Azerbaijan which is situated in the main part of the south-east of the
Caucasus, has beneficial naturally-geographically situation. There are all conditions of
appearing and development of all branches of material culture. Azerbaijan people using
riches of nature, made and developed its own culture many centuries. Not accidentally
that is the second part of the "Ethnography of Azerbaijan" dedicated to this problem.
Azerbaijan is one of the hearths of the world civilization.
found and settled here 2 mln. years ago for many centures. Our people as
one the ancient and cultural ethnos could make and save and report to
descendant the unical heritage of material culture.
Favorable natural conditions of Azerbaijan its rich flora and
fauna, antiquity of local population, economical mode of life,
difference of trades, material and spiritual culture from ethnographic
point of view had more deep roots.
Azerbaijan people had kept economical and cultural ties with people of the
Caucasus and other regions. These close contacts helped to enrich material and
Therefore the ethnography of Azerbaijan is inseparable part of ethnography of
the Caucasus, in more wide meaning to this important part allotted especially attention.
Any problem of this work explored as a historical regularity and compared with
culture of the other people.
The ethnography does not only study many - sided activity of people, fixed
and described, aspires to restore, holding on chronology, shows genesis from simple
to compound, approached to the problem accordingly to the requirement of time.
The ethnographical science studies and observes events, the matter origin, the
period of development, the problem of deformation of subject, helped to remove
negative cause and showed new ways of development. Without studying the rich
heritage of people is impossible to understand the stage of development the history of
struggle material cultural and spiritual world. Ethnography as a science helps to study
ancient and modern history, culture of people, enriches them with information, saves
for future generation, ensures historical following spiritual heritage.
The second part of "Ethnography of Azerbaijan" that differs with deep
meaning and research, is a result of hard work and prints the first time. The main part
is allotted to the field ethnographic materials and also to the scientifical research. The
book widely used numerous sources, notes of foreign and native traveller, the last
achievements of the archaeology, the archive files, the collection of different museums,
the folklore and the art.
The publication of the 2-nd part of "Ethnology of Azerbaijan" which has
great scientifical, practical and educated meaning will entry main investment to light
and enrich the history of our people, archaeology, architecture and art.
The presented scientific work had lighted ethnography of Azerbaijan from
ancient times till the beginning of 20 century. However, the main object of research is
XIX-XX century. In the 2-nd part were found through reflection of the problem of
material culture, as important component of ethnographic science.
One of the main part of material culture is a settle and a dwelling was through
studied in this book. From the ancient times on the territory of Azerbaijan and in the
different regions the primitive people occupied with hunting and fishing could ensure
themselves with dwelling.
The ancients, who lived in zones with heartwarming and advantageous
climate could live beneath the sky. However with the advent of ice-age, the people had
to conform with the austere climate. For aong time, they made a simple dress from the
furs of animals for themselves and colonized in caves and in different covertures. The
history of artificial and intificial location in our territory ascendes to palaeolit. In
mountainous and foothills regions of Azerbaijan, scientists described many caves other
inartificial covertures of that period.
In dissolution period of aboriginal order and formation of class society
more characteristically were the rural locations. They are types of locations, like
"oba", "shenlik", "yurd", "dusherge", "gishlag", "yaylag" "bina" and etc.
Doubtless, one of these types of location reports towns. With the formation of
government in Azerbaijan, in the I thousand years before our century, begun growing of
towns like Tebriz, Ardebil, Maraga, Shemaxa, Kabala, Barda, Derbent, Gandja,
Nakhchivan, Baku, Beylagan, Shabran, Shusha and etc. In this work comprehensivly
illuminated many important questions of material culture, like planning of towns, its
external and inland figuration, the palace of governors, administrative buildings, blocks
of artificers and merchants.
Azerbaijan abodes stand out with their diversity. In this book distinguish that
abode insures convenience, comfort, housewifely and being instance of a man. In
diversity types of abodes the great role plays constructional material. In construction
were used stone, brick, wood, clay, sand, lime-stone, tile, reed and felt. The skilful
foremen used shovel, "kerpich gelibi", axe, for hew of rock, hammer for break off
stone, iron saws, knives, axes, pitchfork plane, vice and etc.
The great interest adduce series manner and ceremonies with the culture
of construction. This manner and ceremonies show attainment and pregnant
empiric experience of domestic skilful foremen, and also reflect positive aspects of
culture of construction. Its a custom the "agsakkali" bless the ground, where the
foremen decide to build the house. As a rule they didn't recommend to build the
house "el agzinda, sel agzinda, yol agzinda".
After leading up works, the bricklayer wished the future host happiness and
success in his house. The future host thanked him and wished success in his work. The
construction of the house began with the immolation, dispensed "nazir-niyaz". The
symbols of happiness were coin, corns, bread and salt. The host locked all these
symbols at the raising of fundament. After the construction the host settled the treat and
everybody wished them happiness in a new house.
Constituent of material culture are traditional dress and ornamentations. The
traditional dresses help in researches of moral culture. Dresses and ornamentations,
which were conserved their archaic in spread of the centures, helps in learning of
The history of dressing culture is ascended to the stone age. In dressing culture
the main role is playing indegenous-geographic and climatic conditions.
The cattle-ranch, espessialy sheeps had a great development in epoch of
neolit. It gave a considerable jolt in weave, which was play a head role in life of
indegenous population. In brassy century, in epoch of bronze and early iron the weave
conduced to engender and enlarge of new look dresses. The archaeological and
historical headquarters attest about diversity of dresses in Manna, Middy,
The development of weave and making dresses distinguishes in Tebriz,
Ardebil, Maraga, Shemaxa, Gandja, Ordubad and another Azerbaijan towns. The plenty of
fleece, silk, flax, leather in territory of Azerbaijan made a good condition for creation of
diversity dresses. As a rule in Azerbaijan the traditional dresses divided into 3 types:
woman, man, nursery.
In researches the head place is given to woman dress, was shown its
advantages. The traditional woman dress attracts attention with the gentle quality of
cloth, with the pregnant ornaments. The particular place paved to season, day-to-day,
convivial, bridal, mourning dress.
In this work distinguished place consists of man suit, was shown importance and
role of outwear, underclothes, footwear and head-dress. In historical aspect was lightened
the dress of pauper aud moneyed, badbeeu given comprehensive intern gences about trie
Ornaments, completing the ensemble of woman, man, nursery dresses had
given in chronologicaly consecution. Documentary had proven many ages history of
jewellery ornaments production. Earings, rings, armlets, necklace, medallions, pins,
clasp-pins, belts and other manufactured of our jewellers are attract the attention with
their elegance and beauty.
One of the great discoveries of the world civilization in the culture of
agriculture. The more ancient and leading of them in Azerbaijan was the cornculture. In
this branch of agriculture people learnt not only to sow, to keep com, but also digested
the methods of digesting which became the initial stage of bread-baking. People had
yet learnt to get the flour in neolit using the ordinary cornplough. On the following
stages of the agricultural development, appeared the more progressive cornplough. On
the transitional period from cornplough to the more progressive methods of the
cultivating grains, the main role played the hand mills - "kirkira". Starting from the
period of establishing the class society, as a result of general expansion of the
grainculture, water, wind mills working with the help of mills power changed each
In this work in chronologicaly consecution had researched manners and means
ground "tendiri" in different constructions in bread-baking. In work had given
circumstantial intelligences about the utensil, using in bread-baking, starting from the
riddle of flour to bread-baking - "ələk", "kəsdi", "xərək", "külçəbasan" and etc.
Bread - as a holy donation. There are many manners and ceremonies,
by words: "if you want pregnant harvest-take a shovel", "You can give over the child -
but not a bread' etc.
In ancient period people ate and drank for the satisfaction of inartificial
need. Aboricinal people ate savage corns, fruits, meet of savage annimals, fishes.
Due to enpiric experience, traditions Azerbaijan people learnt to make different
dishes, omnifarious non-alcoholic drinks. In work had found lighting omnifarious
traditional pastry and sweets, floury, meaty, fishy dishes. The main role emploied
learning ritual food, regime food, utensil using in preparing of different dishes.
The constituent of material culture is a popular transportation.
Azerbaijanian established series transportation from artless to refinements,
particulary essential in housewifery being. The ancient transportation relates to
All sections accommodates of pregnant illustration materials.
On the second volume are described problems on family and private life.
Investigation on above mentioned considerable problem conducts scientists of the
different fields -philosophers, psychologists, jurists and etc. However, naturally the fact
that, this sphere, as a component part of the ethnographical science, absorbs more deep
attention by the specialists of this fields than representatives of the other sciences.
Family keeps hereditary traditions down the centuries. Family forms the
meaning and fundament of the family life. Family is society's basis, standard and
criterion. Family is the biggest wealth of the mankind and the small part of the state.
Family as the historical category presents the small collective in the society. Azeri
historic has two forms of the family: the numerous patriarchal family and individual
family. These two forms distinguished with their structure and member's numbers. The
numerous patriarchal family or family community consisted of the representatives of
three, four and sometimes up five descendants. These kind of family unified father, son,
grandson, and seven brothers. All the component parts of this family were included into
family community, lived together in on big house "karadame" and have common
economy. The family community lead patriarch. In XIX-XX centuries in Azerbaijan
although were existed in a slight number the patriarchal families, but the dominated
form of the family was individual family, which was formed as a result of disintegration
the family community and separation adult sons after marriage. The numerous
patriarchal and individual families distinguished also with the other two qualitative
features. First of all, the numerous patriarchal families' property belonged to all the
members of the family community. The individual family's property was considerate as
a property of the head of family only. Secondly, the numerous patriarchal family
consisted of 3-5 descendants vertically, and 7 brothers horizontally. The individual
family consisted of 2-3 descendants vertically.
The individual families divided into two types, commons and compounds.
The common family consists of two descendants (father-mother and their children); the
compound consists of three descendants (grandfather-grandmother, father-mother and
Accordingly to the Azeri national traditions, in each family father was obliged
to bring up, train and marry off children. This father's charges are provided with his
three main functions: housekeeping, continuation the generation and upbringing
children. Interrelations among the family members (husband and wife, daughter-in-law
and mother-in-law, parents and children) forms on the basis of traditions closely related
with the mentioned functions. All these questions are widely covered in the chapter,
which devoted to the consideration problem on family and family way of life. This
chapter contains a special subsection dedicated to the family-matrimonial relations.
Here is given exogamic and endogamy matrimonial customs, their monogamy and
polygamy forms which existed in Azerbaijan during the primitive communal system.
By the Middle Ages the matrimonial relations, including identification the circle of the
relatives, among of whom were allowed marriage have been regulated by religious. In
subsection is given the survival rates on marriage, customs levirate and sorority, rules
on abduction girls and etc.
In the chapter "Family and family mode of life" stated all the periods on the
wedding process: admiring, matchmaking, engagement, wedding celebrations and
some aspects concerning of post-wedding period. Here also are given ceremonies,
customs and traditions, different kind of dishes, songs, dances, sport competitions and
etc. which are closely related with the wedding process.
In the book characterized the first period common life of bridegroom and bride,
the special happy events in connection with the pregnancy of a young woman, birth baby,
described the rituals defended against evil spirit a pregnant woman and newborn infant
The last part of the section "Family and family mode of life" dedicate to
mourning and funeral rituals. Here is given funeral rites, connected with bewailing
decedents, mourning motets, funeral repast and maintenance the ritual "Gara bayram"
(Black holiday) by the members of family and closely relatives along the one year
after the dead day of dearth.