Species Status (WA) Potentially Suitable Habitat Within Flowering Period Stachystemon nematophorus VU
Stenanthemum divaricatum 3
Thryptomene johnsonii 2
Thryptomene sp. Eagle Gorge
Thryptomene sp. Kalbarri limestone
Thryptomene sp. Wandana
Thryptomene stenophylla 2
Thryptomene striata 2
Thysanotus sp. Kalbarri
Triodia bromoides 4
Triodia dielsii 3
Verticordia capillaris 4
Verticordia cooloomia 3
Verticordia dasystylis subsp. kalbarriensis
Verticordia densiflora var. roseostella 3
Verticordia dichroma var. dichroma 3
Verticordia dichroma var. syntoma 3
Verticordia galeata 2
Verticordia lepidophylla var. quantula 1
Verticordia polytricha 4
Verticordia x eurardyensis 1
Xanthoparmelia norpraegnans 2
A full listing of conservation codes are provided in Appendix D.
Table 2 continued
Family Species Common Name Restionaceae
Desmocladus asper Solanaceae
Anthocercis ilicifolia Solanaceae
Nicotiana rotundifolia Round-leaved Tobacco
2.3 Vegetation Units Vegetation units were mapped in the field using a GPS and ten vegetation plots (10m x 10m) (see Appendix
E for a map and full list of species associated with each plot). Five main vegetation units were identified
within the survey area (Figure 2 and Table 3).
Figure 2: Vegetation units mapped within survey area Figure 3: Vegetation condition mapped within survey area
Table 3: Description of vegetation units mapped within survey area Vegetation Unit Description Image Tall Acacia and Chamelaucium shrub land on deep red sand. 20-60% cover;
1-3 m high overstorey of Acacia rostellifera, Chamelaucium marchantii (P3), Anthocercis ilicifolia, Calothamnus sanguineus, Grevillea leucopteris, Labichea lanceolata subsp. lanceolata and Melaleuca megacephala; understorey of Cassytha aurea var. aurea, Euphorbia tannensis subsp. eremophila, Rhagodia preissii subsp. obovata and Trachymene pilosa and a
sparse but diverse ground cover of Angianthus cunninghamii, Calandrinia polyandra, Isolepis marginata, Schenkia australis and some weed species
(see Appendix E)
Open Acacia and Calothamnus shrub land in rocky transitional zone. 1-4 m
high; overstorey of Acacia scirpifolia, Calothamnus sanguineus, Baeckea subcuneata (P2), Labichea lanceolata subsp. lanceolata, Melaleuca calothamnoides, Melaleuca megacephala, Scholtzia sp. Red Bluff; understorey of Austrostipa macalpinei, Comesperma integerrimum,
Dioscorea hastifolia, Euphorbia tannensis subsp. eremophila, Monotaxis bracteata, Ptilotus polystachyus, Scaevola crassifolia and
Senna artemisioides subsp.filifolia; ground cover of Calandrinia polyandra,
Calocephalus francisii, Desmocladus asper, Goodenia berardiana, Hibiscus drummondii, Nicotiana rotundifolia and Podotheca gnaphalioides Low Baeckea/ Calothamnus heath over red sandstone breakaways. 0.8-2m
high; Overstorey of Acacia oldfieldii, Acacia scirpifolia, Baeckea subcuneata (P2), Calothamnus blepharospermus, Chamelaucium marchantii (P3), Hakea orthorrhyncha, Labichea lanceolata subsp. lanceolata, Melaleuca megacephala, Scholtzia sp. Red Bluff and
Verticordia polytricha (P4); understorey of Darwinia oldfieldii, Dioscorea hastifolia, Euphorbia tannensis subsp. eremophila and Ptilotus polystachyus; ground cover of Actinobole condensatum, Calandrinia polyandra, Calocephalus francisii, Desmocladus asper and Podotheca gnaphalioides. Melaleuca and Acacia shrub land on deep yellow sand; 1-4 m high;
overstorey of Acacia scirpifolia, Melaleuca megacephala, Acacia rostellifera, Baeckea pentagonantha, Calothamnus blepharospermus, Calothamnus sanguineus, Chamelaucium marchantii, Grevillea leucopteris,
Labichea lanceolata subsp. lanceolata, Rhagodia preissii subsp. obovata,
Scholtzia sp. Red Bluff, Senna artemisioides subsp.filifolia; understorey of Austrostipa macalpinei, Cassytha aurea var. aurea, Keraudrenia hermanniifolia and Ptilotus polystachyus; ground cover of Calandrinia polyandra, Calocephalus francisii, Desmocladus asper, Dioscorea hastifolia,
Eriachne aristidea, Muehlenbeckia adpressa, Podotheca gnaphalioides and
some weed species (see Appendix E)
Mango Farm. 60-80% cover; cultivated arrangement of Mangifera indica (Mango), Passiflora edulis f. edulis (Passion fruit) and Phoenix dactylifera (Date Palm), with a ground cover of weedy species such as Arctotheca calendula* and Cenchrus ciliaris* and occasional native species Rhagodia preissii subsp. obovata.
2.4 Vegetation Condition The vegetation condition for the survey area has been mapped using the Keighery condition rating scale
(Keighery 1994, Table 4). Vegetation in the survey area has variable condition ranging from excellent to
completely degraded, however the bulk of the vegetation is in good condition (Figure 3), with a weed index
of between 10 and 70% across the survey area and some evidence of drought deaths and Acacia senescence.
Table 4: Condition Rating Scale (Keighery 1994) Vegetation Condition Rating Description Pristine Pristine or nearly so, no obvious signs of disturbance.
Excellent Vegetation structure intact, disturbance affecting individual species and weeds are
Very good Vegetation structure altered, obvious signs of disturbance.
Good Vegetation structure significantly altered by very obvious signs of multiple
disturbances. Retains basic vegetation structure or ability to regenerate to it.
Degraded Basic vegetation structure severely impacted by disturbance. Scope for
regeneration but not to a state approaching good condition without intensive
Completely Degraded Vegetation structure not intact; the area completely or almost completely without
The red sand stone breakaway in the southern section of the survey area contains vegetation in excellent
condition and provides habitat for a significant proportion of the priority listed flora found during the
survey. The invasion of disturbance opportunistic weeds such as Bromus diandrus and Lysimachia arvensis contributed to the slightly reduced condition rating for this ecotype.
The vegetation associated with the transition zone between the rocky breakaway and the deep red sand
ecotypes is considered to be in very good - excellent condition. This area contains significant bare areas
that have been invaded by weeds such as *Cuscuta epithymum, *Lysimachia arvensis and
*Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. The ground cover composition and structure has been somewhat
altered by the weed invasion, particularly in areas where *Mesembryanthemum crystallinum is present.
The vegetation communities associated with the deep red and yellow sand ecotypes are mostly in good
condition. These areas have a high level of weed invasion in bare patches and once again, this is affecting
the composition and structure of the ground cover. Dominant weeds in these ecotypes include
*Arctotheca calendula, *Avena barbata, *Brassica tournefortii, *Bromus diandrus, *Cenchrus ciliaris, *Centaurea melitensis, *Cuscuta epithymum, *Eragrostis curvula, *Hordeum hystrix, *Hypochaeris glabra, *Lysimachia arvensis, *Mesembryanthemum crystallinum and *Rostraria cristata. There is also substantial
evidence of drought deaths and Acacia senescence, particularly in the yellow sand-based ecotype.
The northern section of the survey area is considered to be in degraded to completely degraded condition
as a result of fruit cultivation and farming activities, which have completely cleared and modified the area.
Some regeneration has occurred to the south of the main mango farm area, but the vegetation structure is
completely altered and the overstorey now dominated by Acacia rostellifera, with minimal species
diversity and a high level of weed invasion throughout this area.
2.5 Weeds and disturbance Of the 59 species recorded within the survey area, 16 (27 %) were introduced species (Table 5).
Table 5: Weed species recorded from the survey area Family Species Common Name BAM Rating EWS Rating Aizoaceae
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum* Ice plant
Mangifera indica* Mango
Phoenix dactylifera* Date Palm
Arctotheca calendula* Cape Weed
Centaurea melitensis* Maltese Cockspur
Hypochaeris glabra* Smooth Catsear
Brassica tournefortii* Mediterranean Turnip
Cuscuta epithymum* Lesser Dodder
Passiflora edulis f. edulis* Passionfruit
Avena barbata* Bearded Oat
Bromus diandrus* Great Brome
Cenchrus ciliaris* Buffel Grass
Eragrostis curvula* African Lovegrass
Hordeum hystrix* Barley Grass
Rostraria cristata* None
Lysimachia arvensis * Pimpernel
Overall the most extensively weed invaded areas were associated with the mango farm and surrounds.
The main vectors appear to be machines (historical), Macropus rufus (red kangaroo) and birds.
Of the weeds recorded, none are declared agricultural weeds under the Biosecurity and Agriculture Management Act 2007 but five species have been assigned a high priority for control in the Environmental
Weeds Strategy for Western Australia (CALM 1999). These species include: *Phoenix dactylifera (Date
Palm), *Brassica tournefortii (Mediterranean Turnip), *Bromus diandrus (Great Brome), *Cenchrus ciliaris (Buffel Grass) and Eragrostis curvula (African Lovegrass). The strategy classifies weeds according to their
relative level of threat to conservation (high medium or low) and this rating is based their distribution,
relative level of invasiveness and environmental impact (Appendix F).
3 SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS The red sand stone breakaway and the transitional zone between the rocky breakaway and the deep red
sand ecotypes contains vegetation in excellent and very good condition. These ecotypes provide habitat
for a significant proportion of the priority listed flora found during this survey. The only priority taxon
located outside of these areas is Chamelaucium marchantii (P3), which was relatively common throughout
the 6.47 ha survey area, but more frequent in the red sandstone breakaway, transition zone and red sand
ecotypes. An isolated population of Verticordia polytricha (P4) occupied an area of approximately 5 m x 5
m on the southern most area of the rocky breakaway within the survey area. Baeckea subcuneata (P2)
occurred throughout the rocky breakaway ecotype, covering an area of approximately 1.4 ha.
The sandstone breakaway areas and fringing vegetation are significant for conservation of the priority
listed taxa located during the survey and should be excluded from development if possible (Figure 4).
These ecotypes are not readily developed due to their rocky and uneven terrain and would not be
expected to add significant value to the proposed development on this site. Inclusion of this area in the
public open space to the south would achieve protection for known populations of Verticordia polytricha (P4) and Baeckea subcuneata (P2) and for >70% of the population of Chamelaucium marchantii (P3) within
the survey area.
4 REFERENCES Department of Conservation and Land Management (1999). Environmental Weed Strategy for Western Australia, Department of Conservation and Land Management, Como.
Department of the Environment (2014) Australian Government Protected Matters Search Tool, accessed
online September 2014 at http://www.environment.gov.au/webgis-framework/apps/pmst/pmst.jsf
Department of Parks and Wildlife (2014c)
online July and August 2014 at http://naturemap.dec.wa.gov.au
Desmond, A., and Chant, A. (2001). Geraldton Sandplains 2 (GS2 - Geraldton Hills subregion) IN (Eds:
McKenzie, N. L., May, J.E. and McKenna, S.) Bio Regional Summary of the 2002 Biodiversity Audit for Western Australia. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Como
Environmental Protection Authority (2004) Guidance for the Assessment of Environmental Factors (in
accordance with the Environmental Protection Act 1986) Guidance Statement No. 51: Terrestrial Flora and Vegetation Surveys for Environmental Impact Assessment in Western Australia.
Keighery, B. (1994). Bushland plant survey: a guide to plant community survey for the community.
Wildflower Society of WA (Inc.) Nedlands, WA.
Parsons Brinckerhoff Australia Pty Ltd Nedlands WA.
Tille, P. (2006). Soil- - Resource Management Technical Report 313. Department of Agriculture and Food. ISSN 1039-7205
5 APPENDICES APPENDIX A: DP
LORA DATABASE SEARCH
APPENDIX B: F
SED IN THE
APPENDIX A: DPaW Threatened and Priority Flora database search
DPaW Threatened and Priority Flora database search
APPENDIX B: Flora and Fauna Species Identified within 5 km of Survey area through Nature Map