Appendix b – additional information about the ecological community



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B4. Other levels of protection

B.4.1. Conservation tenure

A low proportion of native vegetation in the wheatbelt is protected within formal conservation tenure (see Table 8 of the conservation advice). Estimates collated by WA DPaW (2013) show how much of each vegetation association is protected in the conservation estate – data for vegetation associations that correspond to the WA Wheatbelt woodlands ecological community are collated in Table B6. The overall proportion reserved is low, about 8.1% of the total current extent of the ecological community. There is some variability in the extent of protection among vegetation associations. The number of component vegetation associations that have more than half their current extent in protected lands is very low- only two of the total 45 corresponding associations. The majority of component vegetation associations are protected to only a minor extent in reserves: 21 associations are represented by less than ten percent of their current extent in reserves. Eleven associations have no remnants at all that are protected in conservation reserves.

Protection in the conservation estate is effective for protecting woodland remnants from certain threats, such as further clearing, but does not provide protection for all threats. For instance, weeds and diseases such as dieback still require management to prevent further spread or establishment. Wildfires and changes to climate also continue to impact on reserves.

B.4.2. Regional Forest Agreements

A regional forest agreement covers the South West Forest Region of WA (Department of Agriculture, 2014). The agreement generally applies to the taller, wetter forests in the far south-west, south coast and along the Darling Ranges. The region covered falls largely outside, and further west of the wheatbelt. There may be slight overlaps, especially to the north and north-west of Mount Barker, where small patches of the WA Wheatbelt Woodland may occur within the broader RFA boundary. However, these are marginal to the main extent of the ecological community.



Table B6. Estimated area and proportion of the WA wheatbelt woodland ecological community that was formally protected in conservation tenure in 2013. Data are presented for each Beard vegetation association identified as a component of the national ecological community.

Association no.

Beard Vegetation Association name

Extent in wheatbelt (2013, ha)

Reserved1 in wheatbelt (2013, ha)

Reserved in wheatbelt (%)

5

Medium woodland; wandoo & powderbark (E. accedens)

24,372.8

8,119.1

33.31

7

Medium woodland; York gum (E. loxophleba) & wandoo

24,019.8

391.2

1.63

8

Medium woodland; salmon gum & gimlet

54,903.8

4,481.0

8.16

13

Medium open woodland; wandoo

217.9

150.6

69.12

131

Mosaic: Medium woodland; salmon gum & gimlet / Shrublands; mallee scrub, redwood & black marlock

14,886.9

1,339.2

9.00

141

Medium woodland; York gum, salmon gum & gimlet

77,365.1

1,134.1

1.47

142

Medium woodland; York gum & salmon gum

82,268.4

2,571.7

3.13

145

Mosaic: Medium woodland; York gum & salmon gum / Shrublands; thicket, acacia-casuarina-melaleuca alliance

495.2

0.0

0.00

352

Medium woodland; York gum

117,412.6

2,546.9

2.17

494

Medium woodland; salmon gum mixed with merrit & desert bloodwood (Eucalyptus sp.)

2,574.6

2,523.7

98.02

511

Medium woodland; salmon gum & morrel

85,457.3

15,332.7

17.94

536

Medium woodland; morrel & rough fruited mallee (E. corrugata)

3,970.0

1,277.5

32.18

686

Medium woodland; York gum & red mallee

4,156.8

501.1

12.05

931

Medium woodland; yate

3,640.6

269.2

7.39

938

Medium woodland; York gum & yate

6,519.3

68.3

1.05

939

Succulent steppe with woodland; York gum, sparse tea-tree scrub & samphire

12.2

0.0

0.00

941

Mosaic: Medium woodland; salmon gum & morrel/Shrublands; mallee scrub, redwood

6,489.3

2,613.7

40.28

945

Mosaic: Medium woodland; salmon gum / Shrublands; mallee scrub, redwood & black marlock

32,676.2

3,912.3

11.97

946

Medium woodland; wandoo

12,611.1

1,503.6

11.92

947

Medium woodland; powderbark & mallet

11,787.4

2,393.7

20.31

948

Medium woodland; York gum & river gum

442.9

6.6

1.50

962

Medium woodland; mallet (E. astringens)

5.5

0.0

0.00

963

Medium woodland; yate & paperbark (Melaleuca spp.)

2,217.2

406.8

18.35

967

Medium woodland; wandoo & yate

16,252.8

333.1

2.05

974

Medium woodland; York gum, salmon gum & morrel

866.0

0.0

0.00

981

Medium woodland; wandoo, York gum & yate

1,320.7

0.0

0.00

993

Medium woodland; York gum & Allocasuarina huegeliana

791.9

0.0

0.00

1023

Medium woodland; York gum, wandoo & salmon gum (E. salmonophloia)

174,646.2

12,288.8

7.04

1025

Mosaic: Medium woodland; York gum, salmon gum & morrel / Succulent steppe; saltbush & samphire

1,104.0

0.0

0.00

1044

Mosaic: Medium woodland; York gum & salmon gum / Shrublands; Melaleuca thyioides thicket

21.6

0.0

0.00

1049

Medium woodland; wandoo, York gum, salmon gum, morrel & gimlet

56,843.2

3,269.8

5.75

1057

Mosaic: Shrublands; Medium woodland; salmon gum & gimlet / York gum & Eucalyptus sheathiana mallee scrub

17,637.4

2,844.0

16.12

1059

Mosaic: Medium woodland; salmon gum & gimlet/Shrublands; mallee Eucalyptus longicornis & E. sheathiana scrub

10.0

0.0

0.00

1065

Mosaic: Shrublands; Medium woodland; wandoo & gimlet / York gum & Eucalyptus sheathiana mallee scrub

434.5

377.5

86.88

1067

Medium woodland; salmon gum, morrel, gimlet & rough fruited mallee

4,174.8

1.7

0.04

1068

Medium woodland; salmon gum, morrel, gimlet & Eucalyptus sheathiana

37,283.5

2,607.1

6.99

1073

Medium woodland; wandoo & mallet

6,226.0

535.9

8.61

1085

Medium woodland; wandoo & blue mallet (E. gardneri)

7,942.4

16.3

0.20

1087

Medium woodland; wandoo, morrel & blue mallet

256.8

19.9

7.73

1088

Medium woodland; mallet & blue mallet

145.2

0.0

0.00

1092

Medium woodland; wandoo, York gum & morrel

8,231.4

143.9

1.75

1094

Mosaic: Medium woodland; York gum & salmon gum / Shrublands; mallee scrub Eucalyptus eremophila & black marlock

6,742.4

95.5

1.42

1095

Medium woodland; York gum, yate & salmon gum

529.4

0.0

0.00

1200

Mosaic: Medium woodland; salmon gum & morrel / Shrublands ; mallee scrub Eucalyptus eremophila & black marlock (E. redunca)

21,912.3

1,671.2

7.63

1967

Medium woodland; wandoo, yate & river gum

7,594.2

279.5

3.68

TOTAL




939,469.6

76,026.8

8.09

Source: WA DPaW (2013). The data refers to extent determined in 2013 and the area of each vegetation association that occurs within the IBRA bioregions identified in this conservation advice as part of the wheatbelt region (see sections 1b and 1e for more detail).

1 Refers to current extent that is listed in the WA Department of Parks and Wildlife-managed lands and waters dataset as Crown reserves having an IUCN category of I – IV. The IUCN Protected Areas Management categories refer to lands designated as nature reserve, wilderness area, national park, national monument or habitat/species management area.
Table B7. Nyungar calendar of six seasons for south west WA.

The timing of the six Nyungar seasons with respect to European months and seasons is approximate. Their timing varies, depending on how nature is responding. A season may be longer or shorter for any given year.



Birak

Season of the Young



Bunuru

Season of Adolescence



Djeran

Season of Adulthood



Makuru

Fertility season



Djilba

Season of Conception



Kambarang

Season of Birth



December

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

Summer

Autumn

Winter

Spring

Dry and hot; longest days. Dry easterly winds in the daytime; sea breezes in the afternoon.

Nectar and gum produced by many plants, especially woodland eucalypts. Time of nectar-feeding birds, insects and honey possums .

Time to burn the country in mosaic patterns for fuel reduction, grazing pastures or to aid mobility across the country.


Hottest time of the year; long days and warm nights. Hot dry easterly and north winds. Little to no rain. Strong afternoon sea breezes close to the coast.

Flowering of wattles, Banksia and woodland eucalypts.



Cooler weather begins, days start to get shorter. Rain is infrequent. Winds are generally lighter from the south east or south west.

Flying ants appear. Native fruits begin to appear. Woodland eucalypts, mallees and melaleucas in flower

Traditional time for collecting bulbs and tubers for food.


Wettest time of the year. Shortest days. Westerly gales and storms bring rain. Frosts.

Animals begin to pair up for breeding next season.



Dianella revoluta (blueberry lily) and Patersonia occidentalis (purple flags) start to flower.

Some very cold but clear days mixed with warmer rainy and windy days.

Flowering begins in kwongkan shrubs. At the end of season, balgas (grass trees) flower stalks emerge.

Many woodland birds nesting including koolbardi (magpie), djili djili (willie wagtail) and Chuck-a-luck (wattlebirds).


Increasing dry periods and warming trend with fewer cold fronts.

Kwongkan and mallee shrublands in prolific flower.

Reptiles begin to get very active.


Sources: BoM (2014b); McQuoid (2014).


B5. Indigenous knowledge

The country of the Nyungar1 Aboriginal people covers much of the region where the WA Wheatbelt Woodland ecological community occurs. There were about fourteen major groups of Nyungar people. Each group identified with a particular tract of budjar (country) and were made up of moort (family groups) (Wheatbelt NRM, undated a). Kaartdijin (knowledge) was strongly valued and passed down by elders and moort.

The Nyungar people understood and managed their natural landscapes sustainably for more 40 000 years (McQuoid, 2014; Wheatbelt NRM, undated a). Karl (fire) was a key tool used to manage the country and ensure a long-term supply of the plant and animal resources on which they relied. A wide variety of food resources were available in the south west, and some information about what they were and how they were used was collected by Meagher (1974). Nyungar people recognised that the southwest country has a cycle of six seasons (Table B7), based on weather and the responses of native plants and animals. They would migrate between coastal and inland areas depending on where and when resources were available and plentiful during each season.

Woodlands were important to the Nyungar as a source of food and other resources. Certain woodland tree species may have been deliberately spread for this purpose. For instance, E. occidentalis (swamp yate) woodlands occur along watercourses and swamps, and offer a particularly rich supply of food and shelter (McQuoid, 2014). Their disconnected occurrence in the landscape suggests a possibility that yate seeds may have been deliberately spread to establish new woodland sites.

Although eucalypt woodlands do not occur on granite outcrops, these rocks were important to Nyungar. Outcrops served as vantage points to observe the landscape or weather (McQuoid, 2014). Gnamma (rock holes that fill with rain water) were essential sources of water scattered across the landscape and considered sacred (Wheatbelt NRM, undated b). Gnamma also attracted animals such as kangaroos, ducks and lizards that were hunted. Eucalypt woodlands can occur around the base of granite outcrops, particularly York gum and jam, grading into sheoak woodlands closer to the rocks.

Information and resources about kaartdijin Nyungar is available from the website of the South West Aboriginal Land & Sea Council (2010-12).



The countries of other Indigenous groups may overlap into the eastern edges of the wheatbelt region. For instance, the eastern and southern part of the Great Western Woodlands is country for the Ngadju people. The fire knowledge of the Ngadju (Ngadju kala), including their management of woodlands is documented in Prober et al. (2013).

1 Nyungar language, like all traditional languages in Australia is an oral language. There are several dialects and different ways to spell words, e.g. Noongar, Nyungar, Nyoongar, Noongah. Throughout this advice, we have adopted the spelling recommended in the language guide prepared by Wheatbelt NRM (undated) , and we respectfully include all people in the South-West.

Draft Appendix B – Additional information


Kataloq: system -> files -> pages -> 4b7f101c-abb7-48b5-b11f-9403951836cf -> files
pages -> Wildlife Trade Operation proposal Harvest and export of native wildlife. Introduction
pages -> Draft banksia Woodlands of the Swan Coastal Plain – Draft description and threats
pages -> This summary has been produced by the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water
pages -> This summary has been produced by the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water
pages -> Focusing on the Landscape Biodiversity in Australia’s National Reserve System
pages -> Verticordia harveyi (Autumn Featherflower) Advice Page 1 of 4 Advice to the Minister for the Environment and Heritage from the Threatened Species Scientific Committee
pages -> Consultation Document on Listing Eligibility and Conservation Actions
pages -> Approval of an artificial propagation program
files -> Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999
files -> Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999

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