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B.R.Maslin, Two new species of Acacia (Fabaceae) from Banded Iron Formation ranges



The journal of the Western Australian Herbarium

24: 131–138 

Published online 3 July 2014

© Department of Parks and Wildlife 2014 




        ISSN 2200-2790 (Online)


ISSN 0085-4417 (Print)

Two new species of Acacia (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) with conservation 

significance from Banded Iron Formation ranges in the vicinity of 

Koolyanobbing, Western Australia

Bruce R. Maslin

Western Australian Herbarium, Department of Parks and Wildlife, 

Locked Bag 104, Bentley Delivery Centre, Western Australia 6983 

Email: Bruce.Maslin@dpaw.wa.gov.au


Maslin, B.R. Two new species of Acacia (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) with conservation significance 

from Banded Iron Formation ranges in the vicinity of Koolyanobbing, Western Australia. Nuytsia 24: 

131–138 (2014). Two geographically restricted species of Acacia Mill., A. haematites Maslin and 

A. shapelleae Maslin, from Banded Iron Formation (BIF) ranges in the south-west extremity of the 

arid zone of Western Australia are described. Acacia haematites occurs on the Koolyanobbing Range 

(close to the township of Koolyanobbing) while A. shapelleae occurs on the Helena and Aurora Range 

which is located about 40 km to the north of Koolyanobbing. Both these geographically restricted 

species occur in areas of mining interests and are therefore classified as Priority One under Department 

of Parks and Wildlife Conservation Codes for Western Australian Flora. The two new species belong 

to Acacia sect. Acacia and are allopatric with respect to their closest relatives (A. acuaria W.Fitzg. 

and A. glutinosissima Maiden & Blakely respectively) which are reasonably widespread in the central 

and northern wheatbelt region of the South West Botanical Province.


As discussed by Gibson et al. (2007, 2012) considerable botanical survey and research has been 

conducted in recent years on the Banded Iron Formation (BIF) ranges of the Yilgarn Craton in southern 

Western Australia. These botanically rich ranges appear to represent both refugial habitats of great 

antiquity and areas of recent speciation, and most are subject to current mining exploration or mining 

activity (Gibson et al.loc. cit.). Recent analyses by Gibson and colleagues (Gibson et al. 2010, 2012) 

have identified two significant hotspots for plant diversity involving these BIF ranges, the eastern 

hotspot is centred on the Helena and Aurora Range north of Koolyanobbing and the western hotspot 

in the general vicinity of Morawa, centred on Koolanooka Hills and Blue Hills. These hotspots occur 

close to the boundary between the arid zone (Eremaean Botanical Province) and the species-rich 

South-West Botanical Province. The two new species described in the present paper are associated 

with the eastern hotspot.

Gibson et al. (2010) enumerated 22 plant taxa that are either restricted to, or which have distributions 

centered on, four BIF ranges within the eastern hotspot referred to above. Among these is Acacia sp. 

Bungalbin Hill (J.J. Alford 1119) that is described below as A. shapelleae Maslin and which occurs 

on the Helena and Aurora Range. The second new species described here, A. haematites Maslin, was 

unknown to Gibson et al. (2010); it occurs on the Koolyanobbing Range which is located about 40 km 


Nuytsia Vol. 24 (2014)

south of the Helena and Aurora Range. Both these geographically restricted new species grow in areas 

that are subject to mining interests and as such are classified as Priority One taxa under Department 

of Parks and Wildlife Conservation Codes for Western Australian Flora. Their closest relatives are 

located several hundred kilometers to the west, in the northern and/or central wheatbelt region of the 

South-West Botanical Province.

Both new species described here belong to Acacia Mill. sect. Acacia (formerly Acacia sect. Phyllodineae 

DC.) and are included in the online identification key to Australian acacias (Maslin 2014).


Acacia haematites Maslin, sp. nov.

Type: Koolyanobbing Range, Western Australia [precise locality withheld for conservation reasons], 

16 September 2009, G. Cockerton, S. Regan, J. Warden & J. O’Brien LCH 28974 (holo: PERTH 

08520453; iso: MEL, PERTH 08520542).

Diffuse, much-branched shrub to c. 1 m tall, the upper branches dividing into ±numerous, short, 

straight, rigid, spinose or sub-spinose branchlets, the oldest of which are devoid of phyllodes. Bark 

grey. Branchlets terete, finely ribbed at extremities, the ribs yellow, not or only slightly raised and 

glabrous or more commonly hirtellous with very short, straight, patent, tubercle-based hairs. Stipules 

early caducous, mostly present only on new shoots, linear to narrowly oblong or narrowly triangular, 

1–2 mm long, yellow to light brown, sparsely hairy with hairs often confined to margins, not fused. 

Phyllodes narrowly oblong to narrowly lanceolate, narrowed towards apices, sometimes slightly angled 

at the gland, 6–12 mm long (including cusp), 1–2 mm wide, straight, patent, rigid, flat, green, glabrous 

or hirtellous as on branchlets but hairs slightly shorter; midrib ±prominent and central; lateral nerves 

not visible; upper margin 2-nerved below the gland and 1-nerved above the glandapices narrowed 

to a straight, rigid, slender, subulate, dark brown, pungent cusp 1–1.5 mm long; base sessile, the 

pulvinus absent or represented by a vestigial rim of yellow or light brown tissue. Gland situated on 

upper margin of phyllode (1–)2–5 mm above the base, not prominent, circular, 0.2–0.3 mm diam., 

not raised, light brown. Inflorescences simple, single within axil of phyllodes; heads globular, loosely 

5–9-flowered, sessile or sub-sessile; peduncles to 1(–1.5) mm long, glabrous, subtended at base by 

a pair of early caducous, basally fused brown bracts c. 1 mm long. Bracteoles widely spathulate, 

sessile or sub-sessile, 1–1.5 mm long, c. 1 mm wide, scarious, concave, light or dark brown, obtuse, 

fimbriolate otherwise glabrous, nerveless or faintly striate. Flowers 5-merous; calyx widely turbinate, 

c. 1/2 the length of the petals, 1–1.3 mm wide at apex, gamosepalous, very shortly dissected (for less 

than 1/4 its length) into rounded, slightly inflexed, non-thickened, ±sparsely fimbriolate lobes, calyx 

tube glabrous or sub-glabrous and smooth or faintly striate; petals 2 mm long, glabrous, nerveless or 

1-nerved. Pods ±linear to sub-moniliform, to c. 35 mm long (expanded length), 2.5–3 mm wide, thinly 

coriaceous, irregularly strongly curved to openly coiled or twisted, undulate, prominently rounded 

over seeds with umbo extending to margin of valves, shallowly to strongly constricted between the 

seeds, glabrous, dark brown to black, glabrous, very obscurely reticulately nerved, marginal nerve 

thin and not or scarcely thickened. Seeds (few seen) longitudinal in pods, obloid-ellipsoid but truncate 

along edge adjacent to aril, 2.5–3 mm long, 1.5–2 mm wide, turgid (1.2–1.7 mm thick), dark brown, 

often with remnants of internal pod tissue persistent on surface, slightly shiny; aril clavate, straight, 

extending c. 1/2-way down one side of the seed. (Figure 1)

Characteristic features. Diffuse shrub to c. 1 m tall, with ±numerous, short, straight, rigid, spinose or 

sub-spinose branchlets. Stipules early caducous, not fused. Phyllodes narrowly oblong to narrowly 


B.R.Maslin, Two new species of Acacia (Fabaceae) from Banded Iron Formation ranges

lanceolate, narrowed towards apices, 6–12 mm long (including cusp), 1–2 mm wide, flat, straight, 

patent, rigid, 1-nerved, pungent by slender cusp 1–1.5 mm long, sessile (pulvinus ±absent). Heads 

±sessile, 5–9-flowered. Bracteoles widely spathulate, ±sessile, 1–1.5 × c. 1 mm, concave, brown, 

obtuse. Flowers 5-merous; calyx gamosepalous. Pods 2.5–3 mm wide, irregularly strongly curved to 

openly coiled or twisted, undulate, prominently rounded over seeds, dark brown to black.

Other specimens examined. WESTERN AUSTRALIA: [localities withheld for conservation reasons] 

31 Aug. 2013, D. Coultas & S. Coultas 145-Opp 01 (PERTH); 12 Aug. 1971, B.R. Maslin 1958 A 


Distribution. This poorly collected species is known from only a single BIF range near Koolyanobbing 

(about 50 km north-east of Southern Cross), namely, the Koolyanobbing Range. This area is located 

in the south-west extremity of the Eremaean Botanical Province, near the border of the South-West 

Botanical Province. In recent years there has been extensive survey of BIF ranges in this area (e.g. 

Helena and Aurora Range, Mount Jackson Range, Johnson Range, Windarling Peak, Die Hardy Range 

and Mount Elvire) and the new species has not been located on any of these. It appears, therefore, 

that A. haematites is geographically restricted and, as noted below, is habitat specific. The known 

populations occur within areas covered by existing mining tenements and two other Priority taxa 

occur in association with it, namely, Hibbertia lepidocalyx subsp. tuberculata (P3) and Styphelia sp. 

Bullfinch (M. Hislop 3574) (P3).





Figure 1. Acacia haematites. A – habit and habitat; B – habit showing spreading branches; C – spinescent branchlets with patent, 

rigid, pungent phyllodes and new shoots; D – immature pods. Photographs by David Coultas (A, B, D) and Geoff Cockerton (C).


Nuytsia Vol. 24 (2014)

HabitatAcacia haematites grows on a haematite-rich BIF range where it occurs in red loam or pale-

coloured sandy clay on the eroded slopes below massive ironstone or lateritized duricrust outcrops. It 

occurs in open shrubland of Hibbertia lepidocalyx subsp. tuberculataMelaleuca hamataM. leiocarpa 

and Styphelia sp. Bullfinch (M. Hislop 3574), with scattered emergent Callitris columellaris and 

Eucalyptus capillosa

Phenology. The paucity of collections make it difficult to accurately determine the phenology of 

this species. Plants at peak anthesis have been collected in August, but some flowers persist to mid-

September. Pods are initiated on some plants at the end of August. The few mature seeds that have 

been seen were collected in mid-September, but these are most probably ones that persisted on the 

plants from the previous year’s fruiting event. 

Conservation statusAcacia haematites is to be listed as Priority One under Department of Parks and 

Wildlife Conservation Codes for Western Australian Flora (A. Jones pers. comm.). 

Etymology. The species name haematites is Latin ‘blood stone, a kind of red iron ore, hematite’. The 

epithet is applied here as a noun in apposition. 

Common name. Koolyanobbing Ironstone Wattle.

AffinitiesAcacia haematites is most closely related to A. acuaria W.Fitzg. Indeed, the outlier specimen 

from Bullfinch (B.R. Maslin 1958 A) that was noted by Maslin (2001: 473) under A. acuaria is 

A. haematites. The second outlier noted in the same place from the nearby Mount Jackson (K.R. Newbey 

9098) is now known to be the long phyllode variant of A. intricata S.Moore that is discussed by Maslin 

(op. cit. 532) (see below). 

Acacia haematites and A. acuaria are both low, spreading shrubs with spinose branchlets, relatively 

short, often patent, 1-nerved phyllodes with distinctively pungent tips, globular heads of 5-merous 

flowers with gamosepalous calyces and short but broad, concave, ±sessile bracteoles, and strongly 

curved to openly coiled or twisted, narrow pods that are clearly rounded over the longitudinal seeds. 

Acacia acuaria is most readily distinguished from the new species by its distinctly pedunculate, more 

numerously flowered heads and its stipule morphology, but there are also differences in the phyllodes 

and pods; the two species are allopatric. The stipules of both species are early caducous (normally 

present only on the new shoots) but in A. acuaria they are fused, subtend the bases of the developing 

phyllodes and fall away as a single unit (by contrast the stipules of A. haematites are completely free 

and flank either side of the developing phyllodes). The peduncles of A. acuaria are 4–12 mm long and 

the heads are 14–23-flowered. Other characters that help distinguish A. acuaria from A. haematites 

are its phyllodes that are terete to sub-terete (but flat when dry), more slender (normally not exceeding 

c. 1 mm in width), less prominently 1-nerved and have a discernible (but short) basal pulvinus, and its 

pods that are slightly broader (3.5–5 mm wide). Acacia acuaria is widespread and relatively common 

in the northern and central wheatbelt region of the South-West Botanical Province, extending from the 

Murchison River south-east to near Merredin; it extends slightly into the adjacent Eremaean Botanical 

Province in the area to the east of Morawa and Wubin. Acacia haematites occurs about 300 km to the 

south-east of the closest occurrence of A. acuaria.

Acacia haematites superficially resembles the long phyllode forms of A. intricata that occurs near 

Koolyanobbing and elsewhere (fide Maslin 2001: 532 and 2014), especially because both taxa have 

spinescent branchlets, short, rigid, patent, pungent, sessile phyllodes and globular heads. Around 


B.R.Maslin, Two new species of Acacia (Fabaceae) from Banded Iron Formation ranges

Koolyanobbing, however, A. intricata grows on red earth flats, not BIF ranges, and morphologically 

it is most readily distinguished from the new species by its bracteoles and calyces that are either 

absent or highly reduced and by its phyllodes that are thicker and which are strongly 2-nerved along 

their upper margin (the nerves extending from base to apex, not coalescing at the gland as occurs in 

A. haematites). Better fruiting material from Koolyanobbing plants of both these taxa is needed to 

better assess the differences between them. 

Acacia shapelleae Maslin, sp. nov.

Type: Helena and Aurora Range, Western Australia [precise locality withheld for conservation reasons], 

16 August 2011, J. Jackson & V. Jackson 230 (holo: PERTH 08365822; iso: CANB, K, MEL, NSW).

Acacia sp. Bungalbin Hill (J.J. Alford 1119), Western Australian Herbarium, in FloraBase, http://

florabase.dpaw.wa.gov.au [accessed June 2014].

Erect, multi-stemmed, rounded or obconic, glabrous shrub to 3 m tall and 4 m across, resinous and 

viscid (but the resin not sticky when dry) with a strong camphor-like odour when fresh. Bark light 

grey, finely roughened. Branchlets terete, ribs not visible, the upper branchlets brown but partially or 

wholly covered by a dark brown to black soot-like substance, older branchlets light grey and marked 

or roughened by slightly raised scars where phyllodes have fallen. Stipules persistent only at base 

of young phyllodes, linear to linear-triangular, 1–2(–3) mm long, slightly thickened, light brown to 

red-brown. Phyllodes mostly terete to sub-terete, a few compressed, 30–50(–60) mm long, 0.5–1 mm 

diam., mostly shallowly incurved, a few moderately incurved, straight or shallowly sigmoid, sub-patent 

to ascending but erect on new shoots, green; longitudinal nerves four, brown, not raised (plane or 

slightly impressed when dry), the surface often shiny resinous; apices innocuous, occasionally sub-

uncinate, normally terminated by a sub-centric or excentric blunt point. Gland situated on upper edge 

of phyllode 1–1.5 mm above the pulvinus, circular, microscopic, c. 0.1 mm diam., easily overlooked 

(even at magnification), flat, a similar gland near apex of phyllode. Inflorescences simple, single 

within axil of upper phyllodes; peduncles 20–40 mm long, base ebracteate; heads globular, mostly 

35–45-flowered, a few c. 20-flowered, 9–12 mm diam. when dry, canary yellow. Bracteoles 1.5 mm 

long; claws narrowly oblong, ±expanded into distinct laminae which are rounded abaxially, concave 

adaxially, c. 0.5 mm wide and thickened. Flowers 5-merous; sepals free or shortly united at their base, 

1/2 the length of petals, narrowly oblong, neither expanded nor thickened at their apices; petals 3 mm 

long, nerveless. Pods linear, (30–)45–60 mm long, (3–)4–5 mm wide, thinly crustaceous, straight or 

very shallowly curved, slightly undulate, flat but low-domed over the seeds with umbo extending to 

margin of valves, ±straight-edged, dark brown, openly reticulate with nerves slightly raised, marginal 

nerve light brown and not thickened. Seeds longitudinal and seated in distinct depressions within 

the pods, obloid, 3.5 mm long, 2.2 mm wide, black, ±shiny at centre otherwise with a satin lustre; 

pleurogram continuous, very obscure; areole oblong, 2 mm long, 1 mm wide; funicle expanded into 

a white aril that partially extends along one or both sides of the seed. (Figure 2)

Characteristic features. Multi-stemmed, glabrous, resinous and viscid shrub to c. 2.5 m tall, with 

a strong camphor-like odour when fresh. Oldest branchlets marked by slightly raised scars where 

phyllodes have fallen. Phyllodes mostly terete to sub-terete, 30–50(–60) mm long, 0.5–1 mm diam., 

mostly shallowly incurved; longitudinal nerves four, brown, not raised. Inflorescences simple; peduncles 

20–40 mm long, base ebracteate; heads large (9–12 mm diam. when dry). Flowers 5-merous; sepals 

±free, 1/2 length of petals. Pods to 60 mm long, (3–)4–5 mm wide, linear, thinly crustaceous, dark 

brown, openly reticulate with nerves slightly raised. Seeds longitudinal, obloid, 3.5 × 2.2 mm, black, 

±shiny at centre otherwise with a satin lustre; aril partially extending along one or both sides of the seed. 


Nuytsia Vol. 24 (2014)

Other specimens examined. WESTERN AUSTRALIA: [localities withheld for conservation reasons] 

8 Sep. 1988, J.J. Alford 1119 (CANB, NSW, PERTH); 8 Sep. 2010, D. Angus 05 (PERTH); 30 Oct. 

2013, A.I. Craigie 1556.001 (PERTH); 3 Nov. 2000, E. Mattiske 172–162 (PERTH); 22 Nov. 2011, 

S. McNee LCH 34652 (MEL, PERTH); 8 Apr. 2012, S. McNee LCH 34653 (PERTH); 21 Nov. 2006, 

S. McNee & G. Cockerton LCS 12862 (AD, PERTH).

Distribution. Occurs in the Eremaean Botanical Province in the south-west extremity of the arid zone 

(just north of the border of the South-West Botanical Province) in Western Australia where it is known 

from only the Helena and Aurora Range, about 50 km north of Koolyanobbing. Current knowledge 

shows A. shapelleae as occurring in a few populations over a distance of about seven kilometres. 

The largest of these populations contains approximately 1,000 plants regenerating post-fire and the 

smallest about ten mature plants. These populations are close to areas that are likely to be proposed 

for mining; all occur within existing mining tenements.

The Helena and Aurora Range is contained within the Mount Manning – Helena and Aurora Ranges 

Conservation Park. The range was first visited by Europeans in 1861 (Gibson & Butcher 2013) and 

until recently remained relatively inaccessible; however, today access has been improved on account 

of mining exploration activity and pastoralism in the general area. The species was discovered in 1988 

in connection with a biological survey of this botanically rich region.





Figure 2. Acacia shapelleae. A – habitat (Helena and Aurora Range); B – multi-stemmed habit, with Shapelle McNee; C – 

habit; D – flowering branches showing narrow, spreading phyllodes and canary yellow heads on long peduncles. Photographs 

by Shapelle McNee (A), Geoff Cockerton (B) and Jennifer Jackson (C, D).


B.R.Maslin, Two new species of Acacia (Fabaceae) from Banded Iron Formation ranges

Habitat. Grows in brown, silty sand-loam or clay-loam on the upper slopes and ridges of low hills 

comprising outcropping BIF. It occurs in tree mallee (Eucalyptus ebbanoensis) over dense scrub 

containing a range of species; in the largest population the most common associates are Banksia arborea

Calycopeplus paucifoliusGrevillea zygolobaLepidosperma bungalbinMelaleuca nematophylla

Mirbelia ferricolaNeurachne annularis and Stenanthemum newbeyi (S. McNee pers. comm.).

Phenology. Flowers in August and September; pods with mature seed have been collected in mid-


Conservation  status.  Acacia shapelleae  is  listed  as  Priority  One  under  Department  of  Parks  and 

Wildlife Conservation Codes for Western Australian Flora, as Acacia sp. Bungalbin Hill (J.J. Alford 

1119) (Smith 2013). This species is habitat-specific with a very restricted geographic range and occurs 

in an area of active mineral exploration. 

Etymology. This species is named for Shapelle McNee (ecologist with Western Botanical). Over the 

past 18 years she has conducted extensive surveys for environmental impact assessment on behalf of 

Western Botanical, and has been instrumental in recognition of numerous new plant species and the 

discovery and monitoring of populations of rare flora, particularly on the Swan Coastal Plain and the 

BIF ranges of the Yilgarn region. In spring 1983 Shapelle, together with colleague Mark Burgman, 

conducted extensive botanical surveys of poorly surveyed areas to the north of Esperance, collecting 

almost 1,000 specimens that are now deposited in the Western Australian Herbarium.

Common name. Shapelle’s Wattle.

AffinitiesAcacia shapelleae is most closely related to A. glutinosissima Maiden & Blakely. Both 

species are glabrous, resinous, viscid shrubs with similar stipules, inflorescences and carpological 

features; their phyllodes are also similar in having a total of four longitudinal nerves and a gland near 

both the pulvinus and the apex. The two species, however, can be distinguished by their distribution

habitat, habit and by details of their phyllodes and pods. Morphologically A. glutinosissima differs 

most obviously from A. shapelleae in having longer phyllodes (mostly 9–17 cm) that are sparingly 

tuberculate (tubercles absent in A. shapelleae) and flat. In A. glutinosissima the phyllodes are normally 

2–3.5 mm wide, however, in one population from near Burracoppin they are just 1 mm wide which 

is within the range of the new species. Some of the youngest phyllodes on the Burracoppin plants 

of A. glutinosissima are compressed (i.e. flattened but thickened) and while these approach those of 

A. shapelleae they are never terete to sub-terete as in the new species). Acacia glutinosissima is further 

distinguished from A. shapelleae in having a larger gland at the base of the phyllodes (0.5–1 mm long) 

and longer pods (to 10 cm) that are slightly but obviously constricted between the seeds and possess 

nerves of the reticulum that are more prominently raised. Acacia glutinosissima is a rather open, 

spindly shrub which is either single-stemmed or sparingly divided at the base, whereas A. shapelleae 

is clearly multi-stemmed. Acacia glutinosissima has a scattered, discontinuous distribution in the 

central wheatbelt region to the west and south-west of where A. shapelleae occurs. It grows in the 

Latham–Wubin area and also from Kununoppin east to Westonia and south to Bruce Rock, where it is 

found on laterite or gravelly sand or loam (Maslin 2001: 461), not BIF as does the new species. The 

closest known population of A. glutinosissima to that of A. shapelleae is from Westonia, at 150 km 

south-west of the Helena and Aurora Range.

Acacia shapelleae also has affinities with A. rossei F.Muell., but the relationship is not as close as 

with A. glutinosissimaAcacia rossei is a spindly, erect, somewhat viscid shrub 1–3(–5) m high and 


Nuytsia Vol. 24 (2014)

like A. shapelleae has conspicuous, pedunculate heads that are aggregated at the ends of the branches. 

Acacia rossei is easily distinguished from the new species by its shorter phyllodes (10–30 mm long) 

that are normally flat, longer stipules (2.5–4.5 mm), 65–75-flowered heads, transverse to oblique, 

larger seeds (4–5 mm long) and especially by its pods that are narrowly oblong, 7–11 mm wide, thick-

textured (crustaceous) and roughened by prominent brown excrescences. Acacia rossei occurs in the 

wheatbelt region where it extends from Kellerberrin east to Yellowdine and south to near Hyden; it 

normally grows in yellow sand on plains in tall shrubland.


I am indebted to Shapelle McNee and Geoff Cockerton (Western Botanical), Cameron Blackburn 

(Mattiske Consulting Pty Ltd) and Jennifer Jackson (Department of Parks and Wildlife) for providing 

habit, habitat, distributional details and photographs of A. shapelleae. Geoff Cockerton and David 

Coultas (Woodman Environmental Consulting Pty Ltd) are thanked for supplying specimens, habitat 

information and photographs of A. haematites. Neil Gibson (Department of Parks and Wildlife) is 

thanked for advice concerning the phytogeography and occurrence of taxa found on Yilgarn BIF ranges 

in southern Western Australia. Sandra Thomas (Department of Parks and Wildlife) is thanked for 

providing information on mining interests in the areas where the two new species grow. Alex George 

(Perth) is gratefully acknowledged for assistance in formulating the name A. haematites.


Gibson, N. & Butcher, R. (2013). ‘There are greater things in life than cricket’: Tetratheca aphylla (Elaeocarpaceae), James 

Drummond and the exploration of the Helena and Aurora Range. Nuytsia 23: 95–99.

Gibson, N., Coates, D.J. & Thiele, K.R. (2007). Taxonomic research and the conservation status of flora in the Yilgarn Banded 

Iron Formation ranges. Nuytsia 17: 1–12.

Gibson, N., Meissner, R., Markey, A.S. & Thompson, W.A. (2012). Patterns of plant diversity in ironstone ranges in arid south 

western Australia. Journal of Arid Environments 77: 25–31.

Gibson, N., Yates, C.J. & Dillon, R. (2010). Plant communities of the ironstone ranges of South Western Australia: hotspots 

for plant diversity and mineral deposits. Biodiversity Conservation 19: 3951–3962.

Maslin, B.R. (2001). AcaciaIn: Orchard, A.E. & Wilson, A. (eds) Flora of Australia. Vol. 11A: 1–673. (Australian Biological 

Resources Study: Canberra.)

Maslin, B.R. (2014). WATTLE2: interactive identification of Australian Acacia. Version 2.2. Available at: http://www.lucidcentral.

org/en-au/keys173;/searchforakey.aspx [accessed June 2014].

Smith, M. (2013). Threatened and Priority Flora list for Western Australia. (Department of Parks and Wildlife: Kensington, 

Western Australia.)

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