• The style of lamps changedfashionveryquicklyin the ancient world. This means lamps make a good dating tool for the archaeologist to use. Why? IFTHESTYLEDIDNOT CHANGELAMPSFROMVARIOUSPERIODSWOULDLOOKTHESAME. THEFASTERTHECHANGETHESMALLERTHETIMEPERIODINWHICH ASPECIFICLAMPSTYLEWASUSED&THEMOREPRECISETHEDATING POSSIBLE
• What is the signon the top of lamp #10 and what does it mean?
• What other signs&symbolswere used on Christian lamps (Hint: lamp #12)? CHI-RHO.
• Jewish lamps like #11 do not have peopleon them like the Roman one #9. Instead they have images of palm branches, grapes, figs, pomegranates and sacred temple implements. Why? (Hint: see Exodus 20:4). EXODUSPROHIBITEDMAKINGIMAGESOF PEOPLEORANIMALS,INCASETHISLETTORELIGIOUSCULTS WORSHIPPINGTHEIMAGES.PLANTSWERENOTPROHIBITED.
• Lamp #11 has the seven-branched candlestick or menorahon the top. This was long after the Romans had destroyed King Herod’s Temple. Why do you think the menorahis on the lamp? THEJEWISHPEOPLEMOURNEDTHELOSSOFTHETEMPLE
Whatdid ancientpeopleuseforwicks andfuel intheirlamps?OLIVEOIL Case4 – Seals and Sealing
• Impression #7 shows the monster HUWAWA who was killed by the hero GILGAMESH
in the famous Epic.
• Impression #6 shows the sun god SHAMASH cutting his way with a saw through mountains on the horizon.
• Impression #9 shows at a banquet (feast). What are they doing? DRINKING Probably beer)
• Inspect the tablet and envelope (#22). Note the traces of cylinder seal impressions around the edges of the envelope. How is this process similar to the practice of using seals of wax on parchment documents of much later times in the medieval world?
• In so far as I know there are no examples of where a seal has become stuck to a tablet marring the impression. What does that tell us about the wetness/dryness of the clay used?
• What might lead you to conclude that it was the wealthier classes who possessed cylinder seals?
• Examine seal impression #15. Why would the seal owner Hash-Hamer (?) want to say he is “the servant” of Ur-Nammu the king of the city of Ur?
• Examine the winged disk above the people and winged figures in seals #16, 17 and 21.
Some writers have claimed this represents a flying saucer. Comment.
• Make a cylinder seal of your own using a small piece of dowel or a cylinder of dry clay.
Draw your figures first and use a SAFE METHOD to engrave some of them. Try your seal out on a piece of dryish clay Show your results to your teacher.
• Make a clay tablet (no need to write on it). Dry in the sun and then enclose it in clay to form an envelope. When thoroughly dry in the sun take it to school and carefully crack it open in front of you class. What do you observe? Has the envelope stuck to the tablet? Comment.
• Cylinder and stamp seals are mentioned several times in the Bible. List some references by using a concordance.
• Hundreds of claybullae(impressions of stamp seals) have been excavated in the rubble of
6thcentury BC Jerusalem. List the dozen or so of the persons whose names appear who are named in the Bible.
Case6 – Coinageof the AncientWorld
• The earliest moneyconsisted of lumps of ELECTRUM a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver.
• The earliest coins(ie. stamped money) were made in the mid 7th century (700-600) BC in the state of LYDIA (see REDPIN) in Asia Minor.
• List the namesofthreeRomanemperorsappearing on coins in Case #6. AUGUSTUS, TIBERIUS,CLAUDIUS,NERO,VESPASIAN,TITUS,DOMITIAN, DIOCLETIAN
• The Greek tetradrachm(pronounced “tet-rar-dramm” even though the singular word is drachmapronounced “drak-mar”) has the OWL of the goddess Athena on the obverse side.
• Coins 1 to 4 are made of SILVER.
• One Roman denariuswas equivalent in value to one Greek DRACHMA(see chart at bottom of case).
• Why were Jewish coins stamped with images of fruit, plants and non-living objects rather than people or faces of people? JEWSINTERPRETEDEXODUS20:4AS APPLYINGTOCOINSASWELLASIDOLS
• Why would the Jews over-stamp Roman coins? (see coin #25). TOSIGNIFYTHEIR REBELLIONAGAINSTROME
• Why would merchants(traders)likethePhoenicianswhose ships traded with the many nations and states around the Mediterranean, prefer to use coinsin their business transactions rather than bartering? COINSMUCHMORECONVENIENTTO CARRY&HADSTANDARDVALUES
• The Perutah (#11) was minted in Judaea by the same Pontius Pilate who surrendered Jesus to be crucified. The coin features an AUGER’S WAND. What is this and how does it throw some light on Matthew 27:19? PILATEVERYSUPERSTITIOUS–THE AUGERUSEDTHEWANDTOTRYTOFORETELL(DIVINE)THEFUTURE
• The bronze coins stamped “Judea Capta” (#s 20, 21, 23) are examples of Roman propaganda. Explain.”JUDEACAPTA”MEANS"JUDAEAHASBEEN CAPTURED".THISHUMILIATEDTHEJEWSWHOHADTOUSETHESE OFFENSIVECOINS
• Coin #23 is stamped SCat the bottom. What does this mean? “SENATUS CONSULATO” - WITHTHEAUTHORITYOFTHEROMANSENATE.MEANS THECOINISLEGALTENDER
Case7 -CuneiformTablets from Sumer andAkkad
Factualrecall: • The term cuneiform refers to the writing on the tablets. What does the word cuneiform mean? “WEDGE-SHAPED”.REFERSTOTHESHAPESOFTHESIGNS IMPRESSEDINTOCLAYTABLETSFROMMESOPOTAMIA
• The clay tablets in case 7 are from twoancientcivilisations, both of which were discovered in Mesopotamia. What were they? (Hint: both civilisations are shaded yellow on the maps). SUMERandAKKAD
• List the typesofanimalsthat were part of the temple flocks of tablet # 4. LAMBSAND SHEEP
• What two types of dyed Sumerian footweardid Lugula (pro. Loo-goo-la) make for the temple at Drehem in about 2030 BC? (See label #7) SHOESANDSANDALS
• Sometimes the burningdownof an ancient city helps archaeologists looking for cuneiform tablets in the present. Explain. THEFIREMAYBAKECUNEIFORM TABLETSMAKINGTHEMIMPERMIABLETOWATER
• Do clay tablets ‘turn’ L-R or ‘flip’ Top-Bottom to the second side (reverse)? Compare to our coins and banknotes. CUNEIFORMTABLETSFLIPTOP-TO-BOTTOM (SOMETIMESTHEBOOTOMEDGEMAYBEINSCRIBED). Compare to our coins and banknotes. AUSTRALIANCOINS&NOTESTURNLEFT-TO-RIGHT
• According to tablet # 5, whatdoes Mr La La have to do ‘without an argument’? PAYHIS DEBT
• What do these tablets tell us about the specialisationofarts/craftsandlabouraround
• What is a colophon (eg. tablet #8) and why would it be needed? AFOOTNOTE.SOME COLOPHONSGIVETHEDATEATABLETWASWRITTEN,NAMEOFTHE SCRIBEANDCONTRACTSSUCHASDEEDSOFPURCHASEANDSALE NAMEWITNESSESTOTHETRANSACTION
• Research the Epicof Gilgameshreferred to on tablet 10. Summarise the story in your own words.
• Tablet 3 refers to emmer, barleyandlegumes. Research the beginnings of agriculture.
• Why would the Sumerians need a catalogue(tablet #10) of the tablets in their library?
• Compare the use of catalogueswith the story of the stolen tablet in the side bar. What does this tell us about care of records in ancient Mesopotamia?
• Biblecriticsonce said that the early books of the Bible could not have been put into written form until about 600 BC because, they argued, writing was unknown until this time. Comment in the light of the excavated evidence