Ancient states in Azerbaijan

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Ancient states in Azerbaijan

Ancient states in Azerbaijan.
The class society didn't appear simultaneously everywhere in Azerbaijan. The South of Azerbaijan was in the vicinity with the slaveholding society of Mesopotamia. Therefore changes, happening in Mesopotamia, had great influence on the southern territories of Azerbaijan. The early state formations appeared in the southern Azerbaijan in the 3rd millennium BC. These state formations had political, cultural and economic relations with city-states of Mesopotamia.
The agriculture and cattle-breeding played an important role in the economy of the ancient tribes of Azerbaijan in the 3rd - 2nd millenniums BC. Rapidly developing cattle-breeding separated from agriculture in the third millennium BC; it was the first social division of labor. Mountain and foothill areas were captured by the cattle-breeding tribes. The agricultural tribes settled the fertile river valleys.
The Lulluby, Kuti, Sub, Turukk tribes resided around Urmiya Lake; Nakhchi, Gargar tribes and etc.- to the north of Araz river in Nakhchivan and Mil-Garabagh territories in the 3rd - 2nd millenniums BC. These tribes had close cultural and economic relations with neighboring Mesopotamia. The first written information about the tribes of ancient Azerbaijan was introduced in Sumerian sagas and cuneiform writings. The Kuti tribes resided to the west; but Sub, Lulluby, Turukk - to the south of Urmiya lake. The Sub and Turukk tribes joined the Lulluby tribal unities. They were engaged mainly in the cattle-breeding. The Lullubies were known as brave, warlike and bold tribal unities in the Near Eastern countries. They kept trade relations with Mesopotamia. They exchanged cattle to grain. They worshiped deities of the Sky, the Sun, the Moon and the goddess of love and fertility.
The Country of Aratta. Aratta was a mountainous country. The Turkish people used the words Alataa, Alatuu, Alatau, Aladagh and etc. in the meaning of a mountain and mountain chain. Aratta was an early form of these words. Aratta was the first ancient state entity arisen in the territory of Azerbaijan. This state existed in the first half of the 3rd millennium in the south-east of Urmiya Lake. Aratta maintained economic, political and cultural relations with the Sumerian city-states of Mesopotamia. As the Sumerians, the country of Aratta was also ruled by the ruler having the rank of En or Enzi. The main city of the country was called Aratta. The religious institutions were led by the priest Mashmash. The ruler of Aratta belonged to the dynasty of the Turkish origin. There existed polytheism in Aratta. The population worshiped goddess Inane or other gods in Aratta. Inane was considered as the goddess of love and fertility.
Lulluby State Body. This state existed in the II half of the 3rd millennium (XXIII-XXII centuries BC) in the south and south-east of Urmiya Lake. Lulluby tribal unity appeared 32 in the southern part of Azerbaijan (to the south of Urmiya Lake) in the second half of the third millennium BC. The Lullubies also resided in Nuzi city of Assyrian. Thus the strong Lulluby state arose in the south of Urmiya Lake at the end of the twenty third - the beginning of the twenty second centuries BC.
The state became even stronger during the reign of Anubani. Anubani had created the great state. This state covered the southern and south-eastern regions of Lake Urmiya. Anubani’s success was engraved on the “stone column” with the cuneiform.
Kuti (or Quti) State Body. This state existed in the II half of the 3rd millennium (XXIII-XXII centuries BC) in the west and couth-west of Urmiya Lake. Kuti tribes which resided in the west and south-west of Urmiya Lake, amalgamated and established Kuti tribal unities. Based on this, Kuti (or Kutium) state was established in the second half of the third millennium BC. At the beginning of the XXII century BC the Kuties attacked Mesopotamia and collapsed Akkad state. Mesopotamia remained under the power of Kuties approximately hundreds of years. Kuties didn't carry out major changes in the state system of Mesopotamia. The state was ruled by successors appointed mainly of the local Sumerian and Akkad representatives.
Manna state was established in the IX century BC. At the beginning of the first millennium BC, around Lake Urmiya a centralized state of Manna was located. Manna was a mountainous country. There were a lot of mineral deposits - 35 iron, copper, silver, gold and lead in the territory of Manna. The population of plains and foothills of Manna was engaged in agriculture. The farmers ploughed the land with an iron hoe and wooden plow. They mowed grain with an iron sickle. The Assyrian cuneiform writings show that there were granaries in Manna. Horticulture and viticulture were also developed. They made wine from grapes too. Cattle-breeding had an important place in the life of Manna people. Horse-breeding was widely spread. The Subia province of Manna differed with its horses. The population of Manna led a sedentary life. The Assyrian ruler Tiglatpalasar III fought with Urartu to increase his influence in Manna in the second half of the VIII century BC. Tiglatpalasar III conquered Mazamua-the region of Manna and amalgamated it with Assyria, moved a number of tribes from the Basin of Urmiya Lake to another area, but didn’t touch other provinces of Manna. He waged wars mainly with Urartu and Midiya–neighbors of Manna. During this period, Manna regarded Assyria as its ally (The provinses of Manna: Zamua, Gizilbunda, Alatee, Wishdish, Zikertu, Andia, Mazamua, Surikash).
After the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C., his created empire got shattered into separate states. At that time, there arose the State of Atropatena in the South and State of Albania in the North of Azerbaijan. Atropat was the first king of Atropatena. Alexander the Great appointed Atropat as a satrap successorship of Midia in 328 B.C. When Alexander the Great was in India Bariaks led the revolt against the Macedonians in Atropatena. Bariaks declared himself the king of Iran and Midia. Atropat suppressed the revolt, captivated Bariaks and surrendered him to Alexander. Bariaks was executed. At the same time, Atropat strengthened his position by allowing his daughter marry Perdikki. Perdikki was the most influential warlord of the Macedonians after Alexander the Great. After the death of 42 Alexander, the management of the state he created was temporarily entrusted to Perdikki. Atropatena became an independent state after Perdikki’s death in 321 B.C.
The creation of a geographical name of "Azerbaijan" is connected with Atropatena. The name of "Azerbaijan" began to be mentioned after the Arab conquests, since the VII century B.C.
The State of Atropatena covered mainly the territory of South Azerbaijan and some southern areas of the current Republic of Azerbaijan. Zagros Mountains stretched across the western part of the country; however Garadagh mountain range stretched in the North. Qazaka was the capital city of Atropatena and it was situated on the south-east of Lake Urmiya.
The formation of the unified nation began on the entire territory of Azerbaijan after the establishment of Atropatena and Albanian States in the IV century B.C. The population was engaged in various sectors of the economy. Agriculture, gardening and viticulture developed in the river valleys and around Lake Urmiya. Cattle-breeding developed in the mountainous areas of the country. There also were oil fields in Atropatena. They extracted oil from those oil fields. The oil was called "Midian oil" and was used for military purposes. Atropatena had such cities as Qazaka, Fraaspa, Fanaaspa and Agnazana. Coins had been widely used in Atropatena. The most ancient ones found in Atropatena were minted on behalf of Alexander the Great.
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