April, 2002 Foreword



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Citrus Imports from the Arab Republic of Egypt

A
Review Under Existing Import Conditions for Citrus from Israel


A

pril, 2002



Foreword

© Commonwealth of Australia 2002

This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced by any process without prior written permission from the Commonwealth available from Info Products. Requests and inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Manager, Legislative Services, Info Products, Department of Finance and Administration, GPO Box 1920, Canberra ACT 2601.


CONTENTS

GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS iv

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY viii

..Scope 1

.. Scope 1



..background 1

.. background 1

1.1 The Citrus Industry in Australia 2

1.1 The Citrus Industry in Australia 2

1.2 The Citrus Industry in Egypt 3

1.2 The Citrus Industry in Egypt 3



1.2.1. Citrus Production Areas in Egypt 3

1.2.2. Harvesting Periods for Egyptian Citrus 5

1.2.3. Exports of Citrus from Egypt 5

1.3 Current Australian Quarantine Protocols for Citrus Imports 6

1.3 Current Australian Quarantine Protocols for Citrus Imports 6

1.3.1. Israel 6

1.3.2. New Zealand 7

1.3.3. Spain 7

1.3.4. United States of America 7

..Considerations 7

.. Considerations 7

1.4 Comparison of citrus pests of Egypt and Israel 7

1.4 Comparison of citrus pests of Egypt and Israel 7



..quarantine pests of concern for fresh citrus fruit exports from egypt 9

.. quarantine pests of concern for fresh citrus fruit exports from egypt 9

1.5 Internal Feeding Pests 9

1.5 Internal Feeding Pests 9

1.6 Surface Feeding Pests 10

1.6 Surface Feeding Pests 10

1.7 Fungal Pests 10

1.7 Fungal Pests 10

1.8 Gastropods 12

1.8 Gastropods 12



..Proposed phytosanitary conditions for the importation of citrus from egypt 12

.. Proposed phytosanitary conditions for the importation of citrus from egypt 12

1.9 Orchard Control Program 13

1.9 Orchard Control Program 13



1.9.1. Mediterranean Fruit Fly Control 13

1.9.2. Other pests 14

1.9.3. Registration 14

1.9.4. Packing sheds 14

1.9.5. Washing/ Post-harvest treatment 14

1.9.6. Packaging 15

1.10 Cold Disinfestation 15

1.10 Cold Disinfestation 15

1.10.1. Preshipment Treatment 15

1.10.2. Intransit Treatment 18

1.11 Phytosanitary Certification 20

1.11 Phytosanitary Certification 20

1.12 On Arrival Inspection 21

1.12 On Arrival Inspection 21

1.13 Summary of the Conditions for Citrus Importation from Egypt 21

1.13 Summary of the Conditions for Citrus Importation from Egypt 21

..References 23

.. References 23

APPENDIX 1: PESTS OF CITRUS IN EGYPT AND ISRAEL 25

APPENDIX 2: GASTROPODS (SNAILS) REPORTED IN EGYPT AND ISRAEL 74

APPENDIX 3: DATASHEETS FOR PESTS OF CITRUS IN EGYPT 79

APPENDIX 4: RECORD OF CALIBRATION OF FRUIT SENSORS 139




Figures


Figure 1 Map of Egypt Showing the Twelve Citrus Growing Governorates 4


TABLES


Table 1 Distribution of Citrus Orchards in Egypt 3

Table 2 Citrus Harvesting Periods 5

Table 3 Summary of Potential Citrus Pests in Egypt and Israel 8

Table 4 Potential Quarantine Pests on the Citrus Fruit Pathway 8

Table 5 Arthropod Pests of Citrus in Egypt of Quarantine Concern 9

Table 6 Snails Associated with Citrus Orchards 12

Table 7 Cold Treatment for the Disinfestation of Mediterranean Fruit Fly 15


APPENDICES

GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS iv

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY viii

..Scope 1

.. Scope 1



..background 1

.. background 1

1.1 The Citrus Industry in Australia 2

1.1 The Citrus Industry in Australia 2

1.2 The Citrus Industry in Egypt 3

1.2 The Citrus Industry in Egypt 3



1.2.1. Citrus Production Areas in Egypt 3

1.2.2. Harvesting Periods for Egyptian Citrus 5

1.2.3. Exports of Citrus from Egypt 5

1.3 Current Australian Quarantine Protocols for Citrus Imports 6

1.3 Current Australian Quarantine Protocols for Citrus Imports 6

1.3.1. Israel 6

1.3.2. New Zealand 7

1.3.3. Spain 7

1.3.4. United States of America 7

..Considerations 7

.. Considerations 7

1.4 Comparison of citrus pests of Egypt and Israel 7

1.4 Comparison of citrus pests of Egypt and Israel 7



..quarantine pests of concern for fresh citrus fruit exports from egypt 9

.. quarantine pests of concern for fresh citrus fruit exports from egypt 9

1.5 Internal Feeding Pests 9

1.5 Internal Feeding Pests 9

1.6 Surface Feeding Pests 10

1.6 Surface Feeding Pests 10

1.7 Fungal Pests 10

1.7 Fungal Pests 10

1.8 Gastropods 12

1.8 Gastropods 12



..Proposed phytosanitary conditions for the importation of citrus from egypt 12

.. Proposed phytosanitary conditions for the importation of citrus from egypt 12

1.9 Orchard Control Program 13

1.9 Orchard Control Program 13



1.9.1. Mediterranean Fruit Fly Control 13

1.9.2. Other pests 14

1.9.3. Registration 14

1.9.4. Packing sheds 14

1.9.5. Washing/ Post-harvest treatment 14

1.9.6. Packaging 15

1.10 Cold Disinfestation 15

1.10 Cold Disinfestation 15

1.10.1. Preshipment Treatment 15

1.10.2. Intransit Treatment 18

1.11 Phytosanitary Certification 20

1.11 Phytosanitary Certification 20

1.12 On Arrival Inspection 21

1.12 On Arrival Inspection 21

1.13 Summary of the Conditions for Citrus Importation from Egypt 21

1.13 Summary of the Conditions for Citrus Importation from Egypt 21

..References 23

.. References 23

APPENDIX 1: PESTS OF CITRUS IN EGYPT AND ISRAEL 25

APPENDIX 2: GASTROPODS (SNAILS) REPORTED IN EGYPT AND ISRAEL 74

APPENDIX 3: DATASHEETS FOR PESTS OF CITRUS IN EGYPT 79

APPENDIX 4: RECORD OF CALIBRATION OF FRUIT SENSORS 139






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