Appendix eight: grfvs plant communities



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Appendix eight: GRFVS plant communities

MARCH 2010

206

Flora and Vegetation Survey



GERALDTON

 

REGIONAL



Coastal Acacia rostellifera low shrubland occurs close to the coast, from behind the foredunes to various

distances inland but generally on primary dunes. Myoporum insulare, Olearia axillaris, Scaevola crassifolia

and Spinifex longifolius are other characteristic species of this plant community.

A variant of this community, shown in Plate A8.8.4, is dominated by Melaleuca huegelii, and occurs near the

southern end of Tarcoola Beach. Small areas of Melaleuca lanceolata, illustrated in Plate A8.8.5, are another

variant within this community. Both of these variants also show affinities with plant community 10 Near

Coastal: Acacia rostellifera shrubland.

Area in GRFVS:

% of GRFVS area:

Quadrats:  

GRV0801, 03, 05, 16,

46, 50


546.25 ha

8.86


(6)

NVIS description:  

Shrubland, Open Shrubland, Open Chenopod Shrubland, Open Vineland, Open

Tussock Grassland

Keighery description:

Shrubland, Low Shrubland, Open Shrubland, Open Heath

Muir description: 

Low Scrub B, Open Low Scrub B, Heath B

The following common species were recorded:

Tall shrubs:

*Lycium ferocissimum

Mid shrubs:

Acacia rostellifera, Myoporum insulare, Olearia axillaris, Rhagodia preissii 

subsp.


obovata, Scaevola crassifolia, Stylobasium spathulatum

Low shrubs:

Rhagodia latifolia subsp. recta, Tetragonia implexicoma, Threlkeldia diffusa, 

Zygophyllum fruticulosum

Climbers:

Clematis linearifolia

Grasses:

Austrostipa elegantissima, *Ehrharta longiflora, Spinifex longifolius

Herbs:

Acanthocarpus preissii, *Anagallis arvensis, *Brassica tournefortii, Calandrinia 



polyandra, Carpobrotus virescens, *Euphorbia terracina, *Reichardia tingitana, 

*Sonchus oleraceus

Landform:

Gentle slope, dune

Geology:

Quindalup soil system, in the following subsystems, both of which are deep

Aeolian calcareous sand and minor limestone:

•  Quindalup Central 1 frontal plain Phase soil subsystem: 221Qu_1Qs1 low

lying plain adjoining foredune or beach

•  Quindalup Central stable parabolic dune Phase1 soil subsystem:

221Qu_1Qp1 low stable parabolic dunes with relief 5-15 m.

Surface rock:

None

Soil:


White sand

% Cover leaf litter:

10-90

% Cover bare ground:



2-50

% Weed cover:

2-10

8.  Coastal: Acacia rostellifera low shrubland (cAr)



Appendix eight: GRFVS plant communities

MARCH 2010

Flora and Vegetation Survey

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207

Plate A8.8.1:  Photo direction: SE 

 

 

Location: GRV0801, Glenfield Beach  



Photographer: L Atkins

Plate A8.8.2:  Photo direction: SE 

 

 

Location: GRV0846, Cape Burney  



Photographer: L Atkins

Plate A8.8.3:  Photo direction: E 

 

Location: 263695 E, 6835412 N, 



Oakajee 

  

 



Photographer: J. Nelson

Plate A8.8.4:  Photo direction: S 

 

Location: 268510 E, 6809147N, Tarcoola 



Beach  

 

Photographer: J. 



Nelson

Notes:


This plant community occurs along the entire coastline of GRFVS area where

there is existing native vegetation.

Further inland from the Coastal Acacia rostellifera low shrubland plant

community, the vegetation is taller, often has less species and has been

determined to be a different plant community (10 Near Coastal: Acacia rostellifera

shrubland). However the boundary between these plant communities is not clear

and often grades from one to the other.

Floristically this group is closely allied with the other coastal and near coastal

plant communities, and can be differentiated by the generally low stature (<2m

high) of the dominant species (Acacia rostellifera), and the frequent occurrence of

Myoporum insulare, Olearia axillaris, Carpobrotus virescens, Scaevola crassifolia

and Spinifex longifolius, which are generally not found further inland. In areas

without these characteristic species, the vegetation is more likely to be plant

community 10 Near Coastal: Acacia rostellifera shrubland.



Appendix eight: GRFVS plant communities

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Plate A8.8.5:  Photo direction: N 

 

Location: 263784 E, 6813595N,    



Point Moore    

 

Photographer: J. Nelson



Appendix eight: GRFVS plant communities

MARCH 2010

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209

The Coastal Acacia rostellifera / Eucalyptus spp. plant community occurs on coastal sand. The Eucalyptus

species are commonly the mallees E. oraria and E. obtusiflora, singly or in combination. Floristically this

community is allied with the other Acacia rostellifera communities but is differentiated on structure, being

dominated by mallee eucalypts.

Area in GRFVS:

% of GRFVS area:

Quadrats:  

GRV0828

12.47 ha


0.20

(1)


NVIS description:  

Closed Mallee Forest

Keighery description:

Closed Tree Mallee

Muir description: 

Dense Tree Mallee

The following common species were recorded:

Mallees:


Eucalyptus obtusiflora, Eucalyptus oraria

Tall shrubs:

Acacia rostellifera

Mid shrubs:

Ptilotus divaricatus

Low shrubs:

Zygophyllum fruticulosum

Climbers:

Clematis linearifolia

Grasses:


*Bromus diandrus, *Ehrharta brevifolia 

var. cuspidata

Herbs:

*Euphorbia peplus, *Euphorbia terracina



Landform:

Flat dune

Geology:

Quindalup Central 1 swale Phase soil subsystem: 221Qu_1Qs2, gently undulating

plains surrounded by parabolic dunes. Calcareous deep sand. Geology: Aeolian

calcareous sands and minor limestone

Surface rock:

None


Soil:

White sand

% Cover leaf litter:

60

% Cover bare ground:



0-40

% Weed cover:

80

Notes:


Despite extensive survey, this plant community has only been found in one part

of the GRFVS area, between Tarcoola Beach and the Greenough River.

9.  Coastal: Acacia rostellifera / Eucalyptus spp. (Ar/Espp)


Appendix eight: GRFVS plant communities

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Plate A8.9:  Photo direction: SE 

 

 



Location: GRV0828, Southgate  

Photographer: L. Atkins



Appendix eight: GRFVS plant communities

MARCH 2010

Flora and Vegetation Survey

GERALDTON

 

REGIONAL



211

10.  Near Coastal: Acacia rostellifera shrubland (ncAr)

Near Coastal: Acacia rostellifera shrubland occurs on taller secondary dunes, and on exposed limestone and

sandplain soils to the east where this community is often a result of disturbance.

On the sandplain soils, the community probably formerly included Banksia prionotes but has been reduced to

a simpler community dominated by Acacia rostellifera by clearing or grazing.

Acacia rostellifera is usually the dominant species, however Acacia xanthina, Alyxia buxifolia or Chamelaucium 

uncinatum may be dominant or co-dominants in this community.

Area in GRFVS:

% of GRFVS area:

Quadrats:  

GRV0802, 12, 17, 19, 30,

31, 32, 48, 51, 52, 54,

57, 73, 74

2258.87 ha

36.63


(14)

NVIS description:  

Sparse Shrubland, Open Shrubland, Shrubland, Closed Shrubland

Keighery description:

Open Shrubland, Tall Open Shrubland, Tall Open Scrub, Tall Shrubland, Closed

Tall Scrub

Muir description: 

Open Scrub, Open Low Scrub, Scrub, Thicket, Dense Thicket

The following common species were recorded:

Tall shrubs:

Acacia rostellifera, Acacia xanthina, Alyxia buxifolia, Anthocercis littorea, 

Chamelaucium uncinatum, *Lycium ferocissimum, Pimelea microcephala subsp. 

microcephala, Pittosporum ligustrifolium

Mid shrubs:

Rhagodia preissii subsp. obovata, Scaevola crassifolia, Stylobasium spathulatum

Low shrubs:

Muehlenbeckia adpressa, Tetragonia implexicoma, Threlkeldia diffusa

Climbers:

Cassytha flava, Clematis linearifolia, Commicarpus australis

Grasses:


Austrostipa elegantissima, *Avena barbata, *Bromus diandrus, *Ehrharta 

longiflora, *Pennisetum setaceum

Herbs:

Acanthocarpus preissii, *Brassica tournefortii, *Euphorbia peplus, *Euphorbia 



terracina, *Reichardia tingitana, *Sonchus oleraceus

Landform:

Gentle dune, slope or ridge, flat hilltop or valley, steep riverbank

Geology:


Quindalup or Tamala soil systems, on Aeolian calcareous sand or lithified

Pleistocene limestone with overlying calcareous sands

Surface rock:

None or up to 2% limestone

Soil:

White, grey, yellow or orange sand, orange clayey sand



% Cover leaf litter:

0-90


% Cover bare ground:

0-80


% Weed cover:

2-60


Appendix eight: GRFVS plant communities

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Notes:

This plant community merges with the lower plant community 8 Coastal: Acacia 

rostellifera shrubland closer to the coast and plant community 13 Sandplain:

Banksia prionotes / Acacia rostellifera on the sandplain to the east.

Near Coastal: Acacia rostellifera shrubland occurs on taller dunes and along

higher river banks, where there is often some exposed limestone. One of the

quadrat sites, close to the Greenough River, had surface soil consisting of a

significant proportion of snail shells. Acacia rostellifera is a colonising species,

which is probably the reason it dominates in disturbed areas.


Appendix eight: GRFVS plant communities

MARCH 2010

Flora and Vegetation Survey

GERALDTON

 

REGIONAL



213

Plate A8.10.5:  Photo direction: SE 

 

 

Location: GRV0873, Rudds Gully  



Photographer: L. Atkins

Plate A8.10.6:  Photo direction: S 

 

 

Location: 266483 E, 6825390 N, 



Glenfield Beach  

 

Photographer: L. Atkins



Plate A8.10.1:   Photo direction: SE 

 

 



Location: GRV0819, Oakajee  

Photographer: L. Atkins

Plate A8.10.2:  Photo direction: SE 

 

 



Location: GRV0848, Greenough River  

Photographer: L. Atkins

Plate A8.10.3:  Photo direction: SE 

 

 



Location: GRV0852, Greenough  

Photographer: L. Atkins

Plate A8.10.4:  Photo direction: SE 

 

 



Location: GRV0854, Buller 

Photographer: L. Atkins



Appendix eight: GRFVS plant communities

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The plant community Melaleuca cardiophylla /Eucalyptus spp. occurs on limestone ridges and slopes.

Floristically it is closely allied with the Melaleuca cardiophylla plant community on limestone soils, but is

separated structurally due to the presence of the mallees including Eucalyptus obtusiflora and E. oraria, which

in places form dense stands, and E. zopherophloia.

Area in GRFVS:

% of GRFVS area:

Quadrats:  

GRV0827, 61

19.95 ha

0.32


(2)

NVIS description:  

Mallee Woodland, Open Mallee Woodland, Shrubland, Sparse Shrubland

Keighery description:

Open Shrub Mallee, Very Open Tree Mallee

Muir description: 

Open Shrub Mallee, Very Open Tree Mallee

The following common species were recorded:

Mallees:

Eucalyptus obtusiflora, E. oraria, E. zopherophloia

Tall shrubs:

Alyogyne hakeifolia, Grevillea argyrophylla, *Lycium ferocissimum Melaleuca 

cardiophylla, Melaleuca huegelii, Pittosporum ligustrifolium

Mid shrubs:

Lasiopetalum angustifolium

Low shrubs:

Rhagodia latifolia subsp. recta , Zygophyllum fruticulosum

Grasses:


Austrostipa elegantissima, *Avena barbata, *Bromus diandrus, *Pennisetum 

setaceum


Herbs:

*Anagallis arvensis *Brassica tournefortii, *Euphorbia peplus, *Hypochaeris 

glabra, *Medicago polymorpha, Oxalis perennans, *Petrorhagia dubia

Landform:

Gentle slope, steep ridge

Geology:


Tamala soil system in the following subsystems:

•  Tamala South 2 steep rocky slopes Phase soil subsystem: 221Ta_2Tst,

steep dune slopes with very common limestone outcrop. Shallow (10-50 cm)

uniform brownish sands, non-calcareous. Geology: Pleistocene limestone

and Aeolian sand.

•  Tamala South 5 shallow sand Phase soil subsystem: 221Ta_5Ts, undulating

to gently undulating relict dune crests with shallow sand and common

limestone rock outcrop. Shallow red and brown sands. Geology: lithified

Pleistocene calcareous dune deposits and recent calcareous sand.

Surface rock:

Up to 5% exposed limestone, with fragments 10-40 cm.

Soil:


Grey sand, grey loamy sand.

% Cover leaf litter:

3-50

% Cover bare ground:



25-40

% Weed cover:

10-40

Notes:


Two quadrats of this plant community were recorded from the GRFVS area, but

it occurs in other small remnant patches and a larger area on the limestone scarp

north of the Buller River. It has been observed south of the GRFVS area.

11.  Limestone Ridge: Melaleuca cardiophylla / Eucalyptus spp. (Mc/Espp)



Appendix eight: GRFVS plant communities

MARCH 2010

Flora and Vegetation Survey

GERALDTON

 

REGIONAL



215

Plate A8.11.1:   Photo direction: SE 

 

 

Location: GRV0827, Wandina 



Photographer: L. Atkins

Plate A8.11.2:   Photo direction: SE 

 

 

Location: GRV0861, Rudds Gully 



Photographer: C. Krens

Plate A8.11.3:   Photo direction: S 

 

Location: 273510 E, 6806924 N,  



Rudds Gully   

 

Photographer: J. Nelson



Plate A8.11.4:   Photo direction: SE 

 

 



Location: 269412 E, 6809472 N, 

Wandina 


 

 

Photographer: J. Nelson



Plate A8.11.5:   Photo direction: SE 

 

 



Location: 266027 E, 6831351 N, Buller 

Photographer: J. Nelson



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Limestone ridge Melaleuca cardiophylla occurs on limestone ridges and slopes high in the landscape. Acacia 

xanthina dominated one of the GRFVS floristic quadrats, but in general Melaleuca cardiophylla was the

dominant species, with Diplolaena grandiflora, Grevillea argyrophylla, *Lycium ferocissimum and Pittosporum 

ligustrifolium commonly occurring.

Individual mallees, most commonly Eucalyptus obtusiflora and E. oraria, are occasional inclusions; however,

where these occur in extensive stands, the plant community becomes 11 Limestone Ridge: Melaleuca 

cardiophylla / Eucalyptus spp.

Area in GRFVS:

% of GRFVS area:

Quadrats:  

GRV0813, 20, 21, 29,

43, 56, 66, 67, 68

865.80 ha

14.04


(9)

NVIS description:  

Sparse Shrubland, Sparse Vineland, Sparse Chenopod Shrubland, Sparse

Forbland, Open Shrubland, Shrubland, Closed Shrubland

Keighery description:

Tall Open Scrub, Open Heath, Tall Shrubland, Closed Tall Scrub

Muir description: 

Open Scrub, Scrub, Thicket, Heath B, Dense Thicket

The following common species were recorded:

Tall shrubs:

Acacia xanthina, Diplolaena grandiflora, Grevillea argyrophylla, *Lycium 

ferocissimum, Melaleuca cardiophylla, Pittosporum ligustrifolium, Santalum 

acuminatum

Mid shrubs:

Rhagodia preissii subsp. obovata, Scaevola tomentosa

Low shrubs:

Melaleuca campanae, Ptilotus divaricatus, Ptilotus obovatus, Rhagodia latifolia 

subsp. recta, Zygophyllum fruticulosum

Climbers:

Aphanopetalum clematideum, Dioscorea hastifolia,

Sedges and rushes:

Desmocladus asper

Grasses:

Austrostipa elegantissima, *Avena barbata, *Bromus diandrus

Herbs:

*Anagallis arvensis, *Brassica tournefortii, *Hypochaeris glabra, *Medicago 



polymorpha, *Petrorhagia dubia, 

Landform:

Gentle, flat or steep, slope, dune, ridge or hilltop

Geology:


Tamala soil system, on the following subsystems:

•  Tamala South 2 steep rocky slopes Phase soil subsystem: 221Ta_2Tst,

steep dune slopes with very common limestone outcrop. Shallow (10-50 cm)

uniform brownish sands, non-calcareous. Geology: Pleistocene limestone

and Aeolian sand.

•  Tamala South 3 yellow Sandplain Phase soil subsystem: 221Ta_3Ysp, level

to undulating Sandplain. Yellow deep sand. Geology: lithified Pleistocene

calcareous dune deposits with recent dunes.

•  Tamala South 5 shallow sand Phase soil subsystem: 221Ta_5Ts, undulating

to gently undulating relict dune crests with shallow sand and common

limestone rock outcrop. Shallow red and brown sands. Geology: lithified

Pleistocene calcareous dune deposits and recent calcareous sand.

12.  Limestone Ridge: Melaleuca cardiophylla (rMc)


Appendix eight: GRFVS plant communities

MARCH 2010

Flora and Vegetation Survey

GERALDTON

 

REGIONAL



217

Plate A8.12.1:   Photo direction: SE 

 

Location: GRV0813, Oakajee 



 

Photographer: L. Atkins

Plate A8.12.2:  Photo direction: SE 

 

Location: GRV0821, Oakajee 



 

Photographer: L. Atkins

Surface rock:

2-30% exposed limestone, 10-100cm fragments

Soil:

Grey sand, orange-grey sand, grey loamy sand, grey sandy loam, orange brown



sandy loam

% Cover leaf litter:

10-95

% Cover bare ground:



5-35

% Weed cover:



<1-50

Notes:


Many areas of this plant community are grazed by cattle, and in most cases this

has led to low cover of shrub species and a high weed cover.

This community would have been the most common plant community on

exposed Tamala limestone ridges, but some areas have been reduced to a

simpler community dominated by Acacia rostellifera (plant community 10 Near

Coastal: Acacia rostellifera shrubland), which it sometimes merges with.

Limestone Ridge Melaleuca cardiophylla shrublands occurs from the Buller

locality northwards, high on the first and second ridges from the coast where

there is exposed limestone capping, and on the limestone ridges of Mt Tarcoola

and south-eastwards through Rudds Gully and Jandanol Park.

This plant community corresponds with the Beard vegetation association 387:

Melaleuca cardiophylla thicket, however the scale of the Beard mapping was

too broad to detect this unit in the GRFVS project area, where it often occupies

narrow bands on the ridgetops.



Appendix eight: GRFVS plant communities

MARCH 2010

218

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REGIONAL



Plate A8.12.3:  Photo direction: SE 

 

 



Location: GRV0866, Jandanol Park 

Photographer: L. Atkins

Plate A8.12.4:   Photo direction: SE 

 

 



Location: GRV0867, Jandanol Park 

Photographer: L. Atkins

Plate A8.12.5:  Photo direction: SE 

 

Location: GRV0868, Jandanol Park 



Photographer: L. Atkins


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