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part of speech will then include all words that can occupy identical syntactic positions



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part of speech will then include all words that can occupy identical syntactic positions 

in a sentence or that can perform identical syntactic functions. Of importance here is 

not only the set of syntactic functions, but also the degree to which each of the 

functions is characteristic of the particular part of speech. According to the lexical 

meaning, morphological characteristics and syntactical function words fall under 

certain groups called parts of speech.   The parts of speech are classes of words, all 

the members of these classes having certain characteristics in common which 

distinguish them from the members of other classes. A part of sheech is characterized 

by its grammatical opposemes and paradigms of its lexemes. Nouns have the 

categories of number, case; verbs possess the categories of tense, voice, mood in 

compared languages etc. Another important feature of a part of speech is its 

combinability, that’s the ability to form certain combinations of words. Thus a part of 

speech is a class of lexemes characterized by: 1) its lexico-grammatical meaning; 2) 

its lexico-grammatical morphemes (stem-building elements); 3) its grammatical 

categories or its paradigms; 4) its combinability; 5) its function in a sentence. 

Prof. O.I.Musayev in his book “English Grammar” classifies parts of speech 

in the following way: 

1) notional parts of speech: the noun, the adjective, the pronoun, the numeral, 

the verb, the adverb, the adlink; 

2) free parts of speech: the interjection, the modal words; 

3) structural parts of speech: the preposition, the conjunction, the article and 

the particle . 

The classification of parts of speech is based on the following three princip-

les: 


1) semantical – lexico-grammatical meaning of a part of speech; 

2) morphological – it comprises two features:  a)  derivational  morphemes,       

b) grammatical category;  

3) syntactical – a) combinability, that is the ability of a word to make certain 

connections; b) syntactical function in a sentence. 


 

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190

There are 6 main parts of speech in English. They are: 1. the noun, 2. the 

adjective, 3. the pronoun, 4. the numeral, 5. the verb and 6. the adverb. English 

functional parts of speech are: 1. The conjunction, 2. The preposition, 3. The article. 

4. The particle. Some linguists consider “modal words”, “interjections” and “words 

of affirmation and negation” (“yes” and “no”) to be “free parts of speech”.  



The noun. The noun is the central lexical unit of language. It is the main 

nominative unit of speech. As any other part of speech, the noun can be 

characterised by three criteria: semantic (the meaning), morphological (the form 

and grammatical categories) and syntactical (functions, distribution). 



Semantic  features of the noun. The noun possesses the grammatical mea-

ning of thingness, substantiality. According to different principles of classification 

nouns fall into several subclasses: 1) According to the type of nomination they may 

be proper and common; 2) According to the form of existence they may be anima-



te and inanimate. Animate nouns in their turn fall into human and non-human. 3) 

According to their quantitative structure nouns can be countable and uncountable. 



Morphological features of the noun. In accordance with the morphological 

structure of the stems all nouns can be classified into: simple, derived (stem + affix, 

affix + stem – thingness); compound (stem+ stem – armchair ) and composite ( the 

Hague ). Morphologically nouns are characterized by the grammatical categories of 



number and case. Some scholars admit the existence of the category of gender. 

Gender does not find regular morphological expression. The distinction of male, 

female, and neuter may correspond to the lexical meaning of the noun. 

The category of number. English nouns that are inflected for number (count 

nouns) have singular and plural forms.Singular denotes one, plural denotes more 

than one. Most count nouns are variable and can occur with either singular or plural 

number. In Modern English the singular form of a noun is unmarked (zero). The 

plural form is marked by the inflexion -(e)s. The spelling and the pronunciation of 

the plural morpheme vary. The category of case.  Case is a grammatical category 

which shows relation of the noun with other words in a sentence. It is expressed by 

the form of the noun. English nouns have two cases: the common case and the 

genitive case. However, not all English nouns possess the category of case; there 

are certain nouns, mainly nouns denoting inanimate objects, which cannot be used 

in the genitive case. 

The adjective. The Adjective is a part of speech that modifies a noun or a 

pronoun, usually by describing it or making its meaning more specific. e.g. good, 

young, easy, soft, loud, hard, wooden, flaxen.  

Morphological characteristics. Degrees of comparison. The positive deg-

ree is the most basic form of the adjective, positive because it does not relate to any 

superior or inferior qualities of other things in speech. e.g. tall, high, quick, strong, 

patient. The comparative degree denotes a greater amount of a quality relative to 

something else. (-er or more) e.g. taller, higher, quicker, stronger, more patient. The 



superlative degree denotes the most, the largest, etc., by which it differs from other 

things. (-est or most). e.g. the tallest, highest, quickest, strongest, most patient. Se-

veral adjectives form their degrees of comparison by means of (suppletive forms) ir-

regularly: Good/well - better – best; Bad – worse – worst; Little - less- least; Many - 

more- most. 


 

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191

  Syntactic functions:  The most common are those of an attribute. It may be 

closely attached to their head-words (o good boy, the delegates present), or they 

may be loose (detached) (Clever and ambitious, he schemed as well as he could). 

Part of a compound nominal or double predicate. (He was alone, the window was 

open ) objective or subjective predicatives in complex constructions: (We consider 

him reliable. I can drink coffee hot. The fruits were picked ripe. A certain type of 

exclamatory sentence is based on adjectives, often modified by other words: How 

good of you! How wonderful! Excellent! Just right!  

  The verb. Grammatically the verb is the most complex part of speech. First 

of all it performs the central role in realizing predication - connection between 

situation in the utterance and reality. That is why the verb is of primary informative 

significance in an utterance.  



Semantic features of the verb. The verb possesses the grammatical meaning 

of verbiality - the ability to denote a process developing in time. This meaning is 

inherent not only in the verbs denoting processes, but also in those denoting states, 

forms of existence, evaluations, etc.  



Morphological features of the verb. The verb possesses the following 

grammatical categories: tense, aspect, voice, mood, person, number, finitude and 

phase. The common categories for finite and non-finite forms are voice, aspect, 

phase and finitude. The grammatical categories of the English verb find their 

expression in synthetical and analytical forms. The formative elements expressing 

these categories are grammatical affixes, inner inflexion and function words. Some 

categories have only synthetical forms (person, number), others - only analytical 

(voice). There are also categories expressed by both synthetical and analytical forms 

(mood, tense, aspect). 

The adverb.  The adverb is a word denoting circumstances or characteristics 

which attend or modify an action, state, or quality. It may also intensify a quality or 

characteristics. 

 Morphological composition. Adverbs vary in their structure. There are 

simple, derived, compound, and composite adverbs.Simple adverbs are after, here, 

well, now, soon, etc. In derived adverbs the most common suffix is -ly, by means of 

which new adverbs are coined from adjectives and participles: occasionally, lately, 



immediately, constantly, purely, slowly, charmingly. Compound adverbs are formed 

of two stems: sometimes, somewhere, everywhere, downstairs, etc. Composite 

phrasal adverbs consist of two or more word-forms, as a great deal, a little bit, far 

enough, now and then, from time to time, sort of, kind of, a hell of, a lot of, a great 

deal of. 

Morphological characteristics.  The only pattern of morphological change 

for adverbs is the same as for adjectives, the degrees of comparison. With regard 

to the category of the degrees of comparison adverbs (like adjectives) fall into 

comparables and non-comparables. The number of non-comparables is much 

greater among adverbs than among adjectives. Only adverbs of manner and certain 

adverbs of time and place can form degrees of comparison. The three grades are 

called positive, comparative, and superlative degrees. Some grammarians do not 

admit forms like more quickly, most quickly to be analytical degrees of comparison. 



 

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192

They distinguish only two types of degrees of comparison in adverbs: · the suffix 

type (quickly - quicker - quickest)· the suppletive type (well -- better -- best) 

  The pronoun. The pronoun is a part of speech which points out objects and 

their qualities without naming them. Therefore, the pronoun possesses a highly 

generalized meaning that seldom materializes outside of the context. 

Morphological composition and categorical characteristics. Pronouns may 

be of different structure: simple, compound and composite. Simple pronouns 

comprise only one morpheme - the stem: I, you, he, we, etc.; this, that, some, who, 

all, one, etc. Compound pronouns comprise more than one stem: myself, themselves, 

somebody, everybody, anything, nothing, etc. Composite pronouns have the form of 

a phrase: each other, one another. Subclasses of pronouns and their functions. 



Semantically all pronouns fall into the following subclasses: 

  Personal  pronouns are noun-pronouns, indicating persons (I,  you, he, we, 

they) or non-persons (it, they) from the point of view of their relations to the 

speaker. Thus I  (me) indicates the speaker himself, we (us) indicates the speaker 

together with some other person or persons, you indicates the person or persons 

addressed, while he, she, they (him, her, them) indicate persons (or things) which 

are neither the speaker nor the persons addressed to by the speaker. Personal pro-

nouns have the category of person, number, case (nominative and objective), and 



gender, the latter is to be found in the 3rd person only: masculine and feminine is he 

- him, she - her; neuter case-forms it - it coincide. Demonstrative Pronouns are 

used to demonstrate (or indicate). This, that, these and those are all demonstrative 

pronouns.Examples: This is the one I left in the car. Shall I take those? Indefinite 

Pronouns.  Unlike demonstrative pronouns, which point out specific items, 

indefinite pronouns are used for non-specific things. This is the largest group of 

pronouns. All, some, any, several, anyone, nobody, each, both, few, either, none, 

one and no one are the most common. Example:  Somebody must have seen the 

driver leave. We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars. (Oscar 

Wilde). Interrogative Pronouns are used in questions. Although they are classified 

as pronouns, it is not easy to see how they replace nouns. Who, which, what, where 

and how are all interrogative pronouns. Example: Who told you to do that?  



Possessive Pronouns are used to show possession. As they are used as adjectives, 

they are also known as possessive adjectives. My, your, his, her, its, our and their 

are all possessive pronouns. Example: Have you seen her book? Reciprocal Pro-

nouns are used for actions or feelings that are reciprocated. The two most common 

reciprocal pronouns are each other and one another. Examples: They like one 



another. They talk to each other like they're babies.  

 

                                                             Literature 



 

1. Ilyish B. The structure of modern English. Leningrad: Prosvescheniye, 1971. 

2. Betty Sch. A. Fundamentals of English Grammar. Prentice Hall, 1992-VB. 

3. Khaimovich B.S., Rogovskaya B.I. A course in English Grammar.  

    Moscow:    High  School, 1967. 

4. Н. А. Кобрина, Е. А. Корнеева, М. И. Оссовская, К. А. Гузеева Грамматика 

Английского Языка. Морфология, Синтаксис  СОЮЗС.-ПЕТЕРБУРГ,  1999. 


 

Filologiya  məsələləri – №10, 2013

 

 



193

5. Musayev O.İ. İngilis dilinin qrammatikası. Maarif: Bakı, 1996. 

6. https://www.google.com/ 

7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ 

 

 

Sərfinaz Hüseynzadə 



İngilis dilində əsas nitq  hissələrinin morfoloji xüsusiyyətləri 

Xülasə 


 

Məqalədə  İngilis dilində əsas nitq  hissələrinin morfoloji xüsusiyyətlərindən 

bəhs olunur. Məlumdur ki, sözlər leksik mənasına, morfoloji xüsusiyyətlərinə  və 

sintaktik funksiyalarına görə müəyyən qruplarda birləşirlər ki bu qruplar nitq 

hissələri adlandırılır. Nitq hissələrinin morfoloji xüsusiyyətləri həmin nitq hissəsini 

əmələ  gətirən leksik şəkilçi və qrammatik kateqoriyalar hesab olunur. Əsas nitq 

hissələrinin hər birinin özünəməxsus morfoloji xüsusiyyətləri var. İsmin morfoloji 

xüsusiyyətləri dedikdə  kəmiyyət hal və cins kateqoriyaları felin morfoloji 

xüsusiyyətləri dedikdə isə  tərz,  şəkil, növ, zaman və s. qrammatik kateqoriyalar 

nəzərdə tutulur. Sifət və  zərfin isə müqayisə  dərəcələri kateqoriyası morfoloji 

xüsusiyyətləri əks etdirir. 

    


Сарфиназ  Гусейнзаде 

Морфологические особенности смысловых частей речи в Aнглийском языке 

Резюме 

 

Статья  посвящена  смысловым  частям    речи    в  Aнглийском  языке. 



Известно что, слова делятся по своим лексическим, морфологическим и син-

тактическим  функциям  на  определенные  группы  и  ети  группы  называются 

частями  речи. Mорфологическая особенность этих частей речи заключается в 

том,  что  они  могут  создавать  лексические  суффиксы  и  считаются  граммати-

ческими  категориями.  У  каждей  части  речи  имеются  свои  особенности.  Го-

воря  о  морфологической  особенности  существительных  количества,  состоя-

ния  и  рода,  морфологической  особенности  глагола  подразумеваются  манера 

образа действия, время и т.д. Категория сравнительной степени прилагатель-

ных считается морфологической особенностью прилагательных и наречий. 

 

Rəyçi:               Ramilə Hüseynova 



                   filologiya üzrə fəlsəfə doktoru 

 

 



 

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194

 

NUBAR  ISMAYILOVA 



 

                    ASPU  

nubar.ismayilova@yahoo.com 

 

                      PHRASEOLOGY  AS  A  BRANCH  OF  LINGUISTICS 



 

Açar sözlər: frazeologiya, vahid, söz, dilçilik, söz, frazeoloji, idiom, tədqiqat, 

xüsusiyyət, məna. 



Key words: phraseology, unit, phrase, linguistic, word, phraseological, idiom, 

investigation, characteristics, meaning. 



Ключевые слова: фразеология, часть, фраза, лингвистика, слово, фразеологи-

ческий, идиома, исследование, характеристика,  значение. 

 

Phraseology as a branch of linguistic science appeared and developed in our 



country. English and American linguists collect various words, word-groups, other 

units presenting some interest. These units are described as idioms. No attempt is 

made to investigate them as a separate class and lay down a reliable criterion to 

distinguish between word-groups and phraseological units.  

The first attempt to place the study of various word-groups on a scientific ba-

sis was made by the outstanding Russian linguist A.A. Schachmatov in his book 

"Syntax".  

Investigation of English vocabulary was initiated in our country by prof. A.V. 

Kunin whose dictionary of English idioms (1955) has valuable information in this 

branch of linguistics.  

Phraseology as a branch of linguistic science is closely connected with 

Semantics, Grammar and   Lexicology. It has its own methods of investigation and 

problems for analysis. 

The national peculiarity of phraseological units is revealed on all the linguistic 

levels: phonological, grammatical and lexical. On the phonological level, a 

phraseological unit is peculiar because the very combination of sounds, it consists 

of, is characteristic for the phonological system of this or that language. 

On the lexical level, the national peculiarity of a phraseological unit lies in the 

fact that it often consists of the words that denote specifically national notions that 

are determined by the extralinguistic reality: customs, traditions, legends and 

historic facts of the nation, e.g., the bard of Avon, Fleet Street.  

The translator should be aware of the cultural and social background of such 

phraseological units.  

One more peculiarity of phraseological units is due to the difference in 

thinking and cognition of human beings. Every nation has its own way of creating 

images. In most cases phraseological units in different languages, having the same 

meaning, are different in inner form and images.  

Compare, the phraseological units with the meaning “у когось в покорі” in 

English – under smb’s thumb, in Russian – под  каблуком,  in Ukrainian – під 

черевиком. Or, e.g., the “similarity” as a Ukrainian, a Russian, a Frenchman and a 

Bulgarian see it, may be expressed as “дві краплі води”, a German and a Check – 

as two eggs”, and an Englishman – “as two peas”.  


 

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195

It must be pointed out that these and many other international idioms are alien 

however, to Chinese, Japanese, Aleutian, Indonesian and other languages whose 

peoples have been brought up in other historic, cultural and religious (Moslem, 

Buddhist, etc.) conditions.  

As a result, there exist no universally equivalent idioms of identical semantic, 

componential, picturesque or syntactic structure. 

The term "phraseological unit" (ph.u.) was introduced by Soviet linguists and 

is generally accepted in the countries of post-Soviet period. There are, however, 

different points of view on the essential features of ph.u. as distinguished from free 

word-groups. 

 The complexity of the problem to distinguish between ph.u. and free word-

groups is accounted for the fact that the border-line between them is not clearly 

defined.  

The so-called free word-groups are only relatively free as collocability of their 

member-words is fundamentally delimited by their lexical and grammatical valency 

which makes at least some of them very close to set-phrases. 

 Grammatical  valency is the ability of a word to appear in various 

grammatical structures; it is determined by the part of speech the word belongs to.  

The grammatical valency distinguishes individual meanings of a polysemantic 

word. 


  V + N – to grow roses (wheat) = “to cultivate” 

  V + V – to grow to like = “to begin” 

  V + A – to grow old (tired, dark) = “to become” 

  V + D – to grow quickly (rapidly) = “to increase” 

 

But grammatical valency of the words belonging to the same part of speech is 

not necessarily identical. E.g., to propose (suggest) a plan, but it is only "propose" 

that can be followed by the infinitive of a verb – to propose to do something. 



  Lexical valency is the ability of a word to be used in different lexical 

contexts.  

 

  V + N – to deliver letters = “to distribute letters” 



               To deliver a blow = “to strike a blow” 

               To deliver a lecture = “to give a lecture”  

 

All free word-groups are formed on definite lexico-grammatical patterns. The 



pattern is an arrangement of component elements of a collocation.  The patters of 

free word-groups are generative, i.e. any word in a sentence may be replaced by its 

synonym or hyponym: 

 

 Brave (courageous, valiant, fearless, bold) man (woman, boy). 

Phraseological unit as distinguished from free word-groups have three main 

parameters (according to the theory of prof. A.V. Kunin): 

1. Phraseological units are language units, their characteristic feature is 

semantic complexity, i.e. full and partial transference of meaning, e.g., to burn 



one’s fingers is used figuratively, it is a metaphor based on the similarity of action. 

 

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196

2. Structural separability and semantic cohesion, e.g., to kick the bucket – to 

die, Mrs. Grundy, Tom, Dick, and Harry 

3. A phraseological unit is never formed on a generative pattern of a free 

word-combination, one cannot predict the formation of a phraseological unit. The 

patterns in phraseology are of some other character; they are patterns of description 

(unpredictable). There are some grammatical patterns (noun phrases, verbal 

phrases), some semantic patterns (metaphoric formation, metonymic formation). 

Phraseological units  are set-expressions with semantic complexity which are 

not formed on generative patterns of free word-combinations.  

The pattern of a ph.u. is that of description. There are different classifications 

of ph.u. from the synchronic point of view based on different approaches: semantic 

(V.V.Vinogradov), functional (A.I. Smirnitsky), contextual (H.N.Amosova). 

V.V. Vinogradov's classification is considered to be the oldest and the most 

popular. It is based on the degree of idiomaticity and divides phraseological units 

into 3 groups, the first including the most idiomatic. 

 

Phraseological Units 



 

   


 

 

 



 

Phraseological                     Phraseological                       Phraseological  

      fusions                                 unities                                collocations 

 

Examples given below are organized according to the scale of idiomaticity. 



 



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