Botanic description



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Eugenia stipitata

Myrtaceae

McVaugh

Detail of ripe fruit. (Frutales de la Amazonia)



LOCAL NAMES

 English (eugenia); Portuguese (araçá-boi); Spanish (arazá-buey,arazá)

BOTANIC DESCRIPTION

Eugenia stipitata is an ornamental leafy tree or shrub, 3-15 m tall, of 

densely branched habit, without apical dominance; stem with brown to 

reddish-brown; bark flaking; young branches covered with short, velvety, 

brown hairs that are lost with age.

Leaves opposite, simple, without stipule; petiole short, 3 mm long; blade 

ovate to somewhat broadly elliptic, 8-19 cm long, 3.5-9.5 wide; apex 

acuminate; base rounded and often subcordate; margins entire; leaves 

dull, dark green above, with 6-10 pairs of impressed lateral veins; pale 

green, shortly pilose, with scattered hairs below.

Inflorescence racemose pedicles long; bracteoles linear, 1-2 mm long; 

calyx lobes rounded, broader than long, overlapping in bud; petals 5, 

white, obovate, 7-10 mm long, 4 mm wide, ciliate; stamens about 70, 6 

mm long; ovary (3 min.) 4 locular, each locule with 5-8 ovules; style 5-8 

mm long.

Fruit an oblate or spherical berry, 2-10 x 2-12 cm, weighing 50-750 g, light 

green at first, turning pale or orange yellow when ripe, soft, with a thin, 

velvety skin enclosing a juicy, thick pulp that accounts for as much as 60% 

of the fresh fruit. There are approximately 12 seeds in each fruit.

The genus was named after Francois Eugene, Prince of Savoy (1663-

1736), an Austrian general who, with Marlborough, won the Battle of 

Blenheim and was a distinguished patron of art, science and literature.

BIOLOGY

The pollen grain dispersal unit is elongated or triangular shaped. There is 



1 grain (12-20 µm) per dispersal unit, each with 3 apertures and 2 nuclei. 

E. stipitata is a hermaphrodite with the characteristics of male sterility, 

polyembryony and polyploidy. Pollen should be stored in dry conditions for 

only several days. The reproductive strategy is allogamous, with 2-5 years 

for each reproductive cycle. 

Bats are the pollen vectors and the main dispersal agents of the trees in 

their natural habitat. Other birds and mammals also disperse the fruit. 

Plants growing in well-fertilized soils can flower and fruit throughout the 

year.

Page 1 of 5

Agroforestry Database 4.0 (Orwa et al.2009)


Eugenia stipitata

Myrtaceae

McVaugh

ECOLOGY


E. stipitata is a species of the dense, humid, tropical high forest. It can withstand a drought of up to 2 months.

BIOPHYSICAL LIMITS

Altitude:  0-650 m, Mean annual temperature:  26 deg. C, Mean annual rainfall:  2 000-2 600 mm

Soil type:  Well drained rich loamy soils but will tolerate poorer clay oxisols, provided they are well drained.   It tolerates 

acid soil stress.

DOCUMENTED SPECIES DISTRIBUTION

The map above shows countries where the species has been planted. It does neither 

suggest that the species can be planted in every ecological zone within that country

nor that the species can not be planted in other countries than those depicted. Since 

some tree species are invasive, you need to follow  biosafety procedures that apply to 

your planting site. 

Exotic range

Native range

Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru

Costa Rica, Ecuador, United States of America

Native:


Exotic:

Page 2 of 5

Agroforestry Database 4.0 (Orwa et al.2009)

Eugenia stipitata

Myrtaceae

McVaugh

The map above shows countries where the species has been planted. It does neither 



suggest that the species can be planted in every ecological zone within that country, 

nor that the species can not be planted in other countries than those depicted. Since 

some tree species are invasive, you need to follow  biosafety procedures that apply to 

your planting site. 

PRODUCTS

Food:  The fruit is edible, but because of its strong acidity it is not eaten directly but is popular as a strong or weak juice. 

A jelly can be made from the pulp and seed. However, excessive cooking destroys the attractive aroma and flavour. 

The dry weight of the fruit consists of 8-10.75% protein, 5-6.5% fibre, 69-72% other carbohydrates, 0.16-0.21 calcium, 

some phosphorus, potassium and magnesium and 10-12 ppm of zinc. In 100 g of fruit there are approximately 7.75 mg 

of vitamin A, 9.84 mg of vitamin B1 and 7.68 mg of vitamin C. The surprisingly high protein content presumably comes 

from the inclusion of the seeds. The fruit has some value as a source of vitamins and minerals.

SERVICES


Reclamation:  Even though E. stipitata is a relatively slow grower, it is a suitable species for rehabilitating exhausted 

land.


Ornamental:  Arboriculture (cultivation of an ornamental species for recreational purposes) is widely practised for this 

species in its native range.

Intercropping:  A potential tree for fruit-tree-based production systems.

Page 3 of 5

Agroforestry Database 4.0 (Orwa et al.2009)


Eugenia stipitata

Myrtaceae

McVaugh

TREE MANAGEMENT



The fruits should be harvested once a week because they mature rapidly. At a spacing of 3 x 3 m and with adequate 

fertilization and rainfall, the 1st fruiting year can yield between 3 and 5 t/ha. The seedling, when planted in the field with 

manure, grows rapidly, although more in diameter than in height. Well-fertilized seedlings can start to fruit after 18 

months in the field. Potassium seems to be an especially important nutrient for E. stipitata.

GERMPLASM MANAGEMENT

The seeds are recalcitrant and they lose more than 70% of their viability after 40 days in cold storage. There are about 

29 seeds/kg.

PESTS AND DISEASES

Susceptibility to anthracnose is a main production drawback.

Page 4 of 5

Agroforestry Database 4.0 (Orwa et al.2009)


Eugenia stipitata

Myrtaceae

McVaugh

Orwa C, A Mutua, Kindt R , Jamnadass R, S Anthony. 2009 Agroforestree Database:a tree reference and selection guide 



version 4.0 (http://www.worldagroforestry.org/sites/treedbs/treedatabases.asp)

SUGGESTED CITATION

FURTHER READNG

FAO. 1983. Food and fruit bearing forest species. 3: Examples from Latin America. FAO Forestry Paper. 44/3. Rome.



Sedgley M, Griffin AR. 1989. Sexual reproduction of tree crops. Academic Press. London.

Page 5 of 5

Agroforestry Database 4.0 (Orwa et al.2009)


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