щрять, развлекать, беглость (речи), обсуждать, произношение, правописание,
разговор, слушание, осуществление на практике.
Games offer students a fun-filled and relaxing learning atmosphere. After
language in a non-stressful way. While playing games, the learners' attention is on
the message, not on the language. Raather than pay attention to the correctness of
linguistic forms, most participants will do all they can to win. This eases the fear of
negative evaluation, the concern of being negatively judged in public, and which is
one of the main factors inhibiting language learners from using the target language
in front of other people. In a game-oriented context, anxiety is reduced and speech
fluency is generated--thus communicative competence is achieved.
Games are also motivating. Games introduce an element of competition into
language-building activities. In other words, these activities create a meaningful
context for language use. The competitive ambiance also makes learners concen-
trate and think intensively during the learning process, which enhances unconscious
acquisition of inputs. Most students who have experienced game-oriented activities
hold positive attitudes towards them. Games encourage, entertain, teach, and
promote fluency. If not for any of these reasons, they should be used just because
they help students see beauty in a foreign language and not just problems. There are
many factors to consider while discussing games, one of which is appropriacy.
Teachers should be very careful about choosing games if they want to make them
profitable for the learning process. If games are to bring desired results, they must
correspond to either the student's level, or age, or to the material that is to be
introduced or practiced. Not all games are appropriate for all students irrespective
of their age. Different age groups require various topics, materials, and modes of
games. For example, children benefit most from games which require moving
around, imitating a model, competing between groups and the like. Furthermore,
structural games that practice or reinforce a certain grammatical aspect of language
have to relate to students' abilities and prior knowledge. Games become difficult
when the task or the topic is unsuitable or outside the student's experience.
Games also help the teacher to create contexts in which the language is useful
and meaningful. The learners want to take part and in order to do so must unders-
tand what others are saying or have written, and they must speak or write in order to
express their own point of view or give information. The need for meaningfulness
in language learning has been accepted for some years. A useful interpretation of
'meaningfulness' is that the learners respond to the content in a definite way. If they
are amused, angered, intrigued or surprised the content is clearly meaningful to
them. Thus the meaning of the language they listen to, read, speak and write will be
more vividly experienced and, therefore, better remembered.
If it is accepted that games can provide intense and meaningful practice of
language, then they must be regarded as central to a teacher's repertoire. They are
thus not for use solely on wet days and at the end of term!'
Games are highly motivating because they are amusing and interesting. They
can be used to give practice in all language skills and be used to practice many ty-
pes of communication. 'There is a common perception that all learning should be
serious and solemn in nature, and that if one is having fun and there is hilarity and
laughter, then it is not really learning. This is a misconception. It is possible to learn
a language as well as enjoy oneself at the same time. One of the best ways of doing
this is through games.' Games have been shown to have advantages and effecti-
veness in learning vocabulary in various ways. First, games bring in relaxation and
fun for students, thus help them learn and retain new words more easily. Second,
games usually involve friendly competition and they keep learners interested. These
create the motivation for learners of English to get involved and participate actively
in the learning activities. Third, vocabulary games bring real world context into the
classroom, and enhance students' use of English in a flexible, communicative way.'
'Therefore, the role of games in teaching and learning vocabulary cannot be
denied. However, in order to achieve the most from vocabulary games, it is
essential that suitable games are chosen. Whenever a game is to be conducted, the
number of students, proficiency level, cultural context, timing, learning topic, and
the classroom settings are factors that should be taken into account.'
A game should be planned into the day’s lesson right along with exercises,
dialogues and reading practice. It should not be an afterthought.
Learning Vocabulary - Games have been shown to have advantages and effec-
tiveness in learning vocabulary in various ways. First, games bring in relaxation and
classroom, and enhance students' use of English in a flexible, communicative way.'
Grammar is perhaps so serious and central in learning another language that
all ways should be searched for which will focus student energy on the task of mas-
tering and internalizing it. One way of focusing this energy is through the release
offered by games. Teenagers are delighted to be asked to do something that feels li-
ke an out-class activity and in which they control what is going on in the classroom
– they become the subjects, while for a lot of the 15,000 hours they spend in schools
they are the objects of teaching. The point is that fun generates energy for the
achievement of the serious goal.
Where exactly do such games fit into a teaching programme? Grammar games
can be used in three ways:
· diagnostically before presenting a given structure area to find out how much
knowledge of the area is already disjointedly present in the group;
· after a grammar presentation to see how much the group have grasped;
· as revision of a grammar area.
One should not use grammar games as a Friday afternoon ‘reward’ activity.
Using them as a central part of the students’ learning process would be a better idea.
Thus, each game is proposed for a given level ranging from beginner to advanced.
This refers simply to the grammar content of that particular game. But, as it has be-
en already mentioned above, a lot of activities can be adapted to different classes
with different grammar components. By changing the grammar content a teacher
can, in many cases, use the game frame offered at a higher or lower level. General-
ly, any frame can be filled with any structures you want to work on with your stu-
dents. The students have to take individual responsibility for what they think the
grammar is about. The teacher is free to find out what the students actually know,
without being the focus of their attention. Serious work is taking place in the
context of a game. The dice throwing and arguing lightens and enlivens the clas-
sroom atmosphere in a way that most people do not associate with the grammar part
of a course. The ‘game’ locomotive pulls the grammar train along. Everybody is
working at once- the 15-30 minutes the average game lasts is a period of intense
Games are a lively way of maintaining students’ interest in the language, they
are fun but also part of the learning process, and students should be encouraged to
take them seriously. They should also know how much time they have to play a
game. It’s not useful to start a game five minutes before the end of the lesson.
Students are usually given a ‘five-minute warning’ before the time is over so they
can work towards the end.
The older the students are, the more selective a teacher should be in choosing
a game activity. Little kids love movements, while older ones get excited with pud-
dles, crosswords, word wheels, and poster competitions whatever.
So language learning is a hard task which can sometimes be frustrating.
Constant effort is required to understand, produce and manipulate the target
language. Well-chosen games are invaluable as they give students a break and at the
same time allow students to practice language skills. Games are highly motivating
since they are amusing and at the same time challenging. Furthermore, they employ
meaningful and useful language in real contexts. They also encourage and increase
cooperation. Games are highly motivating because they are amusing and interesting.
They can be used to give practice in all language skills and be used to practice many
types of communication.
The collection of word games is a valuable resource for the teacher of young
through adult learners of English as a second or foreign language. Focusing
primarily on language development through the use of high frequency vocabulary
and structures, they reinforce classroom lessons and provide additional spelling,
conversation, listening and speaking practice.
Modern language teaching requires a lot of work to make a lesson interesting
for modern students who are on familiar terms with computers, Internet and elec-
tronic entertainment of any kind. Sympathetic relations must exist not only among
students but between students and a teacher. It’s of special importance for junior
students because very often they consider their teachers to be the subject itself, i.e.
interesting and attractive or terrible and disgusting, necessary to know or useless
and thus better to avoid.
'In conclusion, learning vocabulary through games is one effective and
interesting way that can be applied in any classrooms. The results of this research
suggest that games are used not only for mere fun, but more importantly, for the
useful practice and review of language lessons, thus leading toward the goal of
improving learners' communicative competence.'
My research has produced some evidence which shows that games are useful
and more successful than other methods of vocabulary presentation and revision.
Having such evidence at hand, I wish to recommend the wide use of games with
vocabulary work as a successful way of acquiring language competence.
of English as an international language. A practical guide. London.
Azar B. Sh. Fun with grammar. New York. 2000
Ersoz Aydan. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No. 6, June 2000.
Hubbard, P., H. Jones, B. Thornton, and R. Wheeler. 1983. A training course
Rixon, S. 1981. How to use games in language teaching. London: Macmillan
Although, it cannot be said that games are always better and easier to cope
with for everyone, an overwhelming majority of pupils find games relaxing and
motivating. Games should be an integral part of a lesson, providing the possibility
of intensive practice while at the same time immensely enjoyable for both students
Игры, мотивация в изучении английского языка
Несмотря на все это, мы не можем сказать, что игры всегда хороши.
Большинство студентов понимают урок более целесообразно и в более
удобной форме при помощи игр. Игры не должны быть только частью урока,
они должны быть интересными как для студентов так и для учителей, а также
в результате создавать возможность интенсивной практики.
Rəyçi: Mehdi Rəhimov
filologiya üzrə fəlsəfə doktoru, dosent
Senior researcher of translation theory and comparative linguistics
department, National University of Uzbekistan
THE WAYS OF PLANT NOMINATION IN ENGLISH, RUSSIAN AND
Açar sözlər: ingilis, rus, özbək dilləri, bitki adları, adlandırma, adlandırma prinsipləri.
Ключевые слова: английский, русский и узбекский язык, названия растений,
способ номинации, принцип номинации.
nomination, the principle of nomination.
The theory of nomination, as an important study, for both general and private
linguistics, offers a new look at the different types of units and their nomination on
the material of particular thematic field from the common and scientific
nomination viewpoint. As the object of our study, we chose the names of the plants
in English, Russian and Uzbek languages to identify common and distinctive
features of the plant nomination by means of comparative analysis. It gives us an
opportunity of discovering what ways of nomination applies to the particular
language, and what reasons of naming are more inherent to each of the compared
languages. For naming the plants in English, Russian and Uzbek languages different
principles of nomination are applied not only in scientific nomination (botanical ter-
minology), but in common nomination too. In scientific nomination the scientific
classification of various natural and artificial realities including the botanical is
understood. This type of taxonomy is created by individual researchers (biologists).
In common nomination names of plants considered to be the product of the
mentality and world perception of a certain nation regarding the world of plants.
One of the features of the typological plant lexicon is the diversity and mul-
tiplicity of the principles of the nomination. A variety of names shows that the choi-
ce of the reasoning signs is not regulated, and the speaker always can use different
motives for naming the plant species. It depends on the speaker’s location, national
mindset, religion and habit of life. O.P. Ryabko (1988) in her dissertation offers her
own classification of nominative signs for plant naming. She distinguishes
externally distinctive (shape, color, size, smell, taste, manner of growth), qualitative
(positive or negative value), the space-time (natural locative) and special-purpose
(medicine, pharmacy, perfumery, construction, decorative design) groups of nomi-
native signs. She indicates that in English plant names the most productive nomina-
tive sign is “the geographical and natural locative”. In the first place are names of
geographical and natural locative. For example: lily-of-the-valley, meadow sweet,
sign is not so productive.In the research of V.V. Kopocheva (1985) written on ma-
terial of literary plant names, a detailed classification of nominative signs is presen-
ted, among which the 1) own-objective and 2) relative objective sings are outlined.
This classification applies equally to all three compared languages. To the own-
objective signs imply:
a) morphological (color, shape, size, structure, cover, overall appearance,
smell, taste): Eng. yellow lady's slipper; Russ. карликовая лилия (dwarf lily);
Uzbek. сариқ андиз (yellow marigold).
b) chemical (smell, taste): Eng. vanilla grass; Russ. пахучий сельдерей
(smelling celery); Uzbek. аччиқ бодом (bitter almond).
c) other (especially life, sound) characteristics: Eng. annual meadow grass;
Russ. лапчатка ползучая (creeping silverweed); Uzbek. тоғ дастарбоши (moun-
tain handelia). The relatively-objective signs show the relationship between objects
(habitat, geography, activity time, nomenclature signs), the relationship between the
object and the person (pragmatic features, the impact of internal, external exposure
(to the touch), the relationship between the object and the animals (the use of plants
to animals, the impact of plants on animals): English. touch-me-not; Russ. yстели
поля (field is paved with the weed); Uzbek. чирмовуқ (a climbing weed) (7, p. 21).
It must be noted that metaphoric and metonymic category are also the most
prototypically selected. They characterize creative thinking of the speaker, and
show the depth or superficiality of his awareness, emotion or attitude regarding to
the plant. In her research work, S.Yu. Dubrovina (1999) cites the following
nominative signs of plants: "by similarity", "by color", "to the taste", "on drug use,"
"for the natural properties of plants", "appeared on the basis of legends" and etc.
Number of nominative models is not unlimited, their number for botanical
terminology varies between thirty and forty, and a more detailed divisions are
possible. The author carries out his research on the material of plant names with
animal components. She argues that one of the most important principles for
naming the plants with animal components will be naming according to
“appearance” by the “uncultivatedness” and "poisonousness" of the plants. Most of
the two-part names (horse feet, lion’s mouth) arose on the basis of metaphorical
transfer relevant to plant names with animal components, and nominations by the
smell, color, the use as a feed for animals and as the animal self treatment. Also, the
ethno-cultural characteristics of animals has a great value in the lexical-semantic
group - “plant names with animals components”, which plays an important role,
even if the extralinguistic criteria is similar. As in Uzbek language there are
predominantly many names of plants with animal components. They are usually
composed by the nominative sings noted above. This is due to the fact that the
animals especially domestic have a special place in Uzbek culture, and it is reflected
in the language. For example: қўзидумба (lamb’s fat); чўчқа ёли (pig’s hair); кийик
панжа (deer’s foot); туя пайпоқ (camel’s socks) and so on. In addition, the
linguist highlights the so-called "mythological" nomination group. These are the
principles of the nomination, which determine the names that have appeared on the
basis of the legends and its connection with the plants. This includes the names of
plants, derived from a) proper names: English. lady's slipper orchid, Adam's head;
Russ. Иван чай (Ivan-wheat); Uzbek. мажнун тол (the willow of Majnun), Мирза
names: common St. John's wort; Russ. Адамово свеча (Candle of Adam); Uzbek.
inherent to Russian language as there a lot of plant names related to proper names.
The comparative analysis held by A.V. Berestnyova on the material of exotic plants
in English and Russian languages, shows that the core of the motivational-nomina-
tive field of plant names in English and Russian languages (table 1.) are the features
of form and color, locative, and the functional-purpose feature. The features like
size, texture, smell and taste, especially of the growth, anthroponomy and tempo-
rality are the transitional zone of the considered field. The peripheries of the field
are the features: number, sound, sex/age and estimated-alethic signs.
The signs of nomination
Therefore, it can be concluded that the signs of the "form", "color" and
"locative" in the names of exotic plants are typical for both English, and Russian,
which reflects the nominative minds of most people, fixing primarily visual images.
It should be noted that in the presence of a strong odor of some plant, the main sour-
ce for naming may be the sense of smell and by direct contact with the nominee
turns on the tactile and taste sensors. The final stage on cognitive knowledge of the
objects of surrounding world is an estimate of its useful properties and the facility
of its practical application (the functional-purpose feature). As in any thematic
groups, in the lexical-semantic group of plant names, there is the type of tokens that
do not have signs, that are possible to motivate the name of the plant. This group
consists of simple non-derivative names that have lost the nominative signs: they do
not currently produce some associative links with the concepts of other fields. The
category of unmotivated plant vocabulary include - in English ancient Briton,
Anglo-Saxon (oak, ash, yew) names or borrowings from other languages (aconite,
potato, avocado); - in Russian language ancient Slavic names (дуб, тис, ель) or
borrowings from other languages (арбуз, кумин, спаржа), - in the Uzbek language,
this is - originally Turkic names (буғдой, арпа, болдирғон) that have lost their
semantic transparency in the development process or borrowings from other
languages (шафтоли, нок, пўртахол). The names of plants formed on the basis of
certain nominative signs are usually represented in each compared language in dif-
ferent ways. For example in English, it is usually compound composite (consisting
of two, three or more words)(buckthorn, gooseberry, forget-me-not, adam-and-eve);
in Russian language it is mostly a derivative formed by means of suffixes or affixes
(канатник, валериана, смоковка); in Uzbek language it is compound composite
like in the English language but with a different grammatical composition
(қизилтикат, еттибўғин, қорабарак). So summarizing all of the above
nominative signs we can offer the following classification:
1. The nominative signs associated with the signs of the plant itself:
f) the growth pecularities
2. The nominative signs related other phenomena:
b) functional-purpose sign
c) association with human
g) association with animals
d) association with natural phenomena
e) based on legends or historical facts
This classification can be further developed and subdivided into subgroups.
But it must be noted that this is a general classification of nominative signs and
each of considered language has a unique nominative signs for naming the plants.
Concluding all the views expressed in the article we can say that in English
plant vocabulary the most productive nominative sign is “the geographical and na-
tural locative”, perhaps due to the special attitude of Englishmen to the surrounding
environment and landscape. The distinctive feature of Russian language is that it
composes plant names mostly by the principles of the nomination on the basis of the
legends and proper names like: иван-да-марья, васильки, варварка, андреева
mainly by the nominative sign related to the animals. This is due to the fact that the
animals have a special place in Uzbek culture and habit of life.