Appendix 1 Figure S1 Examples of classification of the land-use trajectories



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Land use change trajectories, conservation status and social importance of dry forests in Nicaragua

FEDERICA RAVERA, DAVID TARRASÓN, JOSEP MARÍA ESPELTA



APPENDIX 1



Figure S1 Examples of classification of the land-use trajectories recognized in the area. Each aerial photograph shows the changes of land use in a given area over four years. Note: AD = acute disturbance, CD = chronic disturbance, and LD = low disturbance.
Table S1 List of social values ascribed to dry forest’ species and examples of prioritization of statements made by the focus group of elderly people and key informants.

Social values

Examples of statements

Direct use

Timber and housing

  • Use for housing

  • Timber products

  • Precious wood (specific uses)

‘For farmer two trees are important among timber trees: Zopilote (Piscidia grandifolia) and Palo de arco (Apoplanesia paniculata). They are useful for pitchforks and other tools’

Non timber forest products

  • Fruits (animal and human use)

  • Medicinal use

  • Colouring matter

  • Honey

‘The Mora (Maclura tinctoria) has multiple interesting values. It’s used as colouring matter (caqui), it’s very resistant and good timber’

‘The Aceituno de Guanacaste (Simarouba glauca) has also good fruits, and for human use has astringent properties. You can only find it in low lands



Energy use

  • Firewood

‘There are several species goods for firewood. If I have to prioritize, I choose the Mandagual (Caesalpinia velutina) and Miliguiste (Karwinskia calderonii) which are good both for firewood and for timber’

Indirect use




  • Shade

  • Cool microclimate

  • Fences

‘The Aguacate monte (Persea caerulea) is useful in the agro-forestry system with coffee’

‘In this dry lowland the most appreciated tree for shade and animals’ feeding is the Guacimo de ternera (Guazuma ulmifolia). It has also medicinal properties’



Ecological value




  • Symbiosis

  • Mutualism

  • Allelopathy

  • Refugee

  • Wild animal feeding (trophic webs)

  • Epiphytes support

  • Ecological conditions

  • Tolerance to drier conditions

  • Capacity of regeneration

  • Water protection




‘Birds and lots of animals love fruits of Nispero (Manilkara zapota)’

‘We have a rich diversity in epiphytes, but they cannot survive without their tree’s holder, for example the Guachipilin (Diphysa Americana)’

‘The flor amarilla o vainillo (Senna atomaria) host lots of bees and butterfly. It’s resistant and able to regenerate’

‘…In addition the Aguagacate monte (Persea coreulea) protects water sources’



Existence value

Aesthetic value

  • Colour of flowers and fruits

  • Cultural landscape

  • Beauty of species

‘The Aceituno de Guanacaste (Simarouba glauca) is a very beautiful tree’

Cultural value

  • Sense of belonging

  • Traditional ecological knowledge




‘There are trees which represent our culture. Some place names derive from names of tree for their importance for our forefathers, such as el Quebracho (Lysiloma divaricatum), mainly in sloped rocky area, el Robledal (Quercus segoviensis)’


Table S2 List of tree species, grouped per family, recorded for each land-use change trajectory (n = 36): prioritized values, degree of threat and percentage of relative frequency (RF) and dominance (RD). Note: AD = acute disturbance, CD = chronic disturbance, and LD = low disturbance value: direct use (T&H = timber and housing extraction; F = firewood; NTF = non-timber forest products); I = indirect use; Eco = ecological value; E = existence value. *Estimated from the defined five degrees of threat expressed in linguistic terms adopted from IUCN categories (IUCN 2001)

Family

 

 



Species



Species

prioritized

social value

Species

prioritized

threat degree *

AD

CD

LD










RF

RD

RF

RD

RF

RD

(%)

(%)

(%)

Anacardiaceae

Rhus terebinthifolia







2.7

1.7

0.6

0.3

1.1

0.2




Spondias mombin







 

 

0.1

0.7

0.6

1.0




Spondias purpurea

Eco, NTFP

0.60

1.1

2.9

2.1

3.6

2.9

4.9




Tapirira guianensis

T&H, NTFP, I




 

 

0.5

1.7

 

 

Annonaceae

Anona purpurea

T&H

0.80

1.5

0.8

2.8

2.8

5.2

2.1

Apocynoceae

Plumeria rubra







 

 

0.1

0.5

 

 

Araliaceae

Oreopanax capitatus







0.4

0.7

0.4

0.3

2.0

2.5

Asteraceae

Bidens pilosa







 

 

0.1

0.0

 

 

Bignoniaceae

Parmentiera trunciflora

NTFP, Eco

0.83

0.4

0.9

1.6

2.6

 

 




Tecoma stans

T&H, E

0.48

 

 

0.2

0.1

 

 

Boraginaceae

Cordia alliodora

T&H, NTFP, Eco

0.88

0.2

0.7

1.4

0.9

 

 




Cordia gerascanthus







0.4

0.1

0.4

0.1

2.9

3.5

Burseraceae

Bursera graveolens




0.56

3.7

5.1

1.1

2.9

2.6

9.4




Bursera simaruba

T&H, Eco

0.48

4.6

7.5

6.1

8.7

11.2

13.7

Caesalpiniaceae

Cassia grandis







 

 

0.1

0.4

 

 

Cecropiaceae

Cecropia insignis







 

 

0.1

0.1

 

 

Clusiaceae

Clusia rosea







 

 

0.9

0.7

 

 

Combretaceae

Terminalia oblonga

T&H, NTFP, F, Eco, I

0.83

 

 

3.6

3.6

1.4

1.4

Convolvulaceae

Hipomoea incarnata







 

 

0.7

0.9

0.6

0.1

Ebenaceae

Diospyros salicifolia







 

 

0.4

0.2

 

 

Euphorbiaceae

Cnidoscolus urens







0.2

0.1

0.2

0.1

1.4

0.6




Croton niveus




0.35

3.1

0.6

3.4

0.7

0.3

0.1




Croton panamensis







 

 

0.1

0.0

0.3

0.1




Euphorbia schlechtendalii







 

 

 

 

0.3

0.0




Sapium macrocarpum







 

 

 

 

0.9

0.2

Fabaceae

Acacia collinsii

Eco

0.35

0.7

0.3

0.1

0.0

 

 




Acacia pennatula







18.3

12.2

4.2

5.2

2.9

2.0




Albizia adinocephala




0.23

2.4

3.3

2.0

3.2

0.9

1.7




Apoplanesia paniculata

T&H, E

0.77

0.5

0.2

0.6

1.1

2.3

1.6




Caesalpinia exostemma







2.6

1.0

0.2

0.1

0.3

0.1




Caesalpinia velutina

T&H, F, Eco

0.74

0.4

0.2

1.2

0.6

 

 




Calliandra calothyrsus







3.1

0.7

1.4

0.3

0.6

0.1




Diphysa americana

E, Eco

0.67

0.2

0.3

 

 

 

 




Dipteryx panamensis




0.83

 

 

0.1

0.3

 

 




Enterolobium cyclocarpum

NTFP

0.48

 

 

0.4

0.7

 

 




Erythrina berterona







 

 

0.1

0.1

0.6

1.4




Hymenaea courbaril

T&H




 

 

 

 

0.3

0.9




Leucaena leucocephala







 

 

0.2

0.1

 

 




Lonchocarpus minimiflorus




0.65

0.2

0.2

 

 

 

 




Lysiloma divaricatum

NTFP, E, I

0.77

0.9

0.3

0.6

0.2

1.1

1.1




Mimosa acantholoba







0.5

0.2

0.4

0.1

 

 




Piscidia grandiflora

T&H

0.69

0.7

0.7

1.1

1.5

0.9

5.8




Senna atomaria

F, Eco

0.94

3.1

2.1

1.0

1.0

4.3

1.9




Senna papillosa




0.52

 

 

1.7

1.3

 

 




Zapoteca portoricensis




0.25

 

 

0.4

0.9

 

 




Quercus segoviensis

T&H, NTFP, F, E

0.40

 

 

 

 

2.0

8.9

Flacourtiaceae

Casearia corymbosa







4.4

4.5

3.1

1.4

2.0

1.2

Lauraceae

Persea coerulea

T&H, NTFP, E, Eco, I

0.54

 

 

 

 

4.0

2.5




Phoebe mexicana







0.2

0.1

 

 

 

 

Loganiaceae

Plocosperma buxifolium







0.7

2.1

 

 

 

 

Malpighiaceae

Malpighia stevensii







0.2

0.2

3.1

1.7

1.7

0.6

Malvaceae

Ceiba pentandra

T&H, Eco

1

0.1

0.6

 

 

 

 




Ceiba aesculifolia

T&H, E

0.86

0.5

4.0

 

 

0.3

0.1

Meliaceae

Cedrella odorata

T&H, F, E

0.81

0.9

4.0

1.2

2.0

8.3

9.6




Trichilia americana







0.7

0.2

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.1

Moraceae

Brosimum alicastrum

T&H, F

0.78

2.2

0.6

4.2

1.5

1.7

0.6




Ficus cotinifolia

NTFP, E, Eco, I




0.5

4.9

 

 

 

 




Ficus isophlebia

NTFP, Eco, I

0.72

 

 

0.4

1.5

0.3

0.7




Ficus pertusa

NTFP, I

0.56

0.4

1.1

1.7

5.4

2.9

1.3




Ficus trigonata

N&H

0.83

1.3

0.3

1.6

1.8

0.3

0.1




Maclura tinctoria

T&H, NTFP

0.74

0.2

0.2

 

 

 

 




Trophis racemosa

NTFP




1.6

3.2

1.5

1.1

0.6

0.1

Myrsinaceae

Ardisia revoluta

E

0.83

 

 

1.0

0.6

 

 

Myrtaceae

Eugenia guatemalensis




0.18

3.3

0.9

8.8

4.1

 

 




Eugenia salamensis




0.74

0.7

0.3

1.1

0.4

6.9

2.7




Myrcia splendens







0.2

0.0

0.2

0.1

 

 

Nyctaginaceae

Pisonia macranthocarpa







0.5

4.0

0.9

3.2

0.6

2.6

Olacaceae

Schoepfia schreberi







0.4

0.1

0.1

0.0

 

 

Paixaceae

Cochlospermum vitifolium







 

 

0.1

0.1

 

 

Phytolaccaceae

Rivina humilis







 

 

0.5

0.3

 

 

Rhamnaceae

Karwinskia calderonii

T&H, F

0.45


6.8

4.7

4.1

2.8

2.3

0.8

Rubiaceae

Guettarda macrosperma

 




7.9

6.5

4.4

4.8

6.0

2.1




Psychotria horizontalis







0.2

0.1

0.9

0.4

 

 




Psychotria pubescens

E, Eco




 

 

0.4

0.2

 

 




Randia sp

 




 

 

0.2

0.0

 

 

Rutacea

Casimiroa sapota

 




 

 

0.1

0.3

 

 




Esenbeckia pentaphylla

 




0.7

1.3

 

 

0.6

0.2




Zanthoxylum procerum

 




0.5

0.4

2.8

3.7

4.0

2.1

Sapindaceae

Thouinidium decandrum

 




1.6

5.3

 

 

0.9

2.0

Sapotaceae

Bumelia obtusifolia

 




 

 

0.2

0.3

 

 

Solanaceae

Solanum erianthum

 




 

 

0.1

0.1

 

 

Sterculiaceae

Guazuma ulmifolia

T&H, NTFP, F, E, I

0.53

 

 

2.1

1.2

 

 

Thymelaeaceae

Daphnopsis americana

T&H

0.73


0.5

0.3

0.6

0.4

0.6

0.4

Tiliaceae

Heliocarpus appendiculatus







3.3

5.5

4.8

4.5

2.6

3.9




Luehea candida




0.65

0.7

0.5

0.5

0.8

 

 

Ulmaceae

Phyllostylon rhamnoides







 

 

 

 

0.3

0.1




Trema micrantha







0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1

 

 

Urticaceae

Myriocarpa longipes







5.5

1.4

2.5

1.6

1.4

0.4

Verbenaceae

Bitex gaumeri







 

 

0.2

0.1

 

 

Zapotaceae

Manilkara zapota

T&H, NTFP, Eco

0.90

 

 

0.2

1.2

 

 


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