Biodiversity Assessment Technical Report


Reservation status of Ecological Vegetation Classes



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4.3 Reservation status of Ecological Vegetation Classes


Information on the current reservation status of EVCs for the Central Highlands is provided in Table 4.4. All forest EVCs with their current extent mainly confined to public lands are well represented in the existing reserve system. Three woodland EVCs and two wetland EVCs whose current extent is predominantly on public land are, however, not well-represented in the current reserve system. Many of the EVCs which are rare or considered to be endangered or vulnerable as a result of depletion (Table 4.9), are not well represented in the reserve system, with much of their extant distribution occurring in ‘other public land’ or on ‘private land’. This reflects the historic demarcation between public land and the selection of arable lands for farming associated with private land.

4.3.1 Sub-regional reservation Ecological Vegetation Classes


Eleven geographic Representation Units (GRUs) have been identified across the Central Highlands which reflect the landscape scale variation across the region (see Map 1S). These are based on similar land form, geology, vegetation and climate. Table 4.5 lists the geographic regional units and the attributes that characterise them. The overall reservation status of each EVC for all reserve types was undertaken by overlaying the reserve system with the EVC coverage using a Geographic Information System (GIS).
Table 4.5: Geographic Representation Units of the Central Highlands and their attributes.


Geographic Representation Unit (GRU)

Attributes

Aberfeldy

Steeply dissected ranges in a rainshadow from the Baw Baw Massif.

Acheron

The southern portion of the Blue Range consisting of high rainfall areas associated with the Devonian acid volcanic and granitic massifs and steeply dissected Devonian sediments south of the Great Divide

Alexandra

Moderate to low rainfall foothills and ranges to the north of the Great Divide consisting of Devonian sediments and smaller areas of contact metamorphics

Big River

Steeply dissected ranges north of the Great Divide, consisting of Devonian and Silurian sediments in low rainfall areas

Bunyip

Rolling hills and small ranges of Devonian granitoids and acid volcanics in moderate to high rainfall zones south of the Great Divide

Disappointment

The moderate to high rainfall areas of the Hume Range with the Devonian granitic massif of Mt. Disappointment and the surrounding foothills of Devonian and Silurian sediments

Latrobe

Foothill country of moderate to high rainfall and varied geology (sediments, outwash, alluviums, and basalts) south of the Great Divide on the margins of the Latrobe Valley

Marysville

The northern portions of the Blue Range and all of the Roysten Range straddling the Great Divide and largely composed of Devonian acid volcanics and granitoid massifs under moderate to high rainfall regimes. This GRU has small areas of sub-alpine county

Matlock

Steeply dissected ranges south of the Great Divide, consisting of Devonian and Silurian sediments in low to moderate rainfall areas

Thomson

Very high rainfall areas based on the Devonian granitic massifs of the Baw Baw Range steeply dissected mountains south of the Great Divide, reaching sub-alpine elevations in places.

Yarra

Low elevation rolling hills and river plains of the Yarra and its tributaries south of the Great Divide

Note: Rainfall is classified as low (<700mm), moderate (700-1000mm), high (1000-1200m) or very high (>1200mm). For geographic extent see NRE 1996b).
The results of the analysis of representation of EVCs by Geographic Representation Unit are presented in Table 4.6.

Table 4.6: Representative conservation (percentage reservation status) of pre-1750 EVCs in the Central Highlands region by Geographic Representation Unit.


4.3.2 Representation within reserves of floristic variation across EVCs


An assessment of the representation of floristic variation across EVCs is described in this section.
The assessment compared the reserve system with the distribution (quadrat information) representing the floristic communities for all EVCs. Floristic communities were derived from a PATN analysis of all quadrat data within the study area. Because floristic community distribution data is point-based, an accurate percentage area representation within the reserve system cannot be determined. However, the coincidence of floristic communities and reserves can be assessed.
The results of the analysis show that eleven of the forty EVCs occurring in the region area had more than one floristic community. Those EVCs with more than one floristic community are Cool Temperate Rainforest (2), Montane Wet Forest (3), Wet Forest (6), Damp Forest (6), Shrubby Foothill Forest (2), Herb-rich Foothill Forest (3), Valley Grassy Forest (2), Grassy Dry Forest (6), Heathy Dry Forest (7), Lowland Forest (7), and Riparian Forest (4). The remaining EVCs consist of only a single community within the study area. Those floristic communities which are not represented in reserves are Heathy Dry Forest (DHDF3) which occurs on poorer site quality areas north of the Great Divide, mainly in the Matlock area; and Grassy Dry Forest (DGDF2), which was once more common on private land in the urban part of the Lower Yarra valley.

4.3.3 Reservation status of Ecological Vegetation Class growth stages


In addition to the representation of EVCs and old growth forest in reserves, the representation of the range of different forest growth stages in each EVC has been considered. Such an analysis enables an evaluation of the reservation status of the various successional stages in the forest at the present time. Appropriate representation of a range of age-classes in reserves improves the likelihood that a greater suite of associated biodiversity will be protected and reduces the risk of stochastic events (such as wildfire) eliminating all recruitment to older growth stages for extended periods.
Woodgate et al. (1994) identified the following forest disturbance class growth stages which can be used for this assessment:


  1. Old-growth Forest - see old-growth section of this report;

  2. Negligibly Disturbed Forest - Forest which has less than 10% of the oldest trees (senescing) growth stage and less than 10% of its youngest (regrowth) growth stage in the upper stratum, and where the effects of any disturbance are negligible or non-existent;

  3. Significantly Disturbed Forest - Forest which has greater than 10% of its youngest (regrowth) growth stage in the upper stratum, and has been subject to natural disturbances (i.e. wildfire); and

  4. Other Forest - Includes forest that has greater than 10% of regrowth forest in the upper stratum originating from unnatural disturbances (timber harvesting etc.) and other forest where the type and level of disturbance is unknown.

The data used in the assessment derive from the LCC Melbourne 2 Study Area EVC coverage, the Central Highlands old growth forest study and land tenure/forest management zone data layers held by the Department of Natural Resources and Environment. The forest management zones have been developed as part of the Proposed Central Highlands Forest Management Plan (DCNR 1996).


The area by EVC of old-growth forest, negligibly and significantly disturbed forest and other forest is presented in Table 4.7.
Table 4.7: Extent and level of protection for different forest growth stages and disturbance categories in the Central Highlands region.




Total Area

Old-growth Forest

Negligibly Disturbed

Significantly Disturbed

Other Forest

Ecological Vegetation Classes

ha

ha

% Prot (ii)

ha

% Prot (ii)

ha

% Prot (ii)

ha

% Prot (ii)

Lowland Forest

26858

22

100

11812

38

14723

52

303

21

Riparian Forest

27375

130

100

7974

67

16958

56

2314

8

Heathy Dry Forest

13871

9214

77

3080

48

1531

38

42

10

Grassy Dry Forest

22625

7

100

16136

74

6417

70

65

72

Herb-rich Foothill Forest

94776

77

85

29629

60

64841

25

229

53

Rocky Outcrop Scrub

195







135

100

60

100







Damp Forest

143126

547

99

55658

47

86506

27

416

23

Wet Forest

113281

5083

99

37321

61

70677

31

205

47

Cool Temperate Rainforest

12918

1690

100

7722

74

3493

66

13

98

Montane Dry Woodland

7072

4040

71

1940

31

1091

25







Montane Damp Forest

20130

75

100

10237

25

9813

19

5




Montane Wet Forest

49677

940

100

22290

58

26448

29







Montane Riparian Thicket

3056

10

94

1677

63

1369

33







Sub-alpine Woodland

7254

3

100

3007

88

4240

84







Shrubby Foothill Forest

27983

32

100

13652

65

14094

26

204

69

Valley Grassy Forest

1136

696

71

430

72

8

100

2

94

Heathy Woodland

5137

3427

89

1491

51

193

42

26

69

Wet/Swamp Heathland

3095







2920

96

163

82

12

36

Box Woodland

33







30

100







3

100

Plains Grassy Woodland

271







259

14

13










Floodplain Riparian Woodland

1472







19

24

157

65

1296

40

Riparian Thicket

524







299

100

225

100







Sub-alpine Complex

1825







838

94

986

93







Total

583690

25993

92

228556

63

324006

53

5135

49

Notes: (a) This table excludes private land, EVCs occurring entirely on private land and those for

which it is not possible to determine the growth stage. (b) Percent of area protected is based on area in conservation reserves and SPZ categories a and b as defined in Section 4.2.2.


The area figures in Table 4.7 represent the total area of each forest category on public land for each EVC. The corresponding percent protection figure refers to the proportion of the total area protected in conservation reserves or in the Special Protection Zone (components (‘a’ and ‘b’ - see 4.2.2) Other SPZ components were not included in the analysis and fall into the category ‘other forest’.
Some refinements to the EVC layers (both current and pre-1750 layers) have been made during the pre-1750 mapping exercise for the CRA. However the growth stage and disturbance information has not been updated and, as indicated above, the original old growth data layers have been used to derive Table 4.7. Consequently there are minor differences in the total EVC areas on public land shown in this table and in Table 4.4.

4.3.4 Endangered, vulnerable and rare forest ecosystems


The conservation status of EVCs in the region have been assessed against a number of national reserve criteria (JANIS 1997). The criteria have been applied to ecological vegetation classes as the appropriate level of resolution for forest ecosystems.
EVCs which are classified as rare, vulnerable or endangered according to the national reserve criteria (Table 4.8) are presented in Table 4.9. This assessment is relevant to Criteria 2 and 3 which pertain to levels of desired reservation.
Table 4.8: The National Reserve criteria used to assess the conservation status of EVCs.

Status of EVC

Criteria

Rare

R1. Total range generally less than 10 000 ha.

R2. Total area generally less than 1 000 ha.

R3. Patch sizes generally less than 100 ha.


Vulnerable

V1. Approaching greater than 70% lost (depletion).

V2. Includes EVCs where threatening processes have caused:

 significant changes in species composition,

 loss or significant decline in species that play a major role within the ecosystem, or

 significant alteration to ecosystem processes.

V3. Subject to continuing threatening processes.



Endangered

E1. Distribution has contracted to less than 10% of original range.

E2. Less than 10% of original area remaining.

E3. 90% of area is in small patches subjected to threatening processes.

Most of the EVCs listed in Table 4.9 are confined to private land in the region (see also Section 4.2).


Table 4.9: Endangered, vulnerable and rare Ecological Vegetation Classes in Central Highlands











Current Management

EVC

Criteria

Threatening Processes

Management Action

% Reservation

Research

Swamp Scrub

E2, E3

  • Native Vegetation Retention Controls (NVR)

0




Box Woodland

E2, E3

  • habitat loss and fragmentation from agricultural clearing

  • weed invasion through fragmentation from agricultural clearing

  • NVR

  • intensive reserve management, minimisation of disturbance, monitoring fire regimes

0.2




Plains Grassy Woodland

E2, E3

  • habitat loss and fragmentation from agricultural clearing

  • weed invasion through fragmentation from agricultural clearing

  • NVR

  • Land for Wildlife

  • intensive reserve management, minimisation of disturbance, monitoring fire regimes

0.2

  • Socioeconomic research into value of maintaining native vegetation on farms

Grassland

E1, E2, E3

  • habitat loss and fragmentation from agricultural clearing

  • weed invasion through fragmentation from agricultural clearing

0

  • Socioeconomic research into value of maintaining native vegetation on farms

  • Effects of fire in maintaining biodiversity and weed control

  • Weed control

Grey Clay Drainage Line Complex

E1, E2, E3

  • altered drainage

  • weed invasion




0




Plains Grassy Wetland

E1, E2, E3, R3

  • altered drainage

  • grazing

  • weed invasion




0




Valley Heathy Forest

E2, E3

  • habitat loss and fragmentation from agricultural clearing

  • weed invasion through fragmentation from agricultural clearing

  • NVR

0




Table 4.9 Cont’d.










Current Management

EVC

Criteria

Threatening Processes

Management Action

% Reservation

Research

Grassy Forest

E3 V1, V2

  • habitat loss and fragmentation from agricultural clearing

  • weed invasion through fragmentation from agricultural clearing

  • NVR

0.3




Riverine Forest

E1, E2, E3

  • habitat loss and fragmentation from agricultural clearing

  • weed invasion through fragmentation from agricultural clearing and grazing

  • altered flooding regimes

  • NVR

  • intensive reserve management, minimisation of disturbance, monitoring fire regimes

0




Valley Grassy Forest

E3 V1, V2

  • habitat loss and fragmentation from agricultural clearing

  • weed invasion through fragmentation from agricultural clearing

  • NVR

  • Land for wildlife

1.6




Damp Sands Herb-rich Woodland

E3 V1, V2

  • habitat loss and fragmentation from agricultural clearing

  • weed invasion through fragmentation from agricultural clearing

  • NVR

0

  • monitoring

  • developing appropriate fire regimes

Granitic Hills Woodland

E3 V1, V2

  • habitat loss and fragmentation from agricultural clearing

  • weed invasion through fragmentation from agricultural clearing

  • NVR

0




Swampy Riparian Complex

E3 V1, V2

  • habitat loss and fragmentation from agricultural clearing

  • weed invasion through catchment disturbance and recreation access

  • NVR

0.8




Floodplain Riparian Woodland including Wetland formation

E3 V1, V2, E2, E3, R3

  • habitat loss and fragmentation from agricultural clearing

  • weed invasion through fragmentation from agricultural clearing and grazing

  • altered flooding regimes

  • wetland draining for agricultural development

  • NVR

  • Land for wildlife

4.8




Riparian Scrub Complex

V1

  • habitat loss and fragmentation from agricultural clearing

  • weed invasion through grazing

  • NVR

0.8




Rocky Outcrop Shrubland

V1, R3




  • NVR

0




Riverine Escarpment Scrub

V1, R3

  • weed invasion through catchment disturbance

  • NVR

0




Rocky Outcrop Scrub

R3

  • denudation through recreation use

  • NVR

62.9




Clay Heathland

R3

  • Cinnamon Fungus

  • NVR

0




Cool Temperate Rainforest

R3

  • Myrtle Wilt disease through disturbance associated with forest activities

  • Permanent edge effects associated with roading along and across rainforest stands

  • Reservation of most important stands

  • Remainder excluded from timber harvesting through exclusion zones

  • Seminar and field training days in rainforest protection for regional staff.

74.8

  • Abiotic and biotic variables in rainforest edges

  • Monitoring Myrtle Wilt

Note: All Cool Temperate Rainforest on State forest is protected in the SPZ. Cool Temperate Rainforest extent has been somewhat exaggerated in the EVC mapping

4.3.5 Current management actions to address threatening processes


All forest communities are potentially affected, to a greater or lesser extent, by threatening processes. While these threats are generally unlikely to lead to the broad scale destruction or severe degradation of the vegetation community, they may be widespread or locally severe in their impacts. Understandably, the threats listed below overlap substantially with those that affect individual species, some of which are discussed in other sections of this report. Table 4.10 lists the major threats to forest communities in the Central Highlands and identifies the actions taken in response to each threat.
Table 4.10: Current management actions for threatening processes that affect forest ecosystems.

Potentially Threatening Process

Response

Clearing native vegetation causing:

- habitat loss,

- changes to structure and

composition,

- erosion,

- soil compaction,

- weed invasion


  • The clearing of native vegetation on public land requires Ministerial or Departmental approval. Planning permission may also be required in some cases. Major developments, including many mining and extractive industry developments, are the subject of Environmental Effects Statements, in which the impacts on native flora are considered. The taking of protected flora associated with clearing requires authorisation under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act.

  • The clearing of native vegetation on private land requires planning permission from the local planning authority in most cases. For parcels of land greater than 10 ha in area, NRE approval is required.




Planned fire causing:

- habitat loss,

- changes to structure and

composition,




  • The conduct of planned fire in the Central Highlands is governed by the Department of Natural Resources and Environment Code of Fire Practices, Regional Fire Management Plans and Regional Prescriptions in the case of fuel reduction and regeneration burns.

  • Ecological burns are usually initiated by management plans or Action Statements for specific species, communities or sites.

Table 4.10 Cont’d

Potentially Threatening Process

Response

Timber harvesting and associated activities causing:

- habitat loss,

- changes to structure and

composition,

- erosion,

- soil compaction,

- weed invasion

- spread of fungal pathogens



  • Timber harvesting and associated roading and burning activities are managed under the forest management planning process, which includes the Code Of Forest Practices For Timber Production, the relevant Forest Management Area Plan, regional prescriptions and the annual Wood Utilisation Plans. The Code Of Forest Practices For Timber Production and Forest Management Area Plans are subject to periodic review with formal public consultation, while regional prescriptions and wood utilisation plans are prepared in consultation with regional flora and fauna staff.

  • The indirect taking of protected flora associated with timber harvesting requires authorisation under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act.

  • Operational trials of “understorey islands”, areas within coupes in which machinery is excluded, are continuing, with the view to routine implementation where feasible. These trials have been initiated because of the demonstrated impact harvesting has on species which regenerate by resprouting or those which are obligate seed regenerators but take decades to mature.

  • Buffers for rainforest and vegetation containing Myrtle Beech

  • Field days and seminars for regional and operational staff designed to minimise the risk of spread of Myrtle Wilt as the result of forest management activities




Grazing causing:

- habitat loss,

- changes to structure and

composition,

- erosion,

- soil compaction,

- weed invasion


  • Grazing of private land remnant native vegetation is not subject to regulation. Licensed grazing of native vegetation on public land is subject to periodic review, with the option of specifying licence conditions which may include protection of native flora.

  • Pest animals are subject to active management to control or eradicate populations, especially adjacent to agricultural lands and where impacts are most severe. Targeted pest management is applied in a few cases where grazing is a threat to one or more threatened plant species as a component of an Action Statement or Recovery Plan.

  • The recent release of the Rabbit Calicivirus Disease is a major initiative in rabbit control.

  • While the overall impact of introduced game animals such as deer is relatively minor when compared to domestic stock and rabbits, significant localised impacts are recorded (especially in riparian vegetation).

  • Overbrowsing by native species is generally dealt with by issuing permits to reduce specific populations of native browsers.




Road construction and maintenance

- habitat loss,

- changes to structure and

composition,

- erosion,

- soil compaction,

- weed invasion

- spread of fungal pathogens



  • Vicroads is responsible for the highways throughout Victoria. Vicroads has recently published an environmental strategy which includes objectives and commitments relating to the conservation of native flora.

  • Local municipalities are responsible for road construction and maintenance for other roads, excluding those managed by Department of Natural Resources and Environment and some other organisations such as utilities on public land, and those managed by private landholders on their land. Individual councils are developing strategies for roadside conservation.

  • Road construction and maintenance conducted on public land as part of the management of State forests or major conservation reserves is generally planned and implemented as part of a coordinated management plan. The Code Of Forest Practices For Timber Production includes standards and guidelines for road construction in State forest. In all cases, efforts are made to reduce the environmental impacts, consistent with safety considerations, traffic levels and engineering requirements.

  • Regional field days for staff to minimise impact of roading on Myrtle Wilt

Table 4.10 Cont’d

Potentially Threatening Process

Response

Recreation

  • Pleasure driving, fishing, hunting, camping and sightseeing is managed through the relevant planning process - Forest Management Area Plan or National Park Management Plan - on public land. Effort is generally made to encourage activities in appropriate zones in which they are compatible with overall management objectives, or where impacts can be minimised.

  • Skiing and associated resort development is at present managed by the Alpine Resorts Commission in cooperation with the Department of Natural Resources and Environment.




Environmental weed invasion

  • The management of environmental weed invasions is the responsibility of the land manager. For public land, environmental weeds are considered along with agricultural weeds under the Victorian Catchment and Land Protection Act 1992. Under this Act, weed species may be listed as State Prohibited, Regionally Prohibited or Regionally Controlled weeds. Within this framework, regional environmental weed management priorities are established through the relevant management plans.

  • The Victorian Parliament, through the Environment and Natural Resources Committee, is currently investigating the significance of the environmental weed problem in general, including specific reference to environmental weeds.

  • Environmental weed invasion has been listed as a potentially threatening process under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act.

  • The Commonwealth, in consultation with State and Territory agencies, has recently completed the National Weeds Strategy, which outlines actions to address environmental weed problems.

  • Current management of environmental weeds across public and private land is generally acknowledged as being deficient. Limited resources and a general lack of strategic planning, tactical planning, follow-up, monitoring and experimental management are largely responsible for the deficiencies.






Rainforest

Cool Temperate Rainforest is the only Rainforest EVC occurring in the Central Highlands. Most significant rainforest stands are located along gullies and rivers. Rainforest in the Central Highlands is protected in dedicated reserves and the SPZ and the balance is protected through the Code of Forest Practices for Timber Production (The Code). The Code requires that rainforest and associated buffer of non-rainforest vegetation be excluded from timber harvesting. The Proposed Central Highlands Forest Management Plan includes all rainforest and their associated buffers in the Special Protection Zone.


In a review of rainforest protection measures, Burgman and Ferguson (1995) proposed a number of areas of improvement in rainforest management. The CSIRO recently reviewed the Victorian Code of Forest Practices and proposed that:


  • areas of rainforest must be defined and a strategy for their management must be included as part of planning for conservation of flora and fauna in Forest Management Plans and/or in the relevant prescriptions. The most important rainforest areas should be accorded the highest protection;

  • rainforest areas must be shown on the Forest Coupe Plan and buffers identified in the field; and

  • there should be an increasing degree of protection commensurate with increasing significance of the rainforest stand. Pending the results of further research, interim minimum levels of protection relevant to the Central Highlands are as follows:

  • for stands of lesser significance: 40 metre buffers or 20 metre exclusion plus a 40m modified harvesting strip (greater than 40% of basal area retained, low machine disturbance, minimal burning); and

  • for stands containing nationally significant rainforest sensitive to management operations: the highest degree of protection, generally sub-catchment level, except where full protection can be provided by other measures, which are/will be outlined in approved plans.

The revised Code of Forest Practices, which was ratified by the Victorian Parliament in 1997, incorporates these amendments. Furthermore, the Proposed Central Highlands Forest Management Plan identifies a range of protection measures from sub-catchment protection to specified buffer widths, depending on the significance of the stand.


Mixed Forest

This EVC occurs with the Wet Forest EVC (as currently mapped) and contains rainforest elements in the understorey with an overstorey of eucalypts and, in the Victorian vegetation typology, it is called Cool Temperate Mixed Forest. Within the Central Highlands, Cool Temperate Mixed Forest is widely distributed but uncommon. Even though no mapping is currently available across the study area it is known that the largest areas (and the majority of this EVC’s occurrence) is reserved in the Yarra Ranges National Park.


Refugia

The identification of Refugia is related to three broad concepts. These are:




  • evolutionary refugia - areas in the landscape in which certain types or suites of organisms are able to persist during a period in which most of the original geographic range becomes uninhabitable because of climate change;




  • ecological refugia - areas in the landscape in which a species or suite of species persist for short periods when large parts of their preferred habitats become uninhabitable because of unsuitable climatic or ecological conditions (eg. drought, flooding or biologically driven collapses in food supply); and




  • refugia for threatened biota - areas in the landscape in which a species has retreated because of factors ultimately to do with environmental changes set in train by European settlement (Morton et al. 1995).

Techniques for identifying refugia in the landscape include:




  • reconstruction of the spatial pattern of past major disturbance events (eg. glaciation);

  • analysis of plant and animal distributions, particularly for endemic and phylogenetically distinct species and/or species groups, linked to refugia;




  • development of explicit landscape process models (Nix 1993; Mullens 1995) and correlation of predicted refugia distributions with plant and animal distributions.

An analysis of refugia was undertaken for the Central Highlands National Estate assessment. The determination of flora refuge areas was a three stage process that incorporated:




  1. The identification of relictual (primitive and Gondwanic) flora. Those vegetation classes in the Central Highlands are either dominated by, or containing large proportions of species which are phylogenetically primitive or Gondwanic in origin were considered refuge dependent EVCs;




  1. The identification of ice age refuges identified as undisturbed areas of refuge dependent EVCs that occupy a climatic or topographic location that retains elements of the climatic regime of the last Ice Age (40 000 - 10 000 years BP); and




  1. The identification of refuges from frequent fire that have reduced fire frequency or intensity compared with the majority of areas in Central Highlands.

Eleven flora refuge areas were identified across the region, ranging from aggregations of small patches of rainforest through to substantial tracts of montane and alpine areas. The total area of flora refuges identified in the region was 52,344 hectares.


The fauna refuge areas identified were likely to function as refuges during periods of major environmental or climatic stress (eg. glaciation events), and during periods of medium term environmental stress for individuals or populations such as during wildfire or severe drought. These refuges included:


  • Riparian Forest, Scrub and Shrubland (EVCs 17, 18 19);

  • Undisturbed Wet Forest and Montane Wet Forest (EVCs 30, 39);

  • Cool Temperate Rainforest (EVCs 31, 32, 33); and

  • Permanent Wetlands.


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