristatellus (Lagartijo Común/Puerto Rican crested anole)

Open areas such as open forests, fields and mostly deforested areas. It is commonly found in roadsides, poles, and fences. It has been observed in both shaded and sunny coffee plantations. Distributed in mainland Puerto Rico and many of its off shore islands, including Vieques, Culebra and Culebrita.

Anolis cuvieri (Lagarto VerdePuerto/ Rican Giant Anole)

Evergreen formations, prefer the shady, cool coffee plantations at intermediate elevations such areas as close to the coast up to the upper Central and Luquillo Mountain Ranges.

Anolis desechensis (Lagartijo de Desecheo/Desecheo Anole)

Xerophilic species, only lives in the Island of Desecheo Island.

Anolis evermanni (Lagartijo Verde/Emerald Anole)

Prefer mesic and deep wet forest habitats. It occurs on shrubs and low trees in coffee plantations and where palms occur. It may also be found in thick stems of bamboo. It has been consistently observed in forests dominated by tabonuco (Dacryodes excelsa), and sierra palm (Prestonea montana). It is found in Maricao, Mayagüez, Dorado, and at Tortuguero Lagoon, Sierra de Panduras, Central Mountain Range, Sierra de Luquillo

Anolis gundlachi (Lagartijo Barba amarilla/Yellow-Bearded Anole)

Distributed throughout Puerto Rico but is restricted to the dense forest, coffee belt" and higher forested areas, although it reaches the coastal plain in some places. A trunk-crown species, it also perches on shrubs.

Anolis krugi (Lagartijo Jardinero de Montaña/Upland Grass Anole)

Mountains where it prefers areas that are open but also shady, low bushes, vines and ferns alongside roads or trails. It can be found in the mountain ranges of Cayey and Pandura along the south coast, near Guayama.

Anolis monensis (Lagartijo de la Mona/Mona Anole)

It is a trunk-ground anoline that is more arboreal in its habits than A. cristatellus. However, it seems to occur also in open pastures. Found in Mona and Monito islands

Anolis occultus (Lagartijo Pigmeo/Puerto Rican Pygmy Anole)

Mainland Puerto Rico, semi-dry type of vegetation. It may be found in the forest canopy but it may also occupy peripheral vegetation, including bushes, ferns, upper surface of broad leafs, on the ground, and on the outer leafs of bromeliads on the forest floor. Found Maricao State Forest, El Yunque, El Verde, the Cayey Mountain Range, and at haystack area west of Manatí.

Anolis poncensis (Lagartijo Jardinero de Ponce/Dryland Grass Anole)

Subtropical dry forest, and it can be found in pastures, exposed grassy areas, and shrub areas. Found in southwest Puerto Rico from the towns of Cabo Rojo to Salinas, or perhaps Guayama, and it is also found on the Coamo hills. It is also present in Caja de Muertos Island

Anolis pulchellus (Lagartijo Jardinero/ Common Grass Anole)

Prefers grasses, also occur in bushes and plants but seldom on trees. It has been observed in coffee plantations and on Coccoloba shrubs of coastal regions. It is considered a xerophilic to semi-mesophilic lizard. Puerto Rico and its adjacent islands of Vieques and Culebra, abundant on St. Thomas.

Anolis roosevelti (Lagartijo Gigante de Culebra/Culebra Island Giant)

Forests of tall gumbo limbo (Bursera) and Ficus trees, where it forages for fruits on the branches (USFWS 1982). Culebra Island, has probably become extinct.

Scientific (Spanish/English) Name

Habitat-Range

Anolis stratulus (Lagartijo Manchado/Barred Anole)

It is associated with xeric to mesic environments. It is considered trunk-crown lizard that is most frequently observed on tree trunks, although it may also be seen on grasses. Puerto Rico, Vieques and Culebra islands. It is also present in some of the U.S. Virgin Islands.

Cyclura cornuta stejnegeri (Iguana de la Mona)

Is restricted to Mona Island.

Amphisbaena bakeri (Culebrita ciega de Baker/Baker's Legless Lizard)

Rotten logs along edge of clearings with short weedy vegetation. It also inhabits grassy pastures in doline bottoms, central, coffee plantations, western portion of the Island.

Amphisbaena caeca (Culebrita ciega común/Puerto Rican Worm Lizard)

If occurs throughout the Island (except perhaps the arid southwest, and up to elevation of at least 2200 ft.), in shaded habitats including upland coffee plantations, coastal Terminalia woods, mesic woods adjacent to pasture, exposed ravine side, shady ravine woods. Individuals of this species have also been seen in Cocos plantations 100 yards away from shore.

Amphisbaena schmidti (Culebrita ciega de Schmidt/Schmidt's Worm lizard)

Acacia scrub, at exposed edges of coffee plantations, Psidium scrub at rim of doline pasture. If occurs in the main island and it is mostly concentrated in the northwestern limestone region. It has been collected in the limestone section from the towns of Aguadilla to Dorado and south to Utuado.

Amphisbaena xera (Culebrita ciega del seco/North American Worm Lizard)

This species has been observed in xeric woods with leaf litter cover, mesic woods with spiny palm Acronomia and transitional areas between xeric lowlands and mesic highlands (Puerto Rico southwest and Caja de Muertos Island).

Typhlops granti (Víbora de Grant/Grant'S Blind Snake)

Subtropical dry forest where it usually occurs under rocks and trunks. Has been observed in the southwestern Puerto Rico, (la Parguera east to vicinity of Guánica and Caja de Muertos Island). It has also been collected at Campamento Santiago.

Typhlops hypomethes (Víbora universitaria/Blind Snak)

Usually move through yielding soil through paths of least resistance but do not create tunnels.

Typhlops monensis (Víbora de la Mona/Mona Blind Snake)

Usually move through yielding soil through paths of least resistance but do not create tunnels, endemic species in Mona Island.

Typhlops platycephalus (Víbora decabeza aplastada/Flat-Headed Blindsnak)

Occurs in open and semi-open habitat, such as areas containing pasture bordered by forested limestone hills with numerous limestone rocks. They occur under rocks in pasture-edge habitats. Is the most widely distributed blind snake in Puerto Rico

Typhlops rostellatus (Víbora de pico/Puerto Rican Wetland Blind Snake)

Coffee plantations, rocky hillsides, open pastures, forested and upland habitats, and can be found under fallen logs and rocks, widely distributed in the northern part of the island.

Epicrates inornatus (Culebrón/Puerto Rican Boa)

It occupies a wide range of habitats, from wet montane forest to dry forest environments, including offshore cays and pastureland with patches of exotic trees.

Epicrates monensis (Culebrón de la Mona/Mona Boa)

Subtropical dry forest, and it’s adapted to xeric environments, restricted to Mona Island

Arrhyton exiguum (Culebra de jardín/Ground Snake)

Prefers the forest floor under rocks, leaf litter or dead logs and branches in lower to middle sections of montane wet and dry forests. It also may often occur in urban and rural garden settings. Arrhyton exiguum was reclassified taxonomically to Magliophis exiguum by Hedges et al., (2009). Widely distributed across Puerto Rico,It is also present on St. Thomas and St. Johns, but it is absent from St. Croix (Platenberg et al. 2005).

Alsophis portoricensis (Culebra corredora/ Puerto Rican Racer)

Is a diurnal (active during the daytime) and terrestrial (ground dwelling) snake, although be found in trees. Occurs throughout the main island of Puerto Rico from coastal plain to forested middle elevations. Also occurs in Virgin Island.

Appendix 5_ Characteristic of Amphibians



Scientific (Spanish/English) Name

Habitat- Range

Eleutherodactylus antillensis(Coquí churi/Antillean Frog)

Mainland Puerto Rico, and the islands of Vieques, Culebra pastures and other open lowland terrains. It is also found in low vegetation in urban areas, and at the edge of forests.

Eleutherodactylus brittoni (Coquí de las yerbas/Grass Coqui)

Island wide distribution found in exposed grasslands, tall grass prairies, in pastures along roads, particularly in areas exposed to the sun, forest edges at lower elevations, and young sugar cane fields.

Eleutherodactylus cochranae (Coquí pitito/Whistling Frog)

Throughout Puerto Rico and appears to have a peripheral distribution. It is also present in Isla Vieques, Isla Culebra, U.S. and Virgin Islands. Found in banana plants, in low plants and bushes, on cacti, on grass, but also in the upper reaches of trees.

Eleutherodactylus cooki (Coquí guajón/Rock Coqui)

strictly associated with caves formed by large boulders of granite rock known as “guajonales” but it also occurs in streams containing rocks and surrounded by secondary forest

Eleutherodactylus coqui (Coquí común/Common Coqui)

Widespread throughout Puerto Rico. It has been introduced in Vieques and Culebra islands, and also in St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. The ground up to the canopy. It is, however, uncommon in the southwest region

Eleutherodactylus eneidae (Coquí de Eneida/Eneida's Coqui)

It is now presumed extinct.

Eleutherodactylus gryllus (Coquí grillo/Cricket Coqui)

Most common in forests such as Luquillo, Cayey, and Maricao.It is also found in banana plantations. It makes use of bromeliads and mosses on rocks.

Eleutherodactylus hedricki (Coquí de Hedrick/Tree-Hole Frog)

Found in the interior uplands, Reserva Forestal de Toro Negro and vicinity, El Verde, the west flank of El Yunque, and the Bosque Experimental de Luquillo.Is mostly associated to mesic broadleaf forest. Its habitat is limited to heavy forest and it is not found in the forest edges. It is typically associated with trunk holes to which it retreats during the daytime.

Eleutherodactylus jasperi (Coquí dorado/Golden Coqui)

It is now possibly extinct. Only ovoviviparous anuran amphibian of the New World. Its distribution range includes Carite Forest and Cayey Mountain Range, preferring xeric forest types

Eleutherodactylus karlschmidti (Coquí palmeado)

It possibly extinct.

Eleutherodactylus locustus (Coquí martillito/Warty Coqui)

Observed in the southeastern mountains east of Cayey, east of Carite State Forest, El Yunque region and the western part of Panduras Mountain Range. It is found in upland mesic broadleaf forest, but also in dwarf forest above 700 m. It seems to prefer dense forest openings and forest borders such as the ones along roads and trails. It occurs in low bushes, grasses or ferns and mossy trunks.

Eleutherodactylus monensis (Coquí de La Mona/Mona Coqui)

Observed on and within leaf litter and fallen vegetation, on Ipomea pescaprae leaves, and palm fronds close to the floor, on the walls of shallow caves containing water, sinkholes and manmade water reservoirs

Eleutherodactylus portoricensis(Coquí de la montaña/Puerto Rican Coqui)

This species inhabits mountain forests (Maricao, El Yunque, Carite, Toro Negro), such as mesic upland broadleaf forests, and it can be found in shrubs, palms, herbaceous plants, bromeliads, tree holes, and under rocks, trunks, roots and leafage.

Scientific (Spanish/English) Name

Habitat- Range

Eleutherodactylus richmondi (Coquí Caoba/Ground Coqui)

This frog inhabits wet forest of the island interior, and mesic wooded situations in general (Jaicoa Mountain Range, Guarionex Mountainsand south to Quebrada de los Cedros creek, Maricao, Toro Negro, Cayey, and Sierra Pandura). Under rocks, logs, dried mud and trash where it retreats during the day.

Eleutherodactylus unicolor (Coquí duende/Burrowing Coqui)

Is found in the elfin forest or dwarf forest of El Yunque,under moss, rocks and roots in elfin forest.

Eleutherodactylus wightmanae/Coquí melodioso

Restricted to the interior forested uplands; Yunque National Forest and the Guanica State Forest.

Leptodactylus albilabris (Ranita de labio blanco/White-Lipped Frog)

This species is native to Puerto Rico and United States Virgin Islands (IUCN et al. 2004).It is considered a terrestrial and semiaquatic species that is seldom observed far from streams, ditches,

Peltophryne lémur (Sapo concho/ Puerto Rican Crested Toad)

Is endemic presently in a single large population in the southwest coast and a few small populations on the north coast. Threats to this species include filling and drainage of its breeding sites and direct loss of adults and their habitat during land development.

Introduced species

 

Rana catesbeiana -- rana mujidora o sapo toro

 

Rana grylio-rana cerdo o rana grillo

 

Osteopilus septentrionalis; rana platanera

 

Hyla cinerea-hila verde;

 

Scinax rubra; hila inquieta

 

Bufo marinus - sapo común/Giant Toad;

The Giant Toad can be found in mainland Puerto Rico and in Vieques Island. It was introduced to control sugar cane pests in the 1920's

Kataloq: references -> public
references -> Research article
references -> Cqbk genişləndirilməsi Layihəsi, Azərbaycan Ətraf mühitə və sosial sahəyə təsirin qiymətləndirilməsi
references -> Хронический тонзиллит (книги и статьи из периодических изданий)
references -> References for Mussolini’s Maiden, Mothers, and ‘Manly Men’: Gender Politics in Fascist Italy
references -> Feedback to beitraining
references -> Cordia africana
references -> References of the oral and posters presentations of the First World Congress on Root and Tuber Crops, Nanning, Guangxi, China, January 18-22, 2016
public -> Ecological Site Description Ecological Site Characteristics Site Identification
public -> Ecological Site Description Ecological Site Characteristics Site Identification

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