AZƏrbaycan etnoqrafiyası ÜÇ Cİlldə II ciLDƏ ŞƏrq-qərb baki 2007 Baş redaktor: Teymur Bünyadov



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                                                  SUMMARY

Azerbaijan which is situated in the main part of the south-east of the

Caucasus, has beneficial naturally-geographically situation. There are all conditions of

appearing and development of all branches of material culture. Azerbaijan people using

riches of nature, made and developed its own culture many centuries. Not accidentally

that is the second part of the "Ethnography of Azerbaijan" dedicated to this problem.

Azerbaijan is one of the hearths of the world civilization.

 Our ancestry

found and settled here 2 mln. years ago for many centures. Our people as

one the ancient and cultural ethnos could make and save and report to

descendant the unical heritage of material culture.

Favorable natural conditions of Azerbaijan its rich flora and

fauna, antiquity of local population, economical mode of life,

difference of trades, material and spiritual culture from ethnographic

point of view had more deep roots.

Azerbaijan people had kept economical and cultural ties with people of the

Caucasus and other regions. These close contacts helped to enrich material and

spiritual culture.

Therefore the ethnography of Azerbaijan is inseparable part of ethnography of

the Caucasus, in more wide meaning to this important part allotted especially attention.

Any problem of this work explored as a historical regularity and compared with

culture of the other people.

The ethnography does not only study many - sided activity of people, fixed

and described, aspires to restore, holding on chronology, shows genesis from simple

to compound, approached to the problem accordingly to the requirement of time.

The ethnographical science studies and observes events, the matter origin, the

period of development, the problem of deformation of subject, helped to remove

negative cause and showed new ways of development. Without studying the rich

heritage of people is impossible to understand the stage of development the history of

struggle material cultural and spiritual world. Ethnography as a science helps to study

ancient and modern history, culture of people, enriches them with information, saves

for future generation, ensures historical following spiritual heritage.

The second part of "Ethnography of Azerbaijan" that differs with deep

meaning and research, is a result of hard work and prints the first time. The main part

is allotted to the field ethnographic materials and also to the scientifical research. The

book widely used numerous sources, notes of foreign and native traveller, the last

achievements of the archaeology, the archive files, the collection of different museums,

the folklore and the art.



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The publication of the 2-nd part of "Ethnology of Azerbaijan" which has

great scientifical, practical and educated meaning will entry main investment to light

and enrich the history of our people, archaeology, architecture and art.

The presented scientific work had lighted ethnography of Azerbaijan from

ancient times till the beginning of 20 century. However, the main object of research is

XIX-XX century. In the 2-nd part were found through reflection of the problem of

material culture, as important component of ethnographic science.

One of the main part of material culture is a settle and a dwelling was through

studied in this book. From the ancient times on the territory of Azerbaijan and in the

different regions the primitive people occupied with hunting and fishing could ensure

themselves with dwelling.

The ancients, who lived in zones with heartwarming and advantageous

climate could live beneath the sky. However with the advent of ice-age, the people had

to conform with the austere climate. For aong time, they made a simple dress from the

furs of animals for themselves and colonized in caves and in different covertures. The

history of artificial and intificial location in our territory ascendes to palaeolit. In

mountainous and foothills regions of Azerbaijan, scientists described many caves other

inartificial covertures of that period.

In dissolution period of aboriginal order and formation of class society

more characteristically were the rural locations. They are types of locations, like

"oba", "shenlik", "yurd", "dusherge", "gishlag", "yaylag" "bina" and etc.

Doubtless, one of these types of location reports towns. With the formation of

government in Azerbaijan, in the I thousand years before our century, begun growing of

towns like Tebriz, Ardebil, Maraga, Shemaxa, Kabala, Barda, Derbent, Gandja,

Nakhchivan, Baku, Beylagan, Shabran, Shusha and etc. In this work comprehensivly

illuminated many important questions of material culture, like planning of towns, its

external and inland figuration, the palace of governors, administrative buildings, blocks

of artificers and merchants.

Azerbaijan abodes stand out with their diversity. In this book distinguish that

abode insures convenience, comfort, housewifely and being instance of a man. In

diversity types of abodes the great role plays constructional material. In construction

were used stone, brick, wood, clay, sand, lime-stone, tile, reed and felt. The skilful

foremen used shovel, "kerpich gelibi", axe, for hew of rock, hammer for break off

stone, iron saws, knives, axes, pitchfork plane, vice and etc.

The great interest adduce series manner and ceremonies with the culture

of construction. This manner and ceremonies show attainment and pregnant

empiric experience of domestic skilful foremen, and also reflect positive aspects of

culture of construction. Its a custom the "agsakkali" bless the ground, where the

foremen decide to build the house. As a rule they didn't recommend to build the

house "el agzinda, sel agzinda, yol agzinda".


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After leading up works, the bricklayer wished the future host happiness and

success in his house. The future host thanked him and wished success in his work. The

construction of the house began with the immolation, dispensed "nazir-niyaz". The

symbols of happiness were coin, corns, bread and salt. The host locked all these

symbols at the raising of fundament. After the construction the host settled the treat and

everybody wished them happiness in a new house.

Constituent of material culture are traditional dress and ornamentations. The

traditional dresses help in researches of moral culture. Dresses and ornamentations,

which were conserved their archaic in spread of the centures, helps in learning of

ethnogenez.

The history of dressing culture is ascended to the stone age. In dressing culture

the main role is playing indegenous-geographic and climatic conditions.

The cattle-ranch, espessialy sheeps had a great development in epoch of

neolit.  It  gave  a  considerable  jolt  in  weave,  which  was  play  a  head  role  in  life  of

indegenous population. In brassy century, in epoch of bronze and early iron the weave

conduced to engender and enlarge of new look dresses. The archaeological and

historical headquarters attest about diversity of dresses in Manna, Middy,

Atropatena, Alban.

The development of weave and making dresses distinguishes in Tebriz,

Ardebil, Maraga, Shemaxa, Gandja, Ordubad and another Azerbaijan towns. The plenty of

fleece, silk, flax, leather in territory of Azerbaijan made a good condition for creation of

diversity dresses. As a rule in Azerbaijan the traditional dresses divided into 3 types:

woman, man, nursery.

In researches the head place is given to woman dress, was shown its

advantages. The traditional woman dress attracts attention with the gentle quality of

cloth, with the pregnant ornaments. The particular place paved to season, day-to-day,

convivial, bridal, mourning dress.

In this work distinguished place consists of man suit, was shown importance and

role of outwear, underclothes, footwear and head-dress. In historical aspect was lightened

the dress of pauper aud moneyed, badbeeu given comprehensive intern gences about trie

nursery dress.

Ornaments, completing the ensemble of woman, man, nursery dresses had

given in chronologicaly consecution. Documentary had proven many ages history of

jewellery ornaments production. Earings, rings, armlets, necklace, medallions, pins,

clasp-pins, belts and other manufactured of our jewellers are attract the attention with

their elegance and beauty.

One of the great discoveries of the world civilization in the culture of

agriculture. The more ancient and leading of them in Azerbaijan was the cornculture. In

this branch of agriculture people learnt not only to sow, to keep com, but also digested

the methods of digesting which became the initial stage of bread-baking. People had

yet learnt to get the flour in neolit using the ordinary cornplough. On the following



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stages of the agricultural development, appeared the more progressive cornplough. On

the transitional period from cornplough to the more progressive methods of the

cultivating grains, the main role played the hand mills - "kirkira". Starting from the

period of establishing the class society, as a result of general expansion of the

grainculture, water, wind mills working with the help of mills power changed each

other.

In this work in chronologicaly consecution had researched manners and means



of bread-baking. Many ages our people used simple holes, stone hearth, above-

ground "tendiri" in different constructions in bread-baking. In work had given

circumstantial intelligences about the utensil, using in bread-baking, starting from the

riddle of flour to bread-baking - "ələk", "kəsdi", "xərək", "külçəbasan" and etc.

Bread - as a holy donation. There are many manners and ceremonies,

by words: "if you want pregnant harvest-take a shovel", "You can give over the child -

but not a bread' etc.

In ancient period people ate and drank for the satisfaction of inartificial

need. Aboricinal people ate savage corns, fruits, meet of savage annimals, fishes.

Due to enpiric experience, traditions Azerbaijan people learnt to make different

dishes, omnifarious non-alcoholic drinks. In work had found lighting omnifarious

traditional pastry and sweets, floury, meaty, fishy dishes. The main role emploied

learning ritual food, regime food, utensil using in preparing of different dishes.

The constituent of material culture is a popular transportation.

Azerbaijanian established series transportation from artless to refinements,

particulary essential in housewifery being. The ancient transportation relates to

aboriginal order.

All sections accommodates of pregnant illustration materials.

On the second volume are described problems on family and private life.

Investigation on above mentioned considerable problem conducts scientists of the

different fields -philosophers, psychologists, jurists and etc. However, naturally the fact

that, this sphere, as a component part of the ethnographical science, absorbs more deep

attention by the specialists of this fields than representatives of the other sciences.

Family keeps hereditary traditions down the centuries. Family forms the

meaning and fundament of the family life. Family is society's basis, standard and

criterion. Family is the biggest wealth of the mankind and the small part of the state.

Family as the historical category presents the small collective in the society. Azeri

historic has two forms of the family: the numerous patriarchal family and individual

family. These two forms distinguished with their structure and member's numbers. The

numerous patriarchal family or family community consisted of the representatives of

three, four and sometimes up five descendants. These kind of family unified father, son,

grandson, and seven brothers. All the component parts of this family were included into

family community, lived together in on big house "karadame" and have common

economy. The family community lead patriarch. In XIX-XX centuries in Azerbaijan



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although were existed in a slight number the patriarchal families, but the dominated

form of the family was individual family, which was formed as a result of disintegration

the family community and separation adult sons after marriage. The numerous

patriarchal and individual families distinguished also with the other two qualitative

features. First of all, the numerous patriarchal families' property belonged to all the

members of the family community. The individual family's property was considerate as

a property of the head of family only. Secondly, the numerous patriarchal family

consisted of 3-5 descendants vertically, and 7 brothers horizontally. The individual

family consisted of 2-3 descendants vertically.

The individual families divided into two types, commons and compounds.

The common family consists of two descendants (father-mother and their children); the

compound consists of three descendants (grandfather-grandmother, father-mother and

grandchildren).

Accordingly to the Azeri national traditions, in each family father was obliged

to bring up, train and marry off children. This father's charges are provided with his

three main functions: housekeeping, continuation the generation and upbringing

children. Interrelations among the family members (husband and wife, daughter-in-law

and mother-in-law, parents and children) forms on the basis of traditions closely related

with the mentioned functions. All these questions are widely covered in the chapter,

which devoted to the consideration problem on family and family way of life. This

chapter contains a special subsection dedicated to the family-matrimonial relations.

Here is given exogamic and endogamy matrimonial customs, their monogamy and

polygamy forms which existed in Azerbaijan during the primitive communal system.

By the Middle Ages the matrimonial relations, including identification the circle of the

relatives, among of whom were allowed marriage have been regulated by religious. In

subsection is given the survival rates on marriage, customs levirate and sorority, rules

on abduction girls and etc.

In the chapter "Family and family mode of life" stated all the periods on the

wedding process: admiring, matchmaking, engagement, wedding celebrations and

some aspects concerning of post-wedding period. Here also are given ceremonies,

customs and traditions, different kind of dishes, songs, dances, sport competitions and

etc. which are closely related with the wedding process.

In the book characterized the first period common life of bridegroom and bride,

the special happy events in connection with the pregnancy of a young woman, birth baby,

described the rituals defended against evil spirit a pregnant woman and newborn infant

and etc.

The last part of the section "Family and family mode of life" dedicate to

mourning and funeral rituals. Here is given funeral rites, connected with bewailing

decedents, mourning motets, funeral repast and maintenance the ritual "Gara bayram"

(Black holiday) by the members of family and closely relatives along the one year

after the dead day of dearth.



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