Alfred Adler

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Alfred Adler

Neo-Freudian but disagreed with Freud’s emphasis on the unconscious, instinctual drives, and the importance of sexuality and had a more positive view

Believed we are social creatures governed by social urges, we strive for superiority

Talked about how people attempt to compensate for their shortcomings

Mary Ainsworth

Secure attachment- stable and positive

Anxious-Ambivalent- desire to be with a parent and some resistance to being reunited

Avoidant- tendency to avoid reunion with parent

Gordon Allport

Trait Theorist

Central- the core traits that characterize an individual personality

Secondary- traits that are inconsistent or relatively superficial

Cardinal- so basic that all of a person’s activities relate to it

Solomon Asch

Studied conformity- subjects were shown lines of different lengths and asked which of the lines matched an example line that they were shown, his accomplices gave the wrong answer to see how the actual subject would react to finding that their opinion differed from the group opinion, subjects conformed in about 1/3 of the trials

John William Atkinson

Pioneered the study of human motivation, achievement, and behavior

Albert Bandura

Studied observational learning in children using a Bobo Doll

Sandra Bem

Bem Sex Role Inventory to study femininity, masculinity, androgyny

Rigid gender stereotypes greatly restrict behavior

Studied gender roles

Eric Berne

Transactional Analysis- has elements of cognitive, humanist, and psychoanalytic approaches

Alfred Binet

Designed the first intelligence test made up of “intellectual” questions and problems, results were based on average scores for children in each age group

His test was revised by Lewis Terman and others at Stanford and made into the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, which were used in North America


Child development

Attachment theory

James Cattell

First professor of psychology in the United States, helped establish psychology as a legitimate science

Raymond Cattell

16 Trait Personality Inventory

Surface traits appear in clusters, 16 source traits

Factor analysis

Jean-Martin Charcot

Known as the founder of modern neurology, taught and influenced Freud

Noam Chomsky

Proposed an innate language acquisition device

John Dollard & Neal Miller

Habits make up the structure of personality and are governed by drive, cue, response and reward

Hermann Ebbinghaus

Forgetting curve

Paul Ekman

Pioneer of the study of emotions and their relation to facial expressions

Developmental psychologist

Albert Ellis

Cognitive therapist, founder of rational emotive behavioral therapy which attempts to change irrational beliefs that cause emotional problem

Erik Erikson

Proposed that development occurs in stages, each stage confronts a person with a new developmental task

Trust v. Mistrust, autonomy v. shame and doubt, initiative v. guilt, industry v. inferiority, identity v. role confusion, intimacy v. isolation, generativity v. stagnation, integrity v. despair

Hans Eysenck

Trait theorist

Big 3- melancholic, choleric, phlegmatic

Leon Festinger

Cognitive dissonance


Existential therapist

Logotherapy- emphasized the need to find and maintain meaning in life

Anna Freud


Disagreed with Freud’s theories about women

Sigmund Freud

Founder of psychoanalysis

Id, Ego, Superego

Many of our behaviors are driven by unconscious motives/desires

John Garcia

Studied taste aversion in rats with radiation, decided there was an evolutionary element to taste aversion

Howard Gardner

Theorized that there are actually eight different kinds of intelligence

Language, logic and math, visual and spatial thinking, music, bodily-kinesthetic kills, intrapersonal skills, interpersonal skills, naturalist skills

Carol Gilligan

Created a theory of moral development in women because male psychologists were overly focused on defining moral maturity in terms of justice and autonomy. She pointed out that there is also an ethic of caring about others that is a major element of moral development.

G. Stanley Hall

Founded the American Journal of Psychology

Harry Harlow

Seperated baby rhesus monkeys from their mothers at birth, placed with surrogate mothers either made of wire/metal or cloth, studied mother-infant relationships and discovered Contact Comfort



Balance theory, attribution theory


Researched hypnosis and its effectiveness as an analgesic

“hidden-observer” effect

Karen Horney


Among the first to challenge the obvious male bias in Freud’s theories, also disagreed with his cause of anxiety- believed that people feel anxious because they feel isolated and helpless in a hostile world, believed causes are rooted in childhood

Clark L. Hull

Drive theory

Modern study of hypnosis


Believes the infants can express several basic emotions as early as 10 weeks of age

William James

Wrote Principles of Psychology and helped establish psychology as a serious discipline, regarded consciousness as a stream or flow of images and sensations

Mary Jones

Pioneer of behavior therapy

Unconditioned a fear of rabbits in a three year old named Peter

Carl Jung

People are either introverts or extroverts

Collective unconscious- mental storehouse for unconscious ideas and images shared by all humans, such universals create archetypes

Anima (female principle) & Animus (male principle) exist in everyone


Showed face masks to 2-yr-olds and found they were fascinated when they saw faces with features in the wrong places

Grace Helen Kent

Kent-Rosanoff free association test- psychiatric screening tool using objective scoring and norms

Alfred Kinsey

Studied human sexuality

Kurt Koffka

Co-founder of Gestalt psychology

Wolfgang Kohler

Co-founder of Gestalt psychology

Studied insight learning in chimpanzees

Lawrence Kohlberg

Studied moral development in men

Preconventional- Stage 1: punishment orientation

Stage 2: pleasure-seeking orientation

Conventional- Stage 3: Good boy/ good girl orientation

Stage 4: Authority orientation

Postconventional- Stage 5: social-contract orientation

Stage 6: Morality of individual principles

Elizabeth Kubler-Ross

Thanatologiest- one who studies death

Reactions to impending death- denial and isolation, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

Elizabeth Loftus

Along with John Palmer showed people a filmed automobile accident, asked how fast cars were going when they smashed or bumped or contacted, asked if they had seen broken glass in the film (there was none) to study the tendency of people to construct memories based on how they are questioned

Konrad Lorenz

Discovered the principle of imprinting

Studied instinctive behavior in animals


Studied adolescent psychological development, elaborated on Erikson’s theories

Theory of identity achievement

Abraham Maslow


Self-Actualization was important

Hierarchy of human needs- physiological needs, safety and security, love and belonging, esteem and self-esteem, self-actualization

William Masters & Virginia Johnson

Directly studied sexual intercourse and masturbation in nearly 700 males and females

Sexual response can be divided into four phases: excitement, plateau, orgasm and resolution


Believes that IQ is of little value in predicting real competence to deal effectively with the world

IQ predicts school performance, not success in life

Margaret Mead

Anthropologist who observed the Tchambuli people of New Guinea, where gender roles are the opposite of those in America

Franz Mesmer

Austrian physician who believed he could cure disease with magnets

His treatments were based on the power of suggestion, not really magnetism and he was later rejected as a fraud

The term “mesmerize” comes from his name, his treatments sparked interest in hypnosis

Wolfgang Metzger

Gestalt psychologist

Stanley Milgram

Studied obedience

Two subjects (“teacher” and “learner”) but the “learner” was actually an actor. The teacher was told to shock the learner every time they answered a question incorrectly to see how far they were willing to go.

Walter Mischel

Ivan Pavlov

Studied classical conditioning

Paired a bell with food to make dogs salivate

Fritz Perls

Originator of Gestalt therapy

Considered most dreams a special message about what’s missing in our lives, what we avoid doing, or feelings that need to be “re-owned”

Believed that dreams are a way of filling in gaps in personal experience

Method of analyzing dreams involved speaking for characters and objects in your dreams

Jean Piaget

Child development occurs in stages

Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operations

Robert Rajonc

Vilayunar S. Ramachandran


Stated that the predictive value of a conditioned stimulus is critical, contingencies are important

Carl Rogers


Emphasized the human capacity for inner peace and happiness

People need ample amounts of love and acceptance from others

Hermann Rorschach

Created the Rorschach inkblot test, a projective test of personality

Julian Rotter

Daniel Schacter

Stanley Schachter

Emotion occurs when we apply a particular label to general physical arousal- we have to interpret our feelings

Roy Schafer

Margaret Singer

Studied and aided hundreds of former cult members

Cults use a powerful blend of guilt, manipulation, isolation, deception, fear, and escalating commitment

Martin Seligman

Prepared fear theory- we are prepared by evolution to readily develop fears to certain biologically relevant stimuli, such as snakes and spiders

Hans Selye

Studied stress- the body responds in the same way to any stress (infection, failure, embarrassment, a new job, trouble at school etc.)

General Adaptation Syndrome- a series of bodily reactions to prolonged stress (alarm, resistance, exhaustion)

B. F. Skinner

Studied operant conditioning with rats and pigeons

Created a Skinner Box

Charles Spearman

Robert Sternberg

Triangular theory of love- love is made up of intimacy, passion and commitment which can combine to produce seven types of love (romantic, liking, fatuous, infatuation, companionate, empty, consummate)

Believed insight involved selective incoding, selective combination, and selective comparison


Lewis Terman

Revised Binet’s intelligence test to help create the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales for use in North America, appropriate for people ages 2-90

Edward L. Thorndike

Learning theorist

Law of Effect- the probability of a response is altered by the effect it has, acts that are reinforced tend to be repeated

L. L. Thurstone

Edward Titchener

Carried Wundt’s ideas into the United States and called them structuralism

Tolman & Honzik

Studied latent learning in rats with mazes


Endel Tulving

Lev Vygotsky

Sociocultural theory

Children’s thinking develops through dialogues with more capable persons, children actively seek to discover new principles

Zone of proximal development- range of tasks a child cannot yet master alone but that she or he can accomplish with the guidance of a more capable partner

John B. Watson


Objected to the study of the mind or conscious experience, thought introspection was unscientific

Observed stimuli and response, adopted Pavlov’s concept of conditioning

David Wechsler

Intelligence testing

Max Wertheimer

First to advance the Gestalt viewpoint, thought it was a mistake to break psychological experiences down into smaller pieces to analyze

Benjamin Lee Whorf

Wilhelm Wundt

Father of psychology- set up the first psychological laboratory to study conscious experience


Yerkes & Dodson

Yerkes Dodson law- the ideal level of arousal depends on the complexity of a task: If the task is more complex your performance will be better at lower levels of arousal

If the task is simple it is best for arousal level to be high

Philip Zimbardo

Stanford prison experiment

Students volunteered to play the roles of prisoners and guards, experiment had to be called off after 6 days, rather than the planned 2 weeks because the guards had become so sadistic that four of the ten prisoners suffered severe emotional issues

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