Born on February 7, 1870 in Vienna Born as the second son and third child

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Alfred Adler


  • Born on February 7, 1870 in Vienna

  • Born as the second son and third child

  • Father was a Jewish grain merchant

  • Adler suffered from rickets and thus did not walk until the age of four

  • When he was five years old he almost died of pneumonia

  • While he was growing up, he was very outgoing, popular, and an involved scholar

  • He was a typical teenager, and he was always trying to outdo his older brother

  • Adler received his medical degree from the University of Vienna in 1895

  • He met his wife, Raissa Timofeyewna Epstein, in college

  • His wife was a social activist from Russia

  • They were married in 1897 and has four children

  • Two of their four children grew up to become psychiatrists

  • Alfred began his practice as an ophthalmologist: M.D. specializing in eyes

  • He turned to general practice, and most of his patients were circus performers because his first office was set up across from an amusement park

  • In 1907, he turned to psychiatry and joined Freud’s discussion groups

  • Freud named Alfred Adler as the president of the Viennese Analytic Society

  • Adler and nine other members established The Society for Individual Psychology in 1912

  • During WWI, Alfred was a physician for the Austrian Army

  • Adler took a position at Long Island College of Medicine in 1926 and he and his family moved to the U.S.

  • Alfred Adler died May 28, 1937 at the age of 67 years old from a heart attack when he was lecturing at the Aberdeen University in Scotland

Because Adler was involved in psychological and personality study around the same time as Freud, he initially worked together with Freud, but ended their collaboration due to Freud’s strong sexual hypotheses. Adler’s primary theory was that people are focused on maintaining control in their lives. He believed that individuals each had a unique psyche and that no one theory could be applied to all human beings, so his theory of Individual Psychology consisted of four flexible aspects: the development of personality, striving for superiority, psychological health, and the unity of personality. Adler also conceived the idea of the inferiority/superiority complex. He said that people experienced feelings of a lack of worth and wanted to become what they imagined their perfect self would be; he called this person the fictional finalism. Although Adler did not like to generalize people and their personalities, he found he could identify four specific types of personalities in people: ruling, getting, avoiding, and socially useful. Rulers try to control others, getters selfishly take without giving and typically follow the crowd, avoiders try to isolate themselves to avoid defeat which they hate, and socially useful people value control in their lives and strive to change things for the better. Adler additionally used birth order to interpret individuals. He claimed that first borns were most likely to abuse substances or end up in jail due to the great responsibility they felt from caring for their siblings. Middle children supposedly would develop into a successful individual but would experience feelings of rebellion and exclusion. Third-borns, or the baby of the family were said to be overindulged and thus feel little social empathy.

Works Cited

“Alfred Adler.” Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation.

Fisher, Molly. “Alfred Adler.” Psychology History. Electronic Source. .

Evaluation of Adler’s Theories


  • Both Albert Ellis and Aaron T. Beck credit Adler as a major precursor to Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) and Cognitive Therapy (CT.)

  • The pragmatic and materialist aspects to contextualizing members of communities, the construction of communities and the socio-historical-political forces that shape communities matter a great deal when it comes to understanding an individual's psychological make-up and functioning. This aspect of Adlerian psychology holds a high level of synergy with the field of community psychology.

  • The theories of Adler were accepted by those who were no longer satisfied by Freud’s theories that centralize around sexual forces and experiences in childhood.

  • Adler founded the Society for Individual Psychology in 1912.

  • Alfred Adler's theories have played an essential role in a number of areas, including therapy and child development.

  • Alder's ideas also influenced other important psychologists, including: Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers, Karen Horney, Rollo May, Erich Fromm, and Albert Ellis.


  • Criticisms of Adler tend to involve the issue of whether or not his theory is scientific.

  • Many of the details of his theory are too anecdotal. They may be true in particular cases, but do not necessarily have the generality that Adler claimed for them.

  • It could also be said that his ideas are too simplistic, too superficial, too idealistic and too difficult to prove. How, for example, do you measure striving for perfection? Or compensation? Or feelings of inferiority? Or social interest?

  • Adler's theory, some say, has a long way to go before becoming successfully measurable and, indeed, provable.




Allport Biography

         American psychologist

         born on November 11, 1897 Montezuma, Indiana

         later attended Harvard University

o   Graduated w/ Ph.D. in 1922

         long time/ influential member of faculty at Harvard University

o   1930-1967

         More famed works:

o   Becoming, Pattern and Growth in Personality, The Individual and His Religion, The Nature of Prejudice.

         One of first psychologists to focus on study of personality

o   Referred to as one of the founding figures of personality psychology

o   Rejected extreme "scientific" approaches

  Believed universal laws alone could never tell “the whole story” of personality

         diversity and uniqueness of individuals would skew results

  Despite this, Allport supported universal personality "traits"

         could be combined in various ways, maintaining projection of “uniqueness” of each individual

o   Rejected psychoanalytic approach to personality,

  Thought to provide too “in depth” analysis

o   Rejected Behavioral theory for his own

  Allport’s theory extremely different from the widespread Behaviorism of his day

         Thought Behaviorism provided shallow analysis of personality in comparison

o   Instead of psychoanalytic or behavioral, Allport emphasized uniqueness of each individual and importance of the present context to understand personality as opposed to past history

         Known for attacking and conceptualizing important and interesting topics

o   rumor, prejudice, religion, traits

Allport’s Theory


o   Focused on study of personality

  behavioral approach

o   Believed psychologically healthy people are motivated by present, (conscious drives)

  believed people are capable of hands-on creative activities and through that they will grow and mature, behaving in new ways


o   basic units of personality are personal dispositions& proprium

  A. Personal Dispositions

         distinguished between common traits permit inter-individual comparisons, and personal dispositions

         3 overlapping levels of personal dispositions

o   1 cardinal dispositions that are so obvious and dominating that they cannot be hidden from other people. Not everyone has a cardinal disposition.

o   In addition, everyone has a great number of secondary dispositions, which are less reliable and less conspicuous than central traits.

o   Allport further divided personal dispositions into..

o   motivational dispositions, which are strong enough to initiate action

o   stylistic dispositions, which refer to the manner in which an individual behaves and which guide rather than initiate action.

  B. Proprium refers to all those behaviors and characteristics that people regard as warm and central in their lives.

o   Over self or ego because the latter terms could imply an object or thing within a person that controls behavior, whereas proprium suggests the core of one's personhood.

  Motivation

  must consider the notion that motives change as people mature and also that people are motivated by present drives and wants.

o   A. Reactive and Proactive Theories of Motivation

  people not only react to their environment, but they also shape their environment and cause it to react to them

o   B. Functional Autonomy

  which holds that some (but not all) human motives are functionally independent from the original motive responsible for a particular behavior.

         two levels of functional autonomy:

o   perseverative functional autonomy, which is the tendency of certain basic behaviors (such as addictive behaviors) to continue in the absence of reinforcement

o   propriate functional autonomy, which refers to self-sustaining motives (such as interests).

o   C. Conscious and Unconscious Motivation

         unconscious motives

o   most people are aware of what they are doing and why they are doing it

Allport’s Analysis of Theory


  Emphasis the uniqueness of individual

  Splits it into specific categories (cardinal, central, secondary), very precise

  Focused on unique perspective (religion)

  Believed that general and universal laws couldn’t tell the “whole story” for so many unique individuals


  His views are more of philosophical speculation and common sense

  Theory is narrow (limited to model of human motivation)

  Humans have inconsistent behavior in different situations (not general)

  Rates low in organizing psychological data and being falsified



Albert Ellis Biography

  • Albert Ellis was born of Jewish parents on September 17, 1913, in Pittsburgh

  • Recognizing the slowness and frequent ineffectiveness of Freudian psychoanalysis, Albert Ellis broke away from it in January 1953, calling himself a rational therapist. He started a revolutionary paradigm shift in the way psychology thought about human problems and changing the way psychotherapy is practiced around the world.

  • Dr. Ellis received the highest awards from professional societies, including recently the New York State Psychological Association's Lifetime Distinguished Service Award. Psychology Today called him The Prince of Reason. He was also called the greatest humanitarian since Gandhi.

  • He has authored over 75 books and 1200 articles. His influence has extended into areas other than Psychology, which include education, education of children, social harmony, politics, business, and enhancing human happiness. He has written extensively on the serious problems that the world is currently facing, such as terrorism, and nuclear weapons

  • As a sexologist, he also achieved a degree of notoriety by defending publishers of sex materials, gays, and other alleged sex offenders in court.

  • Until he fell ill at the age of 92 in May 2006, Dr. Ellis typically worked at least 16 hours a day, writing books in longhand on legal tablets, visiting with clients and teaching. Even while seriously ill, he continued to see students at the rehabilitation center where he was recuperating.

Albert Ellis Theories

Albert Ellis began his career in 1942 as psychoanalysis, and by 1953 had developed his most prolific contribution to psychology - Rational emotive behavior therapy. Rational Therapy focuses on resolving emotional and behavioral problems enabling people to live happier lives. REBT revolves around the central idea that humans, in most cases, do not merely get upset by unfortunate adversities, but also by how they construct their views of reality through their language, evaluative beliefs, meanings and philosophies about the world, themselves and others.

To start to understand REBT, you must start with Ellis’s ABC model: A stands for Activating Factor, such as childhood traumas, and family experiences. B stands for belief, especially the irrational, self-defeating beliefs that are the actual sources of our unhappiness. C stands for consequences, the neurotic symptoms and negative emotions such as depression panic, and rage, that come from our beliefs. REBT revolves around 3 key points:

  1. Insight 1 - People seeing and accepting the reality that their emotional disturbances at point consequences only partially stem from the activating events or adversities at point A(Adversity or activating event) that precede C(consequences.)

  2. Insight 2 - No matter how, when, and why people acquire self-defeating or irrational beliefs (i.e. beliefs which are the main cause of their dysfunctional emotional-behavioral consequences), if they are disturbed in the present, they tend to keep holding these irrational beliefs and continue upsetting themselves with these thoughts.

  3. Insight 3 - No matter how well they have achieved insight 1 and insight 2, insight alone will rarely enable people to undo their emotional disturbances. They may feel better when they know, or think they know, how they became disturbed - since insights can give the impression of being useful and curative.

Ellis had also been one of curators of the sexual revolution in the 30’s. Especially in his earlier career, he was well known for his work as a sexologist and for his liberal humanistic and controversial in some camps, opinions on human sexuality. He also worked with noted zoologist and sex researcher Alfred Kinsey and explored in a number of books and articles the topic of human sexuality and love. Sex and love relations were his professional interests even from the beginning of his career.

Albert Ellis Criticisms

Albert Ellis, because of the nature that his body of work consisted of, was heavily criticized by religions that instituted pro-abstinence beliefs. His book, Sex Without Guilt, expressed his view that religious restrictions on sex are often needless, and came to see religious beliefs as harmful to mental health. While he toned this opinion down during his later years, he remained a devout atheist until his death in 2007. His work remains controversial to this day. Other than his battle with religion, Ellis was not largely criticized for the lack of scientific data put into his work

Albert Ellis Evaluation

Albert Ellis, though criticized by religious activists, put forth a very detailed and acceptable theory on the rational behavior of humans. He explains in depth how people perceive stress and goal-oriented behavior. He conceptualizes human psychological functioning as an efficient and interactive system of cognitions, emotions, behavior and biology responding to environmental conditions. He proposes that people function in four basic ways: they sense or perceive, emote, act, and think. Ellis was also very impactful in the “sex revolution” of the mid-1900’s, working with sex and love researchers such as Alfred Kinsey. He helped change the public’s opinion on abstinence and freedom of sexual behaviors.


“Albert-Ellis-Friends. Net A Rational Oasis. “ Published June 5, 2007. Web. February 13, 2012.

Myrtle Heery, PhD, M.F.T. “Albert Ellis on Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT)” Evolution of Psychotherapy Conference. Published August 2000. Web. February 13, 2012.

Viktor Frankl; Biography and Theories

Viktor Frankl was born into a Jewish family of Beamtenfamilie, or civil servants. Early in his life, his interest in psychology bloomed as his studies continued. He graduated at the top of his class in 1923, going on to study medicine at the University of Vienna. Later, he specialized in neurology and psychiatry, with focuses on topics such as depression and suicide. Early in his career, he was mainly influenced by people like Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler, though he later disagreed with some of their theories. In 1924, Frankl became president of the Sozialistische Mittelschüler Österreich, which gave him power to make a new counseling program for students during the time when they get their grades. During his time as president, not a single student committed suicide. From 1933-1937, Frankl worked in the “suicide-pavilion”, where he treated 30,000 women who were “prone to suicide”. From 1938-1940 he moved into private practice, because the Nazis refused him the right to treat “Aryan” patients. In 1940, he started work at Rothschild Hospital, where he saved many lives from the Nazi Euthanasia Program, and became the head neurologist and brain surgeon. In 1941, he married a woman named Tilly Grosser, but the following year, Frankl, his parents, and his new wife were all deported to a concentration camp. His family was moved from one camp to another for the next 4 years. At the first concentration camp, he did regular labor duties as well as working as a general practitioner, and eventually starting a suicide watch. He spent any spare time he had giving lectures to the other prisoners, mainly on psychology, existential problems, healthy states of mind, and health in general. His wife was sent to Bergen-Bensen concentration camp, his father to Theresienstadt, and his mother to Auschwitz. All three died there. On April 27, 1945 Frankl was freed by American troops. The only survivor in his immediate relatives was his sister, who had immigrated to Australia to escape. After going through such trauma, Frankl created the basis of his theory of logotherapy, as well as his more famous theories. After being liberated, Frankl returned to Vienna where he published more than 32 books, of which many were translated in 10 to 20 other languages. He lectured and taught, and earned 29 honorary doctorette degrees. On Sep. 2, 1997, he died.

Theory: The development of Logotherapy and Existential Analysis dates back to the 1930s. On the basis of Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalysis and Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology the psychiatrist and neurologist Viktor Emil Frankl (1905-1997) laid down the foundations of a new and original approach which he first published in 1938. Logotherapy/Existential Analysis, sometimes called the "Third Viennese School of Psychotherapy", is an internationally acknowledged and empirically based meaning-centered approach to psychotherapy.

In Logotherapy/Existential Analysis (LTEA) the search for a meaning in life is identified as the primary motivational force in human beings.

Frankl's approach is based on three philosophical and psychological concepts:

  • Freedom of Will

  • Will to Meaning, and

  • Meaning in Life


¦  Freedom of Will
According to LTEA humans are not fully subject to conditions but are basically free to decide and capable of taking their stance towards internal (psychological) and external (biological and social) conditions. Freedom is here defined as the space of shaping one's own life within the limits of the given possibilities. This freedom derives from the spiritual dimension of the person, which is understood as the essentially human realm, over and above the dimensions of body and of psyche. As spiritual persons, humans are not just reacting organisms but autonomous beings capable of actively shaping their lives.

The freedom of the human person plays an important role in psychotherapy, in that it provides clients with room for autonomous action even in the face of somatic or pschological illness. And it just that resource which enables clients, in the context of the techniques of Paradoxical Intention and Dereflection, to cope with their symptoms and to regain control and self-determination.


¦  Will to Meaning
Human beings are not only free, but most importantly they are free to something - namely, to achieve goals and puposes. The search for meaning is seen as the primary motivation of humans. When a person cannot realize his or her "Will to Meaning" in their lives they will experience an abysmal sensation of meaninglessness and emptiness. The frustration of the existential need for meaningful goals will give rise to aggression, addiction, depression and suicidality, and it may engender or increase psychosomatic maladies and neurotic disorders.

Logotherapy/Existential Analysis assists clients in perceiving and removing those factors that hinder them in pursuing meaningful goals in their lives. Clients are sensitized for the perception of meaning potentialities; however, they are not offered specific meanings. Rather, they are guided and assisted in the realization of those meaning possibilities they have detected themselves.


¦  Meaning in Life
LTEA is based on the idea that meaning is an objective reality, as opposed to a mere illusion arising within the perceptional apparatus of the observer. This is in contrast to the so-called "Occupational and Recreational Therapies" which are primarily concerned with diverting the clients' attention from disturbed or disturbing modes of experience.

According to LTEA humans are called upon, on the grounds of their freedom and responsibility, to bring forth the possible best in themselves and in the world, by perceiving and realizing the meaning of the moment in each and every situation. In this context it must be stressed that these meaning potentials, although objective in nature, are linked to the specific situation and person, and are therefore continually changing. Thus LTEA does not declare or offer some general meaning of life. Rather, clients are aided in achieving the openness and flexibility that will enable them to shape their day-to-day lives in a meaningful manner.

  Therapeutic techniques in LTEA (Selection)
Paradoxical Intention
Indications: mainly compulsive disorders and anxiety, also vegetative syndromes.
Guided by the physician or therapist, clients learn to overcome their obsessions or anxieties by self-distancing and humorous exaggeration, thus breaking the vicious circle of symptom and symptom amplification.


Indications: Sexual disorders and sleeplessness, also anxiety disorders.
Instinctive, automatic processes are impeded and hindered by exaggerated self-observation. By the same token, some mild and well-founded sensations of anxiousness or sadness will be increased and amplified by self-observation, making them more noticeable and engendering even more intense observation. It is the purpose of dereflexion to break this neuroticizing circle by drawing the client's attention away from the symptom or the naturally flowing process.

Socratic dialogue / modification of attitudes

Certain attitudes and expectations may be obstacles to meaning fulfillment. They can alienate a person from the meaning potentialities in his or her life, thus accentuating neurotic disorders, or even producing them via repeated maldecisions and formation of behavior patterns.

It is important to note that the therapist or physician must refrain from imposing his or her own values or meaning perceptions. Rather, clients are guided to perceive their unrealistic and counterproductive attitudes and to develop a new outlook that may be a better basis for a fulfilled life.

Socratic dialogue is a conversational method frequently used by logotherapists. Specific questions are aimed to raise into consciousness the possibility to find, and the freedom to fulfill, meaning in one's life. In the philosophical setting this technique of guiding by questioning was introduced by Socrates, who characterized it as a sort of "spiritual midwifery".

Weaknesses: Logotherapy has been criticized for its similarities to religion. Frankl, the founder of logotherapy, was raised Jewish and used his faith to cope with many hardships during his life. His therapeutic technique leads people to discover their meaning, the higher purpose in their life. Critics have said this method is similar to the belief in God or a higher power and that the foundation of logotherapy is based in faith rather than in science. Frankl eventually stopped advocating for religion as part of logotherapy, and maintained that his method facilitated change through deep spiritual, emotional and physical awareness.  Others questioned his intentions when he first began his exploration into logotherapy because he was employed at a Nazi hospital. Being Jewish, his peers thought it less than ethical that his theories originated as a result of experiments on Jews who had committed suicide during the holocaust. Additionally, any people thought his theories were more personal in nature than they were evidentiary or scientific. Many of the experiences Frankl used to form his logotherapy came from his own personal suffering and loss.

Strengths: Inspiration of Viktor Frankl's life 

Relatively simple to understand, potentially life-changing and enhancing

Addresses dimension of life not addressed by other therapies

Optimistic and constructive

Erich Fromm’s Biography:

• Erich Fromm was a Jewish German-American social psychologist.

• Fromm was born on March 23rd, 1900 in Frankfurt, Germany. According to Fromm, his father was rather moody and his mother often had period of depression that resulted in Fromm not having the best of childhoods. He was raised in a very religious Jewish Orthodox family, but later on in life became what he called an atheist mystic.

• Fromm graduated from Frankfurt University in 1919; he then studied sociology at Heidelberg under Alfred Weber and received his PhD doctorate in 1922.

• In 1929, along with other social psychologists in the field, Fromm established The South German Institute for Psychoanalysis; he then resided to open up his own practice in Berlin.

• Fromm’s main influence came from Karl Marx’s work.

Theories of Fromm:

• Was a blend of Freud and Marx

• Fromm made freedom the central characteristic of human nature

• Determinism-the philosophical idea that every event or state of affairs, including every human decision and action, is the inevitable and necessary consequence of proceeding states of affairs.

• Destructiveness-discusses the escape from freedom that is responsible for brutality, crime, and terrorism.

• Automaton Conformity- Escape by hiding in an authoritarian hierarchy. Someone will escape into society so they don’t have to be responsible for themselves.

• Believed that family had a lot to do with where a person ends up in life.

• The Social Unconscious- Means that someone may believe they are acting in the ways of their own free will, but really they are behaving how their parents raised them.

• Argues that there two ways of existence are competing for 'the spirit of mankind' - having and being. The having mode looks to things as well as material possessions and is based on aggression and greed. The being mode is rooted in love and is concerned with shared experience to productive activity.

• “There is only one meaning of life: the act of living itself.”-Erich Fromm

Erich Fromm Evaluation:

• Fromm is a transition figure that brings theories together

• Draws together Freudian and non-Freudian theories and humanistic theories

• Economic and cultural roots of personality put directly

Key Terms:

• Necrophilous- The lovers of death.

• Human Needs- Needs that go beyond the basic and physiological needs.

• 5 Human Needs:

  • Relatedness- As human beings, we are aware of our separateness from each other, and seek to overcome it.

  • Creativity- Fromm believes that we all desire to overcome, to transcend, another fact of our being: Our sense of being passive creatures. We want to be creators.

  • Rootedness- We need to feel at home in the universe, even though, as human beings, we are somewhat alienated from the natural world.

  • A Sense of Identity- Fromm believes that we need to have a sense of identity, of individuality, in order to stay sane.

  • A Frame of Orientation- We need a frame of orientation -- almost anything will do. A bad one is better than none. People are generally quite gullible and we want to believe, sometimes even desperately. If we don't have an explanation handy, we will make one up, via rationalization. We want to have a good frame of orientation, one that is useful, accurate. This is where reason comes in.



Karen Horney

  • Born on September 16, 1885 near Hamburg, Germany.

  • Mother: Clotilde Danielson

  • Father: Berndt Danielson

  • Later re-married Sonni who gave birth to their son, Berndt.

  • At the age of 9, she developed a crush on Berndt, who would later reject her.

  • 1906: Entered medical school.

  • While in medical school, she met Oscar Horney who she later married in 1909.

  • Gave birth to their first daughter, Brigitte in 1910.

  • 1911: Decided to start working on psychoanalysis.

  • 1915: Started to follow the Freudian analysis with Karl Abraham.

  • 1919: Took patients for analysis at the Berlin Psychoanalytic Clinic and Institute.

  • 1920’s: Published papers about orthodox Freudians and psychosexuality.

  • 1930: Horney’s theories on sociocultural factors of human development were established.

  • 1934: Moved to New York

  • Oscar Horney lost his job and got meningitis.

  • Karen Horney moved her three daughters out of Oscar’s house and moved to the United States.

  • 1937: Published The Neurotic personality Of Our Time.

  • 1942: Published Self-Analysis

  • 1945: Published Our Inner Conflicts

  • 1947: Published Neurosis and Human Growth

  • 1952: Karen Horney died.


Karen Horney countered Freud’s concept of penis envy with what she called womb envy. She believed that men were jealous of the fact that women could bear children and that men made up for this by striving for success and achievement in other realms. She had four main theories of personality: Theory of neurosis, Narcissism, Mature Theory, and Theory of Self.

Theory of Neurosis:

  • Horney believed that neurosis was a result of parental indifference toward the child.

  • Horney came up with ten patterns of neurotic needs that are based on what all humans need to survive.

  • Horney’s ten needs are:

  1. Need for affection and approval- pleasing and being liked by others

  2. Need for a partner- someone to love and tell all their problems to

  3. Need for power- ability to bend wills and gain control over others (neurotic may be desperate for it)

  4. Need to exploit others- to get the best of people

  5. Need for social recognition- limelight and prestige

  6. Need for personal admiration- to be valued inside and out

  7. Need for personal achievement- wish to achieve (neurotic may be desperate for it)

  8. Need for self sufficiency and independence- neurotic may wish to discard others entirely

  9. Need for perfection- neurotic may have a fear of having slight flaws

  10. Need to restrict life practices to within narrow borders- to live as inconspicuous a life as possible


  • Saw different from Freud

  • Saw narcissism personality as a product of certain kinds of early environment acting on a certain kind of temperament

Mature Theory:

  • Horney with Alfred Adler came up with Neo-Freudian discipline

  • Stated that womb envy occurred just often, in men, as penis envy did in women

  • Reworked the Freudian Oedipal complex of the sexual elements stating that the clinging to one parent and jealousy of the other was simply the result of anxiety caused by the disturbance in the parent-child relationship

  • Strived to rework Freudian thought but presented a holistic, humanistic view of the human psyche that placed much emphasis on the social and cultural differences of the world

Theory of Self:

  • Shared Abraham Maslow’s view that people strive for self-actualization

  • believed that if we have an accurate conception of our own self, then we are free to realize our potential and achieve what we wish

  • can have two views of our self: the "real self" and the "ideal self”

  1. real self is who and what we actually are

  2. ideal self is the type of person we feel that we should be




*She was able to put the theory of neurosis into ten different categories which made it easier for people to understand.

*She was able to look at all points of the personality and brought them together to show what is needed for social interaction
*Her theory made it easy to see what everyone needs in order to react in a normal way with others.

*She talked about why people react and act differently than others.


*she didn’t give many examples to support her theories

*she didn’t give many reasons for why people act negatively towards others.

*she didn’t talk much about what traumatic experiences can do towards someone’s personality and how they act towards others.

* She didn’t say what is needed to help the people who lack certain parts to neurosis.

Carl Jung


  • Born on July 26, 1875 in Kesswil, Sweden

  • Moved to Basel at the age of 4

  • Had a lonely childhood

  • Observed parents/teachers and tried to understand their behavior

  • His family was very religious

  • Chose to go to the University of Basil from 1895-1900 instead of continuing the family tradition of working as a clergyman

  • Studied many aspects including biology, zoology, paleontology, and archaeology

  • Even studied philosophy, mythology, early Christian literature, and religion

  • After Basel he became an assistant physician at Burgholeli Psychiatric clinic

  • Obtained his M.D. from the university of Zurich in 1902

  • First research was conducted in 1904, word association in patients

  • Worked very close with Freud between 1907-1912

  • Published “Symbols and Transformations of the Libido” in 1912, separating himself from Freud

  • Invented “analytical psychology” to further understand unconscious

  • Wrote the book “Psychological Types”

  • Authored zoo papers in lifetime

  • Died in 1961 on Lake Zurich in Kusnacht

Theory- divided into three parts which are part of Analytical Psychology:

  • Ego- similar to Freud, but identifies with the conscious mind

  • Personal unconscious- anything that is not presently conscious but can be, most peoples understanding of the unconscious like memories that are either easily brought to mind or suppressed, doesn’t include instincts that Freud would include

  • Synchronicity is the term Jung coined for explaining the occurrence of meaningful coincidences, has to do with your psyche, the environment, and your unconscious, or under certain circumstances events in the outer world coincided meaningfully with inner psychic states, depends on individual's subjective response : whether they feels it to be a meaningful coincidence

  • Collective Unconscious- consists of ancient memory traces and symbols that are passed on by birth and are shared by all people in all cultures, it’s a reservoir of our experiences as a species, a kind of knowledge that we are born with, can never be directly conscious of it, influences all of our experiences and behaviors, especially emotional ones, experiences that have greater effect are love at first sight, déjà vu, immediate recognition of certain symbols and certain meanings of myths, divide the Unconscious itself into two very unequal levels: the  more superficial Personal, and the deeper Collective, Unconscious, more universal

  • Archetype- contents of the collective unconscious, or dominant, imagos, or mythological images,, has no form, acts as “organizing principle”, more spiritual demands; example- mother archetype- our built in ability to recognize a certain relationship, that of mothering, can symbolize mana or spiritual power, shadow- sex and life instincts, persona- own public image, are symbolizes that represent different aspects of existence, for example a maiden could represent innocence


  • Strengths- doesn’t just focus on psychological aspects, emphasized other causes besides sex and aggression, was influential for areas of art, literature, philosophy, and counseling/therapy, attempted to incorporate religious influences, a different more personal view on the unconscious, got into dealing with coincidences and different symbols, hints at traditions, had more universal views, allowed for more broader room for interpretation where Freud had a more rigid interpretation , many of his views on evil and self-have influenced modern criminology

  • Weaknesses- used obscure references, and terms that were vague or had double meanings; wasn’t concerned with scientific testing and many of his theories are difficult to test in the lab setting and may not be testable; some psychologists criticize his use of religion, he was very interested in religion and incorporated folklore and mythology aspects, many disagreed with his idea that auditory hallucinations were words of the unconscious speaking directly to people and he would treat it as a benefit to people, lacked a clearly structured system of thought

Biography from:

Theories from:

Weaknesses from:

Strengths from:


Carl Rogers


Rogers was born on January 8th 1902 in Chicago Illinois and was the fourth child of six children. He learned fast and early when he was young and surpassed the other kids in intelligence. He then pursued his education in a religious and ethical environment where he developed knowledge and appreciation for science. Then after discovering this he decided to change his current path of learning. He left the religious training and went to the Teachers College of Columbia University where he attained an MA in 1928 and a PhD in 1931. Around 1935-1940 Roger started child studies, provided lectures, and wrote a book about treating problem child. In 1940 he became a professor of clinical psychology. This then influenced his next book about counseling and psychotherapy. This talked about how the relationship between the client and therapist can help reform ones life. These were the starting areas of his career, he continued on teaching at many different universities in many different forms of psychology writing books about many different areas. However, he did seem to focus some his research and efforts toward the study of children, their behaviors and how parents can combat these behaviors. During the range of 1961- till 1983 was where the majority of his most famous work took place. It was during this period that he wrote his best known book called On Becoming a Person and was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Also he founded the center for studies of the person and wrote to more books called Carl Rogers on Personal Power and The freedom to learn from the 80’s. He spent the rest of his life from this point doing therapy, giving speeches and writing. However, during his last years are when he applied his theories to situations of political oppression and national social conflict. Then Carl died in 1987 from falling and fracturing his pelvis.

-Ian Mathews


Carl Rogers’ approach to the study of psychological behavior is centered around self-help and self-understanding. The client is encouraged to discuss whatever they feel and take the session in any direction they please, with minor questions and remarks by the therapist to help the client recognize certain things. Rogers much preferred the term “client” over “patient” because he believed that “patient” implied that the individual was medically ill, while client is more of a counseling term.

This theory was extremely focused on people, and providing an environment of complete acceptance and comfort. Mostly, Rogers creates a place for his clients to talk through their feelings and thoughts in a way that allows them to recognize their negative feelings as well as their positive emotions. The therapist must be entirely non-judgmental and develop a trusting relationship with the client. Over time, this supposedly helps one better understand their thought process/state of mind, and therefore decreases the need of outside help (a therapist).

-Allison Gudvangen


Since the study of personality began, personality theories have offered a wide variety of explanations for behavior and what constitutes the person.

strengths of this theory include the focus on both the positive nature of humankind and the free will associated with change.
fit well with other approaches.  Many therapists have adopted a humanistic undertone in their work with clients. 


The biggest criticism of humanistic thought appears to center around it's lack of concrete treatment approaches aimed at specific issues.

it is difficult to both develop a treatment technique and study the effectiveness of this technique
falls short in it's ability to help those with more sever personality or mental health pathology. 

-Ryan Harrison


  • Hall, Kathy Jo. "Psychology History." Welcome to Muskingum University. May 1997. Web. 13 Feb. 2012. .

  • "Carl Rogers Theory of Experiential Learning." Massage CE Continuing Education Home Study NCBTMB, NCCAOM Ethics Fibromyalgia TMJ Acupressure TCM. Web. 13 Feb. 2012. .

  • Boeree, C. George. "Carl Rogers." My Webspace Files. 2006. Web. 12 Feb. 2012. .

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