Азярбайъан милли елмляр академийасы м. Фцзули адына ялйазмалар институту



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Ключевые  слова:  игра,  мотивация,  обучать;  движущая  сила,  словарь,  поо-

щрять, развлекать, беглость (речи), обсуждать, произношение, правописание, 

разговор, слушание, осуществление на практике.  

 

Games offer students a fun-filled and relaxing learning atmosphere. After 



learning and practicing new vocabulary, students have the opportunity to use 

language in a non-stressful way. While playing games, the learners' attention is on 

the message, not on the language. Raather than pay attention to the correctness of 

linguistic forms, most participants will do all they can to win. This eases the fear of 

negative evaluation, the concern of being negatively judged in public, and which is 

one of the main factors inhibiting language learners from using the target language 

in front of other people. In a game-oriented context, anxiety is reduced and speech 

fluency is generated--thus communicative competence is achieved. 

Games are also motivating. Games introduce an element of competition into 

language-building activities. In other words, these activities create a meaningful 

context for language use. The competitive ambiance also makes learners concen-

trate and think intensively during the learning process, which enhances unconscious 

acquisition of inputs. Most students who have experienced game-oriented activities 

hold positive attitudes towards them. Games encourage, entertain, teach, and 

promote fluency. If not for any of these reasons, they should be used just because 

they help students see beauty in a foreign language and not just problems. There are 

many factors to consider while discussing games, one of which is appropriacy. 

Teachers should be very careful about choosing games if they want to make them 

profitable for the learning process. If games are to bring desired results, they must 

correspond to either the student's level, or age, or to the material that is to be 

introduced or practiced. Not all games are appropriate for all students irrespective 

of their age. Different age groups require various topics, materials, and modes of 

games. For example, children benefit most from games which require moving 

around, imitating a model, competing between groups and the like. Furthermore, 

structural games that practice or reinforce a certain grammatical aspect of language 

have to relate to students' abilities and prior knowledge. Games become difficult 

when the task or the topic is unsuitable or outside the student's experience.  

        Games also help the teacher to create contexts in which the language is useful 

and meaningful. The learners want to take part and in order to do so must unders-

tand what others are saying or have written, and they must speak or write in order to 

express their own point of view or give information. The need for meaningfulness 

in language learning has been accepted for some years. A useful interpretation of 



 

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19

'meaningfulness' is that the learners respond to the content in a definite way. If they 

are amused, angered, intrigued or surprised the content is clearly meaningful to 

them. Thus the meaning of the language they listen to, read, speak and write will be 

more vividly experienced and, therefore, better remembered. 

If it is accepted that games can provide intense and meaningful practice of 

language, then they must be regarded as central to a teacher's repertoire. They are 

thus not for use solely on wet days and at the end of term!' 

Games are highly motivating because they are amusing and interesting. They 

can be used to give practice in all language skills and be used to practice many ty-

pes of communication. 'There is a common perception that all learning should be 

serious and solemn in nature, and that if one is having fun and there is hilarity and 

laughter, then it is not really learning. This is a misconception. It is possible to learn 

a language as well as enjoy oneself at the same time. One of the best ways of doing 

this is through games.' Games have been shown to have advantages and effecti-

veness in learning vocabulary in various ways. First, games bring in relaxation and 

fun for students, thus help them learn and retain new words more easily. Second, 

games usually involve friendly competition and they keep learners interested. These 

create the motivation for learners of English to get involved and participate actively 

in the learning activities. Third, vocabulary games bring real world context into the 

classroom, and enhance students' use of English in a flexible, communicative way.'   

'Therefore, the role of games in teaching and learning vocabulary cannot be 

denied. However, in order to achieve the most from vocabulary games, it is 

essential that suitable games are chosen. Whenever a game is to be conducted, the 

number of students, proficiency level, cultural context, timing, learning topic, and 

the classroom settings are factors that should be taken into account.' 

A game should be planned into the day’s lesson right along with exercises, 

dialogues and reading practice. It should not be an afterthought.  

Learning Vocabulary - Games have been shown to have advantages and effec-

tiveness in learning vocabulary in various ways. First, games bring in relaxation and 

fun for students, thus help them learn and retain new words more easily. Second, 

games usually involve friendly competition and they keep learners interested. These 

create the motivation for learners of English to get involved and participate actively 

in the learning activities. Third, vocabulary games bring real world context into the 

classroom, and enhance students' use of English in a flexible, communicative way.' 

Grammar is perhaps so serious and central in learning another language that 

all ways should be searched for which will focus student energy on the task of mas-

tering and internalizing it. One way of focusing this energy is through the release 

offered by games. Teenagers are delighted to be asked to do something that feels li-

ke an out-class activity and in which they control what is going on in the classroom 

– they become the subjects, while for a lot of the 15,000 hours they spend in schools 

they are the objects of teaching. The point is that fun generates energy for the 

achievement of the serious goal.  

Where exactly do such games fit into a teaching programme? Grammar games 

can be used in three ways: 

· diagnostically before presenting a given structure area to find out how much 

knowledge of the area is already disjointedly present in the group; 


 

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20

· after a grammar presentation to see how much the group have grasped; 

· as revision of a grammar area. 

One should not use grammar games as a Friday afternoon ‘reward’ activity. 

Using them as a central part of the students’ learning process would be a better idea. 

Thus, each game is proposed for a given level ranging from beginner to advanced. 

This refers simply to the grammar content of that particular game. But, as it has be-

en already mentioned above, a lot of activities can be adapted to different classes 

with different grammar components. By changing the grammar content a teacher 

can, in many cases, use the game frame offered at a higher or lower level. General-

ly, any frame can be filled with any structures you want to work on with your stu-

dents. The students have to take individual responsibility for what they think the 

grammar is about. The teacher is free to find out what the students actually know, 

without being the focus of their attention. Serious work is taking place in the 

context of a game. The dice throwing and arguing lightens and enlivens the clas-

sroom atmosphere in a way that most people do not associate with the grammar part 

of a course. The ‘game’ locomotive pulls the grammar train along. Everybody is 

working at once- the 15-30 minutes the average game lasts is a period of intense 

involvement. 

Games are a lively way of maintaining students’ interest in the language, they 

are fun but also part of the learning process, and students should be encouraged to 

take them seriously. They should also know how much time they have to play a 

game. It’s not useful to start a game five minutes before the end of the lesson. 

Students are usually given a ‘five-minute warning’ before the time is over so they 

can work towards the end. 

The older the students are, the more selective a teacher should be in choosing 

a game activity. Little kids love movements, while older ones get excited with pud-

dles, crosswords, word wheels, and poster competitions whatever. 

So language learning is a hard task which can sometimes be frustrating. 

Constant effort is required to understand, produce and manipulate the target 

language. Well-chosen games are invaluable as they give students a break and at the 

same time allow students to practice language skills. Games are highly motivating 

since they are amusing and at the same time challenging. Furthermore, they employ 

meaningful and useful language in real contexts. They also encourage and increase 

cooperation. Games are highly motivating because they are amusing and interesting. 

They can be used to give practice in all language skills and be used to practice many 

types of communication. 

The collection of word games is a valuable resource for the teacher of young 

through adult learners of English as a second or foreign language. Focusing 

primarily on language development through the use of high frequency vocabulary 

and structures, they reinforce classroom lessons and provide additional spelling, 

conversation, listening and speaking practice. 

Modern language teaching requires a lot of work to make a lesson interesting 

for modern students who are on familiar terms with computers, Internet and elec-

tronic entertainment of any kind. Sympathetic relations must exist not only among 

students but between students and a teacher. It’s of special importance for junior 

students because very often they consider their teachers to be the subject itself, i.e. 


 

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21

interesting and attractive or terrible and disgusting, necessary to know or useless 

and thus better to avoid. 

'In conclusion, learning vocabulary through games is one effective and 

interesting way that can be applied in any classrooms. The results of this research 

suggest that games are used not only for mere fun, but more importantly, for the 

useful practice and review of language lessons, thus leading toward the goal of 

improving learners' communicative competence.' 

My research has produced some evidence which shows that games are useful 

and more successful than other methods of vocabulary presentation and revision. 

Having such evidence at hand, I wish to recommend the wide use of games with 

vocabulary work as a successful way of acquiring language competence. 

 

Bibliography 



 

1.

 



Abbott G., D. McKeating, J. Greenwood, and P. Wingard. 1981. The teaching 

of English as an international language. A practical guide. London.  

2.

 

Azar B. Sh. Fun with grammar. New York. 2000 



3.

 

Ersoz Aydan. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No. 6, June 2000. 



4.

 

Hubbard, P., H. Jones, B. Thornton, and R. Wheeler. 1983. A training course 



for TEFL. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  

5.

 



Rinvolucri Mario and Paul Davis.1992. More grammar games. Cambridge 

University Press. 

6.

 

Rixon, S. 1981. How to use games in language teaching. London: Macmillan 



Publishers Ltd.  

7.

 



Wright A. Games for Language Learning. Cambridge University Press, 1984. 

8.

 



World Book Encyclopedia Chicago 1993 Vol. 6 p. 56 

9.

 



Internet: http://search.atomz.com/ 

10.


 

Internet: http://e.usia.gov/forum/vols/vol36/no1/p20.htm-games 

11.

 

Internet: http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Chen-Games.html 



Internet: http://e.usia.gov/for 

 

 Parvana  Movsumova  



Games - Motivation in Teaching English 

Summary 


 

Although, it cannot be said that games are always better and easier to cope 

with for everyone, an overwhelming majority of pupils find games relaxing and 

motivating. Games should be an integral part of a lesson, providing the possibility 

of intensive practice while at the same time immensely enjoyable for both students 

and teachers. 

 

 

 



 

 


 

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22

Парвана Мовсумова  

Игры, мотивация в изучении английского языка 

Резюме 


 

Несмотря  на  все  это,  мы  не  можем  сказать,  что  игры  всегда  хороши. 

Большинство  студентов  понимают  урок  более  целесообразно  и  в  более 

удобной форме при помощи игр. Игры не должны быть только частью урока, 

они должны быть интересными как для студентов так и для учителей, а также 

в результате создавать возможность интенсивной практики. 



  

Rəyçi:                 Mehdi  Rəhimov 

     filologiya üzrə fəlsəfə doktoru, dosent  

 

 

 

 

 



 

 

 



 

 


 

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  HASHIMHUDJAYEVA MOHIRUKH MUZAFFAROVNA  

Senior researcher of translation theory and comparative linguistics 

department, National University of Uzbekistan 

  

THE WAYS OF PLANT NOMINATION IN ENGLISH,  RUSSIAN AND 

UZBEK LANGUAGES 

 

Açar sözlər: ingilis, rus, özbək dilləri, bitki adları, adlandırma, adlandırma prinsipləri. 

Ключевые слова: английский, русский и узбекский язык, названия растений, 

способ номинации, принцип номинации.  



Key words: English, Russian and Uzbek languages, plant names, a way of the 

nomination, the principle of nomination. 



 

The theory of nomination, as an important study, for both general and private 

linguistics, offers a new look at the different types of units and their  nomination on  

the  material of  particular thematic field from the common  and scientific 

nomination viewpoint. As the object of our study, we chose the names of the plants 

in English, Russian and Uzbek languages to identify common and distinctive 

features of the plant nomination by means of comparative analysis. It gives us an 

opportunity of discovering what ways of nomination applies to the particular 

language, and  what reasons of naming are more inherent to each of the compared 

languages. For naming the plants in English, Russian and Uzbek languages different 

principles of nomination are applied not only in scientific nomination (botanical ter-

minology), but in common nomination too. In scientific nomination the scientific 

classification of various natural and artificial realities including the botanical is 

understood. This type of taxonomy is created by individual researchers (biologists). 

In common nomination names of plants considered to be the product of the 

mentality and world perception of a certain nation regarding the world of plants. 

One of the features of the typological plant lexicon is the diversity and mul-

tiplicity of the principles of the nomination. A variety of names shows that the choi-

ce of the reasoning signs is not regulated, and the speaker always can use different 

motives for naming the plant species. It depends on the speaker’s location, national 

mindset, religion and habit of life. O.P. Ryabko (1988) in her dissertation offers her 

own classification of nominative signs for plant naming.  She distinguishes 

externally distinctive (shape, color, size, smell, taste, manner of growth), qualitative 

(positive or negative value), the space-time (natural locative) and special-purpose 

(medicine, pharmacy, perfumery, construction, decorative design) groups of nomi-

native signs. She indicates that in English plant names the most productive nomina-

tive sign is “the geographical and natural locative”. In the first place are names of 

geographical and natural locative. For example:   lily-of-the-valley, meadow sweet, 



scotch pine, rock rose. In Russian and especially in Uzbek language this nominative 

sign is not so productive.In the research of V.V. Kopocheva (1985) written on ma-

terial of literary plant names, a detailed classification of nominative signs is presen-

ted, among which the 1) own-objective and 2) relative objective sings are outlined. 

This classification applies equally to all three compared languages. To the own-

objective signs imply:  



 

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24

a) morphological (color, shape, size, structure, cover, overall appearance, 

smell, taste): Eng. yellow lady's slipper; Russ. карликовая  лилия (dwarf lily); 

Uzbek. сариқ андиз (yellow marigold).  

b) chemical (smell, taste): Eng. vanilla grass; Russ. пахучий  сельдерей 

(smelling celery); Uzbek. аччиқ бодом (bitter almond).  

c) other (especially life, sound) characteristics: Eng. annual meadow grass

Russ. лапчатка ползучая (creeping silverweed); Uzbek. тоғ дастарбоши (moun-

tain handelia). The relatively-objective signs show the relationship between objects 

(habitat, geography, activity time, nomenclature signs), the relationship between the 

object and the person (pragmatic features, the impact of internal, external exposure 

(to the touch), the relationship between the object and the animals (the use of plants 

to animals, the impact of plants on animals): English. touch-me-not;  Russ.  yстели 

поля (field is paved with the weed); Uzbek. чирмовуқ (a climbing weed) (7, p. 21).  

It must be noted that metaphoric and metonymic category are also the most 

prototypically selected. They characterize creative thinking of the speaker, and 

show the depth  or superficiality of his awareness, emotion or  attitude regarding to 

the plant. In her research work, S.Yu. Dubrovina (1999) cites the following 

nominative signs of plants: "by similarity", "by color", "to the taste", "on drug use," 

"for the natural properties of plants", "appeared on the basis of legends" and etc. 

Number of nominative models is not unlimited, their  number for  botanical 

terminology varies between thirty and forty, and  a more detailed divisions are 

possible. The author carries out his research on the material of plant names with 

animal components. She argues that one of the most important principles for 

naming the plants with animal components will be naming according to 

“appearance” by the “uncultivatedness” and "poisonousness" of the plants. Most of 

the two-part names (horse feet, lion’s mouth) arose on the basis of metaphorical 

transfer relevant to plant names with animal components, and nominations by the 

smell, color, the use as a feed for animals and as the animal self treatment. Also, the 

ethno-cultural characteristics of animals has a great value in the lexical-semantic 

group - “plant names with animals components”, which plays an important role, 

even if the extralinguistic criteria is similar. As in Uzbek language there are 

predominantly many names of plants with animal components. They are usually 

composed by the nominative sings noted above. This is due to the fact that the 

animals especially domestic have a special place in Uzbek culture, and it is reflected 

in the language. For example: қўзидумба (lamb’s fat); чўчқа ёли (pig’s hair); кийик 

панжа (deer’s foot); туя  пайпоқ  (camel’s socks) and so on. In addition, the 

linguist highlights the so-called "mythological" nomination group. These are the 

principles of the nomination, which determine the names that have appeared on the 

basis of the legends and its connection with the plants. This includes the names of 

plants, derived from a) proper names: English. lady's slipper orchid, Adam's head

Russ. Иван чай (Ivan-wheat); Uzbek. мажнун тол (the willow of Majnun), Мирза 



терак (poplar of Mirza) and b) the names of mythological personages, evangelical 

names: common St. John's wort; Russ. Адамово свеча (Candle of Adam); Uzbek. 



Хасса Мусо (the stick of Moses).This kind of principles of the nomination is very 

inherent to Russian language as there a lot of plant names related to proper names. 

The comparative analysis held by A.V. Berestnyova on the material of exotic plants 


 

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25

in English and Russian languages, shows that the core of the motivational-nomina-

tive field of plant names in English and Russian languages (table 1.) are the features 

of form and color, locative, and the functional-purpose feature. The features like 

size, texture, smell and taste, especially of the growth, anthroponomy and tempo-

rality are the transitional zone of the considered field. The peripheries of the field 

are the features: number, sound, sex/age and estimated-alethic signs. 

 

The signs of nomination 



English 

Russian 


 locative 

366 


268 

 color 


260 

177 


 functional-purpose 

215 


134 

 form 


189 

359 


 especially of the growth 

113 


59 

 Smell/taste 

108 

77 


 texture 

104 


46 

 anthroponomy 

87 

129 


 size 

81 


112 

 temporality 

71 

44 


 estimated-alethic 

59 


41 

 sex/age 

54 



 number 



18 

29 


 sound 



 

Therefore, it can be concluded that the signs of the "form", "color" and 

"locative" in the names of exotic plants are typical for both English, and Russian, 

which reflects the nominative minds of most people, fixing primarily visual images. 

It should be noted that in the presence of a strong odor of some plant, the main sour-

ce for naming may be the sense of smell and by direct contact with the nominee 

turns on the tactile and taste sensors. The final stage on cognitive knowledge of the 

objects of surrounding world is an estimate of its useful properties and the facility 

of its practical application (the functional-purpose feature). As in any thematic 

groups, in the lexical-semantic group of plant names, there is the type of tokens that 

do not have signs, that are possible to motivate the name of the plant. This group 

consists of simple non-derivative names that have lost the nominative signs: they do 

not currently produce some associative links with the concepts of other fields. The 

category of unmotivated plant vocabulary include - in English ancient Briton, 

Anglo-Saxon (oak, ash, yew) names or borrowings from other languages (aconite, 

potato, avocado); - in Russian language ancient Slavic names (дуб,  тис,  ель) or 

borrowings from other languages (арбуз, кумин, спаржа), - in the Uzbek language, 

this is - originally Turkic names (буғдой,  арпа,  болдирғон) that  have lost their 

semantic transparency in the development process or borrowings from other 

languages (шафтоли, нок, пўртахол). The names of plants formed on the basis of 

certain nominative signs are usually represented in each compared language in dif-



 

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26

ferent ways. For example in English, it is usually compound composite (consisting 

of two, three or more words)(buckthorn, gooseberry, forget-me-not, adam-and-eve); 

in Russian language it is mostly a derivative formed by means of suffixes or affixes 

(канатник,  валериана,  смоковка); in Uzbek language it is compound composite 

like in the English language but with a different grammatical composition 

(қизилтикат,  еттибўғин,  қорабарак). So summarizing all of the above 

nominative signs we can offer the following classification: 

 

1. The nominative signs associated with the signs of the plant itself: 



a) form 

b) color 

c) size 

g) smell 

e) taste 

e) toxicity 

e) uncultivativeness 

f) the growth pecularities 

2. The nominative signs related other phenomena:  

a) location  

b) functional-purpose sign 

c) association with human 

g) association with animals 

d) association with natural phenomena 

e) based on legends or historical facts 

This classification can be further developed and subdivided into subgroups. 

But it must be noted that this is a general classification of nominative signs and 

each of considered language has a unique nominative signs for naming the plants. 

Concluding all the views expressed in the article we can say that  in English 

plant vocabulary the most productive nominative sign is “the geographical and na-

tural locative”, perhaps due to the special attitude of Englishmen to the surrounding 

environment and landscape. The distinctive feature of Russian language is that it 

composes plant names mostly by the principles of the nomination on the basis of the 

legends and proper names like: иван-да-марья,  васильки,  варварка,  андреева 



трава,  еремей,  матрёшка and etc. And the Uzbek plant names are composed 

mainly by the nominative sign related to the animals. This is due to the fact that the 

animals have a special place in Uzbek culture and habit of life. 

 

References 




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