Archaeo-pro master teacher’s cheat sheet for mqs may 2015 Case 3- the Deve



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NOTE that the answers on the ARCHAEO-PRO MASTER TEACHER’S CHEAT SHEET sometimes give more detail than available from the showcases. This is supplementary material for teachers


ARCHAEO-PRO MASTER TEACHER’S CHEAT SHEET

For MQS May 2015

Case 3- The Development of the Lamp in Palestine

Observation/

Factual recall:

• The Canaanite four-spouted lamp #1 comes from the famous city of HAZOR mentioned in the Bible (See Joshua 11 etc.) and Egyptian inscriptions.

• The first lamps were handmade like #1. The lamps after it were made on a WHEEL or made by pouring slip clay into moulds.

• List the numbers of the moulded lamps displayed in case #3:

• King David would have used a lamp like #3. How old is this lamp? 3000 YEARS OLD

• Little lamp #5 comes from the tomb of a man named JASON (a Greek name)

• The oldest lamp in Case 3 dates to C. 1500 BC. The most recent dates to c.600 AD .

• Lamp #7 would have been well known to Jesus and his brothers and sisters. What is unusual about how this sort of lamp was made? THE BASE IS WHEEL MADE. THE SPOUT HANDMADE AND ATTACHED BY SLIP CLAY BEFORE FIRING.




Interpretation:

Most of the lamps show signs of being used. Explain. SOOT DEPOSITS AROUND SPOUT

• The style of lamps changed fashion very quickly in the ancient world. This means lamps make a good dating tool for the archaeologist to use. Why? IF THE STYLE DID NOT CHANGE LAMPS FROM VARIOUS PERIODS WOULD LOOK THE SAME. THE FASTER THE CHANGE THE SMALLER THE TIME PERIOD IN WHICH A SPECIFIC LAMP STYLE WAS USED & THE MORE PRECISE THE DATING POSSIBLE

• What is the sign on the top of lamp #10 and what does it mean?

• What other signs & symbols were used on Christian lamps (Hint: lamp #12)? CHI-RHO.

THE FIRST TWO LETTERS OF THE GREEK TITLE CHRISTOS - CHRIST

Extension & Research:

• Jewish lamps like #11 do not have people on them like the Roman one #9. Instead they have images of palm branches, grapes, figs, pomegranates and sacred temple implements. Why? (Hint: see Exodus 20:4). EXODUS PROHIBITED MAKING IMAGES OF PEOPLE OR ANIMALS, IN CASE THIS LET TO RELIGIOUS CULTS WORSHIPPING THE IMAGES. PLANTS WERE NOT PROHIBITED.


• Lamp #11 has the seven-branched candlestick or menorah on the top. This was long after the Romans had destroyed King Herod’s Temple. Why do you think the menorah is on the lamp? THE JEWISH PEOPLE MOURNED THE LOSS OF THE TEMPLE

What did ancient people use for wicks and fuel in their lamps? OLIVE OIL
Case 4 – Seals and Sealing

Observation/

Factual recall:

• Cylinder seals were invented around 3500BC

• Impression #7 shows the monster HUWAWA who was killed by the hero GILGAMESH

in the famous Epic.

• Impression #6 shows the sun god SHAMASH cutting his way with a saw through mountains on the horizon.

• Impression #9 shows at a banquet (feast). What are they doing? DRINKING Probably beer)



Interpretation:

• Inspect the tablet and envelope (#22). Note the traces of cylinder seal impressions around the edges of the envelope. How is this process similar to the practice of using seals of wax on parchment documents of much later times in the medieval world?

• In so far as I know there are no examples of where a seal has become stuck to a tablet marring the impression. What does that tell us about the wetness/dryness of the clay used?

• What might lead you to conclude that it was the wealthier classes who possessed cylinder seals?

• Examine seal impression #15. Why would the seal owner Hash-Hamer (?) want to say he is “the servant” of Ur-Nammu the king of the city of Ur?

• Examine the winged disk above the people and winged figures in seals #16, 17 and 21.

Some writers have claimed this represents a flying saucer. Comment.
Extension & Research:

• Make a cylinder seal of your own using a small piece of dowel or a cylinder of dry clay.

Draw your figures first and use a SAFE METHOD to engrave some of them. Try your seal out on a piece of dryish clay Show your results to your teacher.

• Make a clay tablet (no need to write on it). Dry in the sun and then enclose it in clay to form an envelope. When thoroughly dry in the sun take it to school and carefully crack it open in front of you class. What do you observe? Has the envelope stuck to the tablet? Comment.

• Cylinder and stamp seals are mentioned several times in the Bible. List some references by using a concordance.

• Hundreds of clay bullae (impressions of stamp seals) have been excavated in the rubble of

6th century BC Jerusalem. List the dozen or so of the persons whose names appear who are named in the Bible.

Case 6 – Coinage of the Ancient World

Observation/

Factual recall:

The earliest money consisted of lumps of ELECTRUM a naturally occurring alloy of gold and silver.

• The earliest coins (ie. stamped money) were made in the mid 7th century (700-600) BC in the state of LYDIA (see RED PIN) in Asia Minor.

• List the names of three Roman emperors appearing on coins in Case #6. AUGUSTUS, TIBERIUS, CLAUDIUS, NERO, VESPASIAN, TITUS, DOMITIAN, DIOCLETIAN

The Greek tetradrachm (pronounced “tet-rar-dramm” even though the singular word is drachma pronounced “drak-mar”) has the OWL of the goddess Athena on the obverse side.

• Coins 1 to 4 are made of SILVER.

• One Roman denarius was equivalent in value to one Greek DRACHMA (see chart at bottom of case).
Interpretation:

• Why were Jewish coins stamped with images of fruit, plants and non-living objects rather than people or faces of people? JEWS INTERPRETED EXODUS 20:4 AS APPLYING TO COINS AS WELL AS IDOLS

• Why would the Jews over-stamp Roman coins? (see coin #25). TO SIGNIFY THEIR REBELLION AGAINST ROME

• Why would merchants (traders) like the Phoenicians whose ships traded with the many nations and states around the Mediterranean, prefer to use coins in their business transactions rather than bartering? COINS MUCH MORE CONVENIENT TO CARRY & HAD STANDARD VALUES



Extension & Research:

• The Perutah (#11) was minted in Judaea by the same Pontius Pilate who surrendered Jesus to be crucified. The coin features an AUGER’S WAND. What is this and how does it throw some light on Matthew 27:19? PILATE VERY SUPERSTITIOUS THE AUGER USED THE WAND TO TRY TO FORETELL (DIVINE) THE FUTURE

• The bronze coins stamped “Judea Capta” (#s 20, 21, 23) are examples of Roman propaganda. Explain.JUDEA CAPTA MEANS "JUDAEA HAS BEEN CAPTURED". THIS HUMILIATED THE JEWS WHO HAD TO USE THESE OFFENSIVE COINS

• Coin #23 is stamped SC at the bottom. What does this mean? SENATUS CONSULATO - WITH THE AUTHORITY OF THE ROMAN SENATE. MEANS THE COIN IS LEGAL TENDER



Case 7 - Cuneiform Tablets from Sumer and Akkad

Observation/

Factual recall:
• The term cuneiform refers to the writing on the tablets. What does the word cuneiform mean? WEDGE-SHAPED”. REFERS TO THE SHAPES OF THE SIGNS IMPRESSED INTO CLAY TABLETS FROM MESOPOTAMIA

• The clay tablets in case 7 are from two ancient civilisations, both of which were discovered in Mesopotamia. What were they? (Hint: both civilisations are shaded yellow on the maps). SUMER and AKKAD

• List the types of animals that were part of the temple flocks of tablet # 4. LAMBS AND SHEEP

• What two types of dyed Sumerian footwear did Lugula (pro. Loo-goo-la) make for the temple at Drehem in about 2030 BC? (See label #7) SHOES AND SANDALS

• Sometimes the burning down of an ancient city helps archaeologists looking for cuneiform tablets in the present. Explain. THE FIRE MAY BAKE CUNEIFORM TABLETS MAKING THEM IMPERMIABLE TO WATER

• Do clay tablets ‘turn’ L-R or ‘flip’ Top-Bottom to the second side (reverse)? Compare to our coins and banknotes. CUNEIFORM TABLETS FLIP TOP-TO-BOTTOM (SOMETIMES THE BOOTOM EDGE MAY BE INSCRIBED). Compare to our coins and banknotes. AUSTRALIAN COINS & NOTES TURN LEFT-TO-RIGHT



Interpretation:

• According to tablet # 5, what does Mr La La have to do ‘without an argument’? PAY HIS DEBT

• What do these tablets tell us about the specialisation of arts/crafts and labour around

2000 BC? SPECIALIZATION WAS WELL ADVANCED. IT IS ONE OF THE FEATURES OF A SEDENTARY CIVILIZATION

• The Sumerians and later the Akkadians centred their civilisations on the valleys of the

Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Why? THE RIVERS IRRIGATED THE RICH ALLUVIAL SILTED SOIL NEXT TO THEIR BANKS FOR FARMING AND PROVIDED BOAT TRANSPORTATION

• What was the primary use of the cereal barley in Akkad? See tablet #3. BREWING BEER

• What is a colophon (eg. tablet #8) and why would it be needed? A FOOTNOTE. SOME COLOPHONS GIVE THE DATE A TABLET WAS WRITTEN, NAME OF THE SCRIBE AND CONTRACTS SUCH AS DEEDS OF PURCHASE AND SALE NAME WITNESSES TO THE TRANSACTION



Extension & Research:

• Research the Epic of Gilgamesh referred to on tablet 10. Summarise the story in your own words.

• Tablet 3 refers to emmer, barley and legumes. Research the beginnings of agriculture.

• Why would the Sumerians need a catalogue (tablet #10) of the tablets in their library?

• Compare the use of catalogues with the story of the stolen tablet in the side bar. What does this tell us about care of records in ancient Mesopotamia?

Bible critics once said that the early books of the Bible could not have been put into written form until about 600 BC because, they argued, writing was unknown until this time. Comment in the light of the excavated evidence



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