Calwynyardah land system (Clw), size: 1736km2, publication source: wky


Coolindie land system (Cld), size: 2535km2, publication source: OVC



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Coolindie land system (Cld), size: 2535km2, publication source: OVC


Areas of gently undulating red sandy “desert” with shrub vegetation along the southern edge of the Ord-Victoria survey area.

coolindie land system is located in the south east corner of the kimberley survey area. the main area is located 100 km south east of halls creek.

Location map showing coverage of Coolindie land system defined by black region.



State land type: Sandplains and dunes with acacia shrublands and spinifex.

Geology: Lateritized arenaceous sediments; Carpentarian sandstones (Gardiner Beds).

Geomorphology: Elevated lateritic plain (sandy red earth surface horizon).

Drainage: Very widely spaced shallow insequent drainage lines.

Land management: A spinifex system subject to fairly regular burning but stable with low or very low susceptibility to erosion.

landscape picture of many tall grasses on red sands with scattered trees and shrubs

Image of the major unit of the Coolindie land system (unit 1) is gently sloping plains with deep red sands supporting soft spinifex (Triodia pungens) grasslands with scattered trees and shrubs. Photo: DAFWA



landscape block diagram with location of different land units drawn to scale.

Stylised block diagram showing location of land units for the Coolindie land system (numbers on diagram represent land units in table below)

Table of Coolindie land system – land units. + Pasture types described in Appendix 1; Note: Proportions and occurrence of pasture types within land units are subject to change over time due to invasion by native and introduced species, seasonal conditions, fire frequency and grazing management.

Unit

Approx.
area
(%)

Landforms

Soils

Vegetation

Pasture type+

1

80

Gently sloping plains

Cockatoo - deep red sand and some Pago - deep yellow sands.

Trees absent or desert shrubland (Acacia spp., Eucalyptus spp.) with soft spinifex (Triodia pungens).

SSPP

2

15

Low gravelly rises

Chunuma, shallow phase- shallow sands with laterite gravel.

Snappy gum sparse low woodland (Eucalyptus brevifolia) with soft spinifex (Triodia pungens).

SSPP

3

5

Broad shallow linear drainage floors

Argada - greyish loam merging into hard mottled yellow clay.

Desert sparse low woodland (E. microtheca) with soft spinifex (Triodia pungens).

SSPP


Coonangoody land system (Con), size: 1777km2, publication source: WKY


Sandy alluvial plains with broad through-going drainage floors, low grassy woodlands.

coonangoody land system is very scattered along the southern section of the kimberley survey area. they are scattered south of fitzroy crossing and derby.

Location map showing coverage of Coonangoody land system defined by black region.



State land type: Alluvial plains with mixed woodlands/shrublands and mixed grasses.

Geology: Quaternary alluvium derived mainly from sandstone and shale; aeolian sands.

Geomorphology: Alluvial plains - tributary alluvial plains: sandy plains extending up to 4.8km downslope, with low interfluves formed by sandplain and minor outcrop plains; trunk drainage floors with anastomosing channels and broad linear drainage depressions in the lowest parts, elsewhere broad tracts receiving diffuse run-on from adjacent uplands; gradients mainly between 1 in 500 and 1 in 100.

Land management: The system supports pastures which are favoured by stock and are prone to degradation. Units 1, 3 and 5 are moderately to highly susceptible to erosion; control of grazing pressure is essential.

aerial picture of scattered areas of white degraded areas and small scattered areas of green vegetation

Image of highly reflective degraded alluvial plains and drainage floors of the Coonangoody land system form complex patterns. Width of this 2007 aerial photograph is about 4km. Photo: Landgate



aerial view of the location of land units drawn to scale.

Stylised plan diagram showing arrangement of land units for the Coonangoody land system (numbers on diagram represent land units in table below)



Table of Coonangoody land system – land units. * Numbers in brackets refer to soil family or vegetation community/alliance in ‘General report on lands of the West Kimberley area, WA’ (Speck et al. 1970); + Pasture types described in Appendix 1; Note: Proportions and occurrence of pasture types within land units are subject to change over time due to invasion by native and introduced species, seasonal conditions, fire frequency and grazing management.

Unit

Approx.
area
(%)

Landforms

Soils*

Vegetation*

Pasture type+

1

52

Alluvial plains: gradients mainly less than I in 500 but attaining I in 150 at upper margins; degraded soil surfaces.

Yellowish sandy soils with local alluvial or solonetzic tendencies:
Tableland family (5).

Very open, low grassy woodland with short grasses and patches of Chrysopogon spp. Bauhinia cunninghamii - Ventilago viminalis community (38c); also 1f
[Introduced buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) now common in parts].

RGRP 80%
BUGP 20%

2

23

Sandplain islands: up to 3.2km across: uniformly sloping or gently undulating, with relief up to 2m and slopes up to 3%.

Mainly deep red sands: Cockatoo family (7). With deep yellow sands: Pago family (8) in shallow depressions.

Open stunted woodland with patchy shrub layer and Triodia pungens, Chrysopogon spp., and Aristida browniana. Grevillea striata and Bauhinia cunninghamii alliances (34b, 37b. 38c).

SSPP 80%
RGRP 20%

3

8

Outcrop plains: stony surfaces up to 3.2km across, slopes less than 1%, marginally dissected up to 9 m; thin patchy cover of sand and grit and much outcrop

Variable soil cover depending on Iithology. Mainly reddish skeletal soil (24), high in rock fragments with 90% strew cover. Minor amounts of shallow, dark brown and reddish brown, loamy to clayey, calcareous soils:
Oscar family (11)

Much bare ground; patches of grass-lands. Communities 57, 55, 54; and 58 on calcareous soils.

CSPP 40%
SSPP 30%
HSPP 30%

4

3

Linear drainage depressions: up to 800m wide and 4.8km long: firmed surfaces locally with pans up to 200m across.

Yellowish sandy soils commonly with lateritic gravels and hard subsoils: Tableland family (5). Brownish, massive, intractable, silty to heavy clay in pans (30).

Low beefwood woodland with Chrysopogon spp. Grevillea striata community (34a).

RGRP

5

11

Drainage floors: up to 3.2km wide, gradients mainly between 1 in 200 and 1 in 500; lightly firmed hummocky surfaces with scalds up to 800m across; levees up to 800m wide; loose sand rises up to 2m high at outer margins.

Grey to brownish sands and loams over tough loamy sub-soils or tough, domed clays: Tarraji (18) and Jurgurra (19) families.

Low beefwood woodland with Triodia pungens. Grevillea striata community (34b).

SSPP 60%
RGRP 40%

6

3

Channels: up to 150m wide and 6m deep.

Bed-loads of deep sand

Fringing woodland with Chrysopogon spp. Community 20a.

FRIP


Cornish land system (Crn), size: 3108km2, publication source: UNP*


* Provisional description, not previously published. Originally described in Billiluna Station Resource Survey Report (1993) DAWA, unpublished.

Gently undulating red sandplains with regular parallel E-W trending dunes supporting mainly Acacia, Grevillea and Melaleuca shrubland with soft spinifex.



cornish land system is located 150 km south and south south west from halls creek.

Location map showing coverage of Cornish land system defined by black region.



State land type: Sandplains and dunes with acacia shrublands and spinifex.

Geology: Quaternary aeolian sands and minor alluvium.

Geomorphology: Sandplains and dunefields with very few drainage features.

Land management: Supports soft spinifex pastures which are not highly preferred by cattle but do supply reasonable feed in dry times if maintained in young condition by appropriate fire management. Dunes (unit 1) have minor susceptibility to wind erosion for short periods after burning.

landscape picture of grasses with termite mounds

Image of this sandplain (unit 2) with deep red sands supporting shrubby soft spinifex (Triodia pungens) grasslands is a major unit of the Cornish and many other sandplain land systems which differ from Cornish in the proportion of other units such as gravelly plains and sand dunes. Photo: DAFWA



aerial view of the location of land units drawn to scale.

Stylised plan diagram showing arrangement of land units for the Cornish land system (numbers on diagram represent land units in table below)Table of Cornish land system – land units. * Numbers refer to Soil Groups of Western Australia (Schoknecht 2002); + Pasture types described in Appendix 1; Note: Proportions and occurrence of pasture types within land units are subject to change over time due to invasion by native and introduced species, seasonal conditions, fire frequency and grazing management.



Unit

Approx.
area
(%)

Landforms

Soils*

Vegetation

Pasture type+

1

18

Linear dunes: up to 10km long with relief up to 10 m

Red deep sands (445).

Sparse shrublands of lemonwood (Dolichandrone heterophylla), Stylobasium spathulatum, and Hakea suberea over mainly soft spinifex (Triodia pungens), with areas of Cullen martinii.

SSPP

2

80

Near level interdunal flats

Red deep sands (445).

Shrublands of Acacia ancistrocarpa, A. coriacea, Grevillea striata, Hakea sp., Melaleuca lasiandra and lemonwood (Dolichandrone heterophylla) over mainly soft spinifex (Triodia pungens). Occasional trees of Corymbia greeniana.

SSPP

3

2

Swampy depressions, drainage foci and occasional channels

Sandy duplexes (400) and non-cracking clays (620).

As for unit 2.

SSPP


Cowendyne land system (Cow), size: 1626km2, publication source: WKY


Stony, undulating basalt country with red earths and grassy woodlands, also extensive cracking clay plains with grasslands.

there are scattered areas of cowendyne land system about 100 to 200 km north east of fitzroy crossing .

Location map showing coverage of Cowendyne land system defined by black region.



State land type: Undulating plains with eucalypt woodlands and mixed grasses.

Geology: Basalt and dolerite of Upper Proterozoic or Lower Cambrian age.

Geomorphology: Formed by partial dissection of the Fitzroy surface - plains: stony interfiuves and cracking clay plains, with low rises in headwater areas and scattered hills; moderately dense branching drainage pattern in upper parts with sparse pattern of trunk drainage in lower parts; relief mainly less than 6 m.

Land management: Controlled grazing is necessary as the system supports pastures which are preferentially grazed by cattle; generally low susceptibility to erosion.

landscape picture of dry brown cracking land, with ranges in the background

Image of a somewhat elevated cracking clay plains (unit 2) make up about half of the Cowendyne land system. This site is in poor condition. The ranges in the background are in Precipice land system. Photo: DAFWA



landscape block diagram of basalt base with location of different land units drawn to scale.

Stylised block diagram showing location of land units for the Cowendyne land system (numbers on diagram represent land units in table below)



Table of Cowendyne land system – land units. * Numbers in brackets refer to soil family or vegetation community/alliance in ‘General report on lands of the West Kimberley area, WA’ (Speck et al. 1970); + Pasture types described in Appendix 1; Note: Proportions and occurrence of pasture types within land units are subject to change over time due to invasion by native and introduced species, seasonal conditions, fire frequency and grazing management.

Unit

Approx.
area
(%)

Landforms

Soils*

Vegetation*

Pasture type+

1

36

Stony interfluves: flat or gently rounded crests up to 1.6km wide, with marginal slopes less than 5% but attaining 7% locally; colluvial mantles with local outcrop.

Deep red basaltic soil: Frayne family (3).

Open grassy woodland. On hills and rocky slopes: Eucalyptus tectifica with Sehima nervosum; Sorghum spp. (14a). On lower slopes: E. tectifica - Corymbia dichromophloia with Sehima nervosum - Dichanthium fecundum ground storey.

WGBP

2

46

Cracking clay plains: up to 6.4km wide with slopes less than 1%; marginally dissected up to 3m into rounded spurs up to 400m wide with slopes up to 3%; hummocky surfaces.

Dark self-mulching clays: Cununurra family (12).

Grassland of Chrysopogon spp., Dichanthium fecundum (48); with scattered trees and shrubs.

RAPP 40%
BGAP 40%
MGAP 20%

3

7

Low rises: up to 4.8km wide; pebble-strewn slopes less than 1%.

Deep red basaltic soils: Frayne family (3).

Open grassy woodland as in unit 1.

WGBP

4

2

Hills: mainly less than 30m high, but up to 60 m; rounded, rocky crests and benched slopes up to 60% with boulder mantles.

Mainly outcrop with shallow red basaltic soils: Walsh family (4).

Low open grassy woodland, scattered shrubs with Sehima nervosum - Sorghum spp. ground storey. E. tectifica alliance (14a).

ASHP

5

3

Drainage floors: up to 800m wide, gradients 1 in 200m and 1 in 500; central channelled tracts up to 90m wide.

Limited areas of soils. Reddish clayey alluvial soils: Fitzroy family (22).

Low, open grassy woodland with scattered shrubs and Sehima nervosum - Sorghum spp. ground storey. Community 14a.

WGBP

6

6

Channels: up to 30m wide and 3m deep.

Bed-loads range from fine sand to cobbles.

Fringing forest or woodland. E. camaldulensis - Terminalia platyphylla fringing communities (41, 42); and 33 on smaller channels.

FRIP

Comparable to a combination of Isdell, Barton, and Kennedy land systems. North Kimberley (NKY) area.



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