in a sentence or that can perform identical syntactic functions. Of importance here is
not only the set of syntactic functions, but also the degree to which each of the
functions is characteristic of the particular part of speech. According to the lexical
meaning, morphological characteristics and syntactical function words fall under
certain groups called parts of speech. The parts of speech are classes of words, all
the members of these classes having certain characteristics in common which
distinguish them from the members of other classes. A part of sheech is characterized
by its grammatical opposemes and paradigms of its lexemes. Nouns have the
categories of number, case; verbs possess the categories of tense, voice, mood in
compared languages etc. Another important feature of a part of speech is its
combinability, that’s the ability to form certain combinations of words. Thus a part of
speech is a class of lexemes characterized by: 1) its lexico-grammatical meaning; 2)
its lexico-grammatical morphemes (stem-building elements); 3) its grammatical
categories or its paradigms; 4) its combinability; 5) its function in a sentence.
Prof. O.I.Musayev in his book “English Grammar” classifies parts of speech
in the following way:
1) notional parts of speech: the noun, the adjective, the pronoun, the numeral,
the verb, the adverb, the adlink;
2) free parts of speech: the interjection, the modal words;
3) structural parts of speech: the preposition, the conjunction, the article and
the particle .
The classification of parts of speech is based on the following three princip-
2) morphological – it comprises two features: a) derivational morphemes,
b) grammatical category;
3) syntactical – a) combinability, that is the ability of a word to make certain
connections; b) syntactical function in a sentence.
There are 6 main parts of speech in English. They are: 1. the noun, 2. the
adjective, 3. the pronoun, 4. the numeral, 5. the verb and 6. the adverb. English
functional parts of speech are: 1. The conjunction, 2. The preposition, 3. The article.
4. The particle. Some linguists consider “modal words”, “interjections” and “words
of affirmation and negation” (“yes” and “no”) to be “free parts of speech”.
nominative unit of speech. As any other part of speech, the noun can be
characterised by three criteria: semantic (the meaning), morphological (the form
and grammatical categories) and syntactical (functions, distribution).
ning of thingness, substantiality. According to different principles of classification
nouns fall into several subclasses: 1) According to the type of nomination they may
be proper and common; 2) According to the form of existence they may be anima-
According to their quantitative structure nouns can be countable and uncountable.
structure of the stems all nouns can be classified into: simple, derived (stem + affix,
affix + stem – thingness); compound (stem+ stem – armchair ) and composite ( the
Hague ). Morphologically nouns are characterized by the grammatical categories of
Gender does not find regular morphological expression. The distinction of male,
female, and neuter may correspond to the lexical meaning of the noun.
The category of number. English nouns that are inflected for number (count
nouns) have singular and plural forms.Singular denotes one, plural denotes more
than one. Most count nouns are variable and can occur with either singular or plural
number. In Modern English the singular form of a noun is unmarked (zero). The
plural form is marked by the inflexion -(e)s. The spelling and the pronunciation of
the plural morpheme vary. The category of case. Case is a grammatical category
which shows relation of the noun with other words in a sentence. It is expressed by
the form of the noun. English nouns have two cases: the common case and the
genitive case. However, not all English nouns possess the category of case; there
are certain nouns, mainly nouns denoting inanimate objects, which cannot be used
in the genitive case.
The adjective. The Adjective is a part of speech that modifies a noun or a
pronoun, usually by describing it or making its meaning more specific. e.g. good,
young, easy, soft, loud, hard, wooden, flaxen.
Morphological characteristics. Degrees of comparison. The positive deg-
ree is the most basic form of the adjective, positive because it does not relate to any
superior or inferior qualities of other things in speech. e.g. tall, high, quick, strong,
patient. The comparative degree denotes a greater amount of a quality relative to
something else. (-er or more) e.g. taller, higher, quicker, stronger, more patient. The
things. (-est or most). e.g. the tallest, highest, quickest, strongest, most patient. Se-
veral adjectives form their degrees of comparison by means of (suppletive forms) ir-
regularly: Good/well - better – best; Bad – worse – worst; Little - less- least; Many -
Syntactic functions: The most common are those of an attribute. It may be
closely attached to their head-words (o good boy, the delegates present), or they
may be loose (detached) (Clever and ambitious, he schemed as well as he could).
Part of a compound nominal or double predicate. (He was alone, the window was
open ) objective or subjective predicatives in complex constructions: (We consider
him reliable. I can drink coffee hot. The fruits were picked ripe. A certain type of
exclamatory sentence is based on adjectives, often modified by other words: How
good of you! How wonderful! Excellent! Just right!
The verb. Grammatically the verb is the most complex part of speech. First
of all it performs the central role in realizing predication - connection between
situation in the utterance and reality. That is why the verb is of primary informative
significance in an utterance.
of verbiality - the ability to denote a process developing in time. This meaning is
inherent not only in the verbs denoting processes, but also in those denoting states,
forms of existence, evaluations, etc.
grammatical categories: tense, aspect, voice, mood, person, number, finitude and
phase. The common categories for finite and non-finite forms are voice, aspect,
phase and finitude. The grammatical categories of the English verb find their
expression in synthetical and analytical forms. The formative elements expressing
these categories are grammatical affixes, inner inflexion and function words. Some
categories have only synthetical forms (person, number), others - only analytical
(voice). There are also categories expressed by both synthetical and analytical forms
(mood, tense, aspect).
The adverb. The adverb is a word denoting circumstances or characteristics
which attend or modify an action, state, or quality. It may also intensify a quality or
Morphological composition. Adverbs vary in their structure. There are
simple, derived, compound, and composite adverbs.Simple adverbs are after, here,
well, now, soon, etc. In derived adverbs the most common suffix is -ly, by means of
which new adverbs are coined from adjectives and participles: occasionally, lately,
of two stems: sometimes, somewhere, everywhere, downstairs, etc. Composite
phrasal adverbs consist of two or more word-forms, as a great deal, a little bit, far
enough, now and then, from time to time, sort of, kind of, a hell of, a lot of, a great
Morphological characteristics. The only pattern of morphological change
for adverbs is the same as for adjectives, the degrees of comparison. With regard
to the category of the degrees of comparison adverbs (like adjectives) fall into
comparables and non-comparables. The number of non-comparables is much
greater among adverbs than among adjectives. Only adverbs of manner and certain
adverbs of time and place can form degrees of comparison. The three grades are
called positive, comparative, and superlative degrees. Some grammarians do not
admit forms like more quickly, most quickly to be analytical degrees of comparison.
They distinguish only two types of degrees of comparison in adverbs: · the suffix
type (quickly - quicker - quickest); · the suppletive type (well -- better -- best)
The pronoun. The pronoun is a part of speech which points out objects and
their qualities without naming them. Therefore, the pronoun possesses a highly
generalized meaning that seldom materializes outside of the context.
Morphological composition and categorical characteristics. Pronouns may
be of different structure: simple, compound and composite. Simple pronouns
comprise only one morpheme - the stem: I, you, he, we, etc.; this, that, some, who,
all, one, etc. Compound pronouns comprise more than one stem: myself, themselves,
somebody, everybody, anything, nothing, etc. Composite pronouns have the form of
a phrase: each other, one another. Subclasses of pronouns and their functions.
speaker. Thus I (me) indicates the speaker himself, we (us) indicates the speaker
together with some other person or persons, you indicates the person or persons
addressed, while he, she, they (him, her, them) indicate persons (or things) which
are neither the speaker nor the persons addressed to by the speaker. Personal pro-
nouns have the category of person, number, case (nominative and objective), and
used to demonstrate (or indicate). This, that, these and those are all demonstrative
pronouns.Examples: This is the one I left in the car. Shall I take those? Indefinite
Pronouns. Unlike demonstrative pronouns, which point out specific items,
indefinite pronouns are used for non-specific things. This is the largest group of
pronouns. All, some, any, several, anyone, nobody, each, both, few, either, none,
one and no one are the most common. Example: Somebody must have seen the
driver leave. We are all in the gutter, but some of us are looking at the stars. (Oscar
Wilde). Interrogative Pronouns are used in questions. Although they are classified
as pronouns, it is not easy to see how they replace nouns. Who, which, what, where
and how are all interrogative pronouns. Example: Who told you to do that?
they are also known as possessive adjectives. My, your, his, her, its, our and their
are all possessive pronouns. Example: Have you seen her book? Reciprocal Pro-
nouns are used for actions or feelings that are reciprocated. The two most common
reciprocal pronouns are each other and one another. Examples: They like one
1. Ilyish B. The structure of modern English. Leningrad: Prosvescheniye, 1971.
2. Betty Sch. A. Fundamentals of English Grammar. Prentice Hall, 1992-VB.
3. Khaimovich B.S., Rogovskaya B.I. A course in English Grammar.
Moscow: High School, 1967.
4. Н. А. Кобрина, Е. А. Корнеева, М. И. Оссовская, К. А. Гузеева Грамматика
Английского Языка. Морфология, Синтаксис СОЮЗС.-ПЕТЕРБУРГ, 1999.
5. Musayev O.İ. İngilis dilinin qrammatikası. Maarif: Bakı, 1996.
Məqalədə İngilis dilində əsas nitq hissələrinin morfoloji xüsusiyyətlərindən
bəhs olunur. Məlumdur ki, sözlər leksik mənasına, morfoloji xüsusiyyətlərinə və
sintaktik funksiyalarına görə müəyyən qruplarda birləşirlər ki bu qruplar nitq
hissələri adlandırılır. Nitq hissələrinin morfoloji xüsusiyyətləri həmin nitq hissəsini
əmələ gətirən leksik şəkilçi və qrammatik kateqoriyalar hesab olunur. Əsas nitq
hissələrinin hər birinin özünəməxsus morfoloji xüsusiyyətləri var. İsmin morfoloji
xüsusiyyətləri dedikdə kəmiyyət hal və cins kateqoriyaları felin morfoloji
xüsusiyyətləri dedikdə isə tərz, şəkil, növ, zaman və s. qrammatik kateqoriyalar
nəzərdə tutulur. Sifət və zərfin isə müqayisə dərəcələri kateqoriyası morfoloji
xüsusiyyətləri əks etdirir.
Морфологические особенности смысловых частей речи в Aнглийском языке
Статья посвящена смысловым частям речи в Aнглийском языке.
тактическим функциям на определенные группы и ети группы называются
частями речи. Mорфологическая особенность этих частей речи заключается в
том, что они могут создавать лексические суффиксы и считаются граммати-
ческими категориями. У каждей части речи имеются свои особенности. Го-
воря о морфологической особенности существительных количества, состоя-
ния и рода, морфологической особенности глагола подразумеваются манера
образа действия, время и т.д. Категория сравнительной степени прилагатель-
ных считается морфологической особенностью прилагательных и наречий.
Rəyçi: Ramilə Hüseynova
PHRASEOLOGY AS A BRANCH OF LINGUISTICS
investigation, characteristics, meaning.
ческий, идиома, исследование, характеристика, значение.
Phraseology as a branch of linguistic science appeared and developed in our
units presenting some interest. These units are described as idioms. No attempt is
made to investigate them as a separate class and lay down a reliable criterion to
distinguish between word-groups and phraseological units.
The first attempt to place the study of various word-groups on a scientific ba-
sis was made by the outstanding Russian linguist A.A. Schachmatov in his book
Investigation of English vocabulary was initiated in our country by prof. A.V.
Kunin whose dictionary of English idioms (1955) has valuable information in this
branch of linguistics.
Phraseology as a branch of linguistic science is closely connected with
Semantics, Grammar and Lexicology. It has its own methods of investigation and
problems for analysis.
The national peculiarity of phraseological units is revealed on all the linguistic
levels: phonological, grammatical and lexical. On the phonological level, a
phraseological unit is peculiar because the very combination of sounds, it consists
of, is characteristic for the phonological system of this or that language.
On the lexical level, the national peculiarity of a phraseological unit lies in the
fact that it often consists of the words that denote specifically national notions that
are determined by the extralinguistic reality: customs, traditions, legends and
historic facts of the nation, e.g., the bard of Avon, Fleet Street.
The translator should be aware of the cultural and social background of such
One more peculiarity of phraseological units is due to the difference in
thinking and cognition of human beings. Every nation has its own way of creating
images. In most cases phraseological units in different languages, having the same
meaning, are different in inner form and images.
Compare, the phraseological units with the meaning “у когось в покорі” in
English – under smb’s thumb, in Russian – под каблуком, in Ukrainian – під
черевиком. Or, e.g., the “similarity” as a Ukrainian, a Russian, a Frenchman and a
Bulgarian see it, may be expressed as “дві краплі води”, a German and a Check –
“as two eggs”, and an Englishman – “as two peas”.
It must be pointed out that these and many other international idioms are alien
however, to Chinese, Japanese, Aleutian, Indonesian and other languages whose
peoples have been brought up in other historic, cultural and religious (Moslem,
Buddhist, etc.) conditions.
As a result, there exist no universally equivalent idioms of identical semantic,
componential, picturesque or syntactic structure.
The term "phraseological unit" (ph.u.) was introduced by Soviet linguists and
is generally accepted in the countries of post-Soviet period. There are, however,
different points of view on the essential features of ph.u. as distinguished from free
The complexity of the problem to distinguish between ph.u. and free word-
groups is accounted for the fact that the border-line between them is not clearly
The so-called free word-groups are only relatively free as collocability of their
member-words is fundamentally delimited by their lexical and grammatical valency
which makes at least some of them very close to set-phrases.
Grammatical valency is the ability of a word to appear in various
grammatical structures; it is determined by the part of speech the word belongs to.
The grammatical valency distinguishes individual meanings of a polysemantic
But grammatical valency of the words belonging to the same part of speech is
not necessarily identical. E.g., to propose (suggest) a plan, but it is only "propose"
that can be followed by the infinitive of a verb – to propose to do something.
V + N – to deliver letters = “to distribute letters”
All free word-groups are formed on definite lexico-grammatical patterns. The
free word-groups are generative, i.e. any word in a sentence may be replaced by its
synonym or hyponym:
Brave (courageous, valiant, fearless, bold) man (woman, boy).
Phraseological unit as distinguished from free word-groups have three main
parameters (according to the theory of prof. A.V. Kunin):
1. Phraseological units are language units, their characteristic feature is
semantic complexity, i.e. full and partial transference of meaning, e.g., to burn
2. Structural separability and semantic cohesion, e.g., to kick the bucket – to
die, Mrs. Grundy, Tom, Dick, and Harry
3. A phraseological unit is never formed on a generative pattern of a free
word-combination, one cannot predict the formation of a phraseological unit. The
patterns in phraseology are of some other character; they are patterns of description
(unpredictable). There are some grammatical patterns (noun phrases, verbal
phrases), some semantic patterns (metaphoric formation, metonymic formation).
Phraseological units are set-expressions with semantic complexity which are
not formed on generative patterns of free word-combinations.
The pattern of a ph.u. is that of description. There are different classifications
of ph.u. from the synchronic point of view based on different approaches: semantic
(V.V.Vinogradov), functional (A.I. Smirnitsky), contextual (H.N.Amosova).
V.V. Vinogradov's classification is considered to be the oldest and the most
popular. It is based on the degree of idiomaticity and divides phraseological units
into 3 groups, the first including the most idiomatic.
Phraseological Phraseological Phraseological
fusions unities collocations
Examples given below are organized according to the scale of idiomaticity.