Central american ecosystems map



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CCAD

DGIS

The World Bank

.

CENTRAL AMERICAN ECOSYSTEMS MAP

ECOSYSTEM DESCRIPTIONS
Alain Meyrat

Daan Vreugdenhil

Jan Meerman

Luis Diego Gómez

Douglas J. Graham
2002

Financed under the Partnership Agreement between The World Bank and the Government of the Netherlands

Collaborating institutions: National environmental institutions, ngo’s and biological departments of universities of all CCAD member countries; The World Bank; The Netherlands Ministry of Development Cooperation; UNDP regional office; CCAD/NASA project; USAID/PROARCA/CAPAS, CCAD/NASA
SCIENTIFIC TEAM


CIENTIFICOS INTERNACIONALES PRINCIPALES

Ir. Daan Vreugdenhil: project coordinator, ecologist WICE

Dr. Susan Felicity Iremonger, vegetation scientist WCMC

Douglas J. Graham, MSc., task manager WB, ornithologist

Dr. Douglas Muchoney: GIS scientist Bostorn University

Luis Diego Gómez, vegetation scientist OTS

Alain Meyrat, MSc., ecologist WICE

Ir. Jan Meerman, ecologist WICE



CIENTIFICOS NACIONALES PRINCIPALES


Belize

Honduras


Ir. Jan Meerman, ecologist WICE

Thelma M.Mejia M Sc, botanist

Wilber Sabido, GIS specialist, Programme for Belize

Ing. Cristobal Vasques, forester, GIS specialist

Dr. Susan Felicity Iremonger, vegetation scientist WCMC

Dr. Paul Raymond House, botanist

Dr. Susan Felicity Iremonger, vegetation scientist WCMC

Costa Rica


Nicaragua



Luis Diego Gómez, MSc., vegetation scientist OTS

Alain Meyrat, MSc., ecologist WICE

Wilberth Herrera, geografer-climatologist

Dr. Alfredo Grijalva, botanist

Guatemala

Ir. Rob Beck: GIS scientist/vegetation scientist

Prof. Dr. Cesar Castaneda, botanist

Ir. Daan Vreugdenhil: vegetation scientist

Prof. Dr. Castillo Mont, botanist




Maurice Carignan, MSc.: GIS/remote sensing specialist



El Salvador


Panama


Prof. Dr. Nohemy Ventura, botanist

Dr. Mireya D. Correa, botanist

Ing. Raul F. Villacorta, botanist

Prof. Dr. Luis Carrasquillo, botanist

Ir. Peter Sloot: GIS scientist/soil scientist

Martín, botanist




María Stapf, botanist




Valery Kapos, MSc.: botanist WCMC

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The Central American Ecosystems Map is the culmina-tion of decades of research by ecologists from across the region, many of whom worked directly or indirectly from national university positions. Production of the map was a team effort by the biodiversity and environmental conservation institutions of the Central American countries and their coordinating institution, the Comisión Centroamericana de Ambiente y Desarrollo (CCAD). The project team — under the overall coordination of Daan Vreugdenhil of the World Institute for Conservation and Environment (WICE) and Douglas J. Graham of the World Bank — is grateful for the vision and support of Mauricio Castro, Executive Director of CCAD, and Lorenzo Cardenal, Director of CCAD’s Mesoamerican Biological Corridor (MBC) project. The Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñaza (CATIE) in Costa Rica was contracted to pre-pare a final Arcview file of the regional map based on the national map files. Table 1 in the main report pro- vides a complete list of collaborating institutions and key officials. The main participating scientists are listed on the previous page. This effort was made possible by financing from a variety of sources: The Netherlands, the Global Envi-ronment Facility (through national MBC projects imple-mented by the World Bank and a regional MBC project implemented through the UNDP), the participating countries, and the World Bank. The initiative cost roughly $2 million and was carried out between early 1999 and mid-2001. We particularly would like to recognize the encour-agement of Mark E. Cackler, John Redwood, Teresa Serra, and Arsenio Rodríguez of the World Bank, Ton van der Zon of the Directorate General for Technical Cooperation of the Netherlands, and Sjef IJzermans of the Netherlands Embassy in Washington. Words of appreciation also go to supporting staff of the World Bank, in particular to Marie-Claude Haxaire, Diana Montas, Lia van Broekhoven, and Peter Brandriss.

INDEX


VOLUME II

Table of contents



CCAD 1

DGIS 1


The World Bank 1

CIENTIFICOS INTERNACIONALES PRINCIPALES 2

Table of contents 4

1. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD 21

2. DESCRIPTIONS 22

DESCRIPtION 22

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE and map code 22

NAME 22


Tropical evergreen broad-leaved lowland forest, well-drained (1) 22

Tropical evergreen broad-leaved lowland forest, well-drained (1) 22

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS 22

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 22

CHARACTERISTICS 27

DESCRIPTION 27

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 27

NAME 27


Tropical evergreen broad-leaved lowland forest, well-drained on karstic hills (2) 27

Tropical evergreen broad-leaved lowland forest, well-drained on karstic hills (2) 27

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS 27

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 27

CHARACTERISTIC 29

DESCRIPTION 29

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 29

NAME 29


Tropical evergreen broad-leaved lowland forest, moderately drained (3) 29

Tropical evergreen broad-leaved lowland forest, moderately drained (3) 29

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS 29

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 29

CHARACTERISTIC 32

DESCRIPTION 32

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 32

NAME 32


Tropical evergreen broad-leaved lowland forest, moderately drained on calcareous soils (4) 32

Tropical evergreen broad-leaved lowland forest, moderately drained on calcareous soils (4) 32

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 32

CHARACTERISTIC 33

DESCRIPTION 33

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 33

NAME 33

Tropical evergreen broad-leaved lowland forest, moderately drained on poor or sandy soils (5) 33



Tropical evergreen broad-leaved lowland forest, moderately drained on poor or sandy soils (5) 33

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 33

CHARACTERISTIC 35

DESCRIPTIon 35

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 35

NAME 35


Tropical evergreen broad-leaved submontane forest (6) 35

Tropical evergreen broad-leaved submontane forest (6) 35

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 35

CHARACTERISTICS 38

DESCRIPTION 38

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 38

NAME 38

Tropical evergreen broad-leaved submontane forest on karstic hills (7) 38



Tropical evergreen broad-leaved submontane forest on karstic hills (7) 38

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 38

CHARACTERISTICS 40

DESCRIPTION 40

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 40

NAME 40


Tropical evergreen broad-leaved submontane palm forest (8) 40

Tropical evergreen broad-leaved submontane palm forest (8) 40

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 40

CHARACTERISTICS 41

DESCRIPTION 41

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 41

NAME 41

Tropical evergreen broad-leaved lower-montane forest (9) 41



Tropical evergreen broad-leaved lower-montane forest (9) 41

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 41

CHARACTERISTICS 46

DESCRIPTION 46

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 46

NAME 46


Tropical evergreen mixed lower-montane forest (10) 46

Tropical evergreen mixed lower-montane forest (10) 46

CHARACTERISTICS 48

DESCRIPTION 48

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 48

NAME 48


Tropical evergreen broad-leaved lower-montane forest with palms (11) 48

Tropical evergreen broad-leaved lower-montane forest with palms (11) 48

CHARACTERISTICS 49

DESCRIPTION 49

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 49

NAME 49


Tropical evergreen broad-leaved upper-montane forest (12) 49

Tropical evergreen broad-leaved upper-montane forest (12) 49

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 49

CHARACTERISTICS 52

DESCRIPTION 52

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 52

NAME 52

Tropical evergreen mixed upper-montane forest (14) 52



Tropical evergreen mixed upper-montane forest (14) 52

CHARACTERISTICS 54

DESCRIPTION 54

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 54

NAME 54

Tropical evergreen broad-leaved altimontane forest (15) 54



Tropical evergreen broad-leaved altimontane forest (15) 54

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 54

CHARACTERISTICS# 56

DESCRIPTION 56

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 56

NAME 56


Tropical evergreen mixed altimontane forest (16) 56

Tropical evergreen mixed altimontane forest (16) 56

CHARACTERISTIC 57

DESCRIPTION 57

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 57

NAME 57


Tropical evergreen broad-leaved alluvial forest, occasionally flooded (17) 57

Tropical evergreen broad-leaved alluvial forest, occasionally flooded (17) 57

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 57

CHARACTERISTIC 60

DESCRIPTION 60

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 60

NAME 60

Tropical evergreen broad-leaved permanently inundated lowland swamp forest (20) 60



Tropical evergreen broad-leaved permanently inundated lowland swamp forest (20) 60

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 60

CHARACTERISTICS 62

DESCRIPTION 62

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 62

NAME 62


Tropical evergreen broad-leaved lowland swamp forest, permanently inundated, Campnosperma panamensis variant (20-C) 62

Tropical evergreen broad-leaved lowland swamp forest, permanently inundated, Campnosperma panamensis variant (20-C) 62

CHARACTERISTICS 63

DESCRIPTION 63

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 63

NAME 63


Tropical evergreen broad-leaved lowland swamp forest with palm, permanently inundated (21) 63

Tropical evergreen broad-leaved lowland swamp forest with palm, permanently inundated (21) 63

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS 63

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 63

CHARACTERISTIC 65

DESCRIPTION 65

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 65

NAME 65


Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved lowland forest, well-drained (22) 65

Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved lowland forest, well-drained (22) 65

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 65

CHARACTERISTIC 69

DESCRIPTION 69

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 69

NAME 69

Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved lowland forest, well-drained, on steep karstic hills (23) 69



Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved lowland forest, well-drained, on steep karstic hills (23) 69

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 69

CHARACTERISTIC 71

DESCRIPTION 71

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 71

NAME 71


Tropical evergreen seasonal mixed lowland forest, well-drained (24) 71

Tropical evergreen seasonal mixed lowland forest, well-drained (24) 71

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 71

CHARACTERISTIC 72

DESCRIPTION 72

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 72

NAME 72

Tropical evergreen seasonal mixed, well-drained forest, on calcareous soils (25) 72



Tropical evergreen seasonal mixed, well-drained forest, on calcareous soils (25) 72

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 72

CHARACTERISTIC 73

DESCRIPTION 73

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 73

NAME 73


Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved lowland forest, moderately drained (26) 73

Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved lowland forest, moderately drained (26) 73

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 73

CHARACTERISTIC 75

DESCRIPTION 75

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 75

NAME 75

Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved lowland forest on calcareous soils (28) 75



Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved lowland forest on calcareous soils (28) 75

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 75

CHARACTERISTIC 79

DESCRIPTION 79

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 79

NAME 79


Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved lowland forest dominated with bamboo on calcareous soils (29) 79

Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved lowland forest dominated with bamboo on calcareous soils (29) 79

WATER REGIME 79

VEGETATION DATA 79

CHARACTERISTIC 80

DESCRIPTION 80

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 80

NAME 80


Tropical evergreen seasonal mixed lowland forest, moderately drained (30) 80

Tropical evergreen seasonal mixed lowland forest, moderately drained (30) 80

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 80

CHARACTERISTIC 82

DESCRIPTION 82

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 82

NAME 82

Tropical evergreen seasonal needle-leaved lowland forest, moderately drained (31) 82



Tropical evergreen seasonal needle-leaved lowland forest, moderately drained (31) 82

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS 82

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 82

CHARACTERISTIC 84

DESCRIPTION 84

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 84

NAME 84

Bosque tropical siempreverde estacional latifoliado de tierras bajas, en suelos infértiles o arenosos (27) 84



Bosque tropical siempreverde estacional latifoliado de tierras bajas, en suelos infértiles o arenosos (27) 84

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 84

CHARACTERISTIC 85

DESCRIPTION 85

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 85

NAME 85


Tropical evergreen seasonal needle-leaved lowland forest (32) 85

Tropical evergreen seasonal needle-leaved lowland forest (32) 85

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS 85

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 85

CHARACTERISTIC 87

DESCRIPTION 87

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 87

NAME 87


Tropical evergreen seasonal needle-leaved forest, well-drained, on steep karstic hills (33) 87

Tropical evergreen seasonal needle-leaved forest, well-drained, on steep karstic hills (33) 87

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 87

CHARACTERISTIC 88

DESCRIPTION 88

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 88

NAME 88

Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved submontane forest (34) 88



Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved submontane forest (34) 88

ST = variant simarouba-terminalia extends across large areas of the Maya mountains. 88

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 88

CHARACTERISTIC 91

DESCRIPTION 91

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 91

NAME 91

Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved submontane forest on karstic hills (35) 91



Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved submontane forest on karstic hills (35) 91

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 91

CHARACTERISTIC 92

DESCRIPTION 92

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 92

NAME 92


Tropical evergreen seasonal needle-leaved submontane forest (37) 92

Tropical evergreen seasonal needle-leaved submontane forest (37) 92

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 92

CHARACTERISTIC 95

DESCRIPTION 95

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 95

NAME 95

Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved montane forest (38) 95



Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved montane forest (38) 95

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS 95

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 95

CHARACTERISTIC 98

DESCRIPTION 98

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 98

NAME 98

Tropical evergreen seasonal mixed montane forest (39) 98



Tropical evergreen seasonal mixed montane forest (39) 98

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 98

CHARACTERISTIC 99

DESCRIPTION 99

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 99

NAME 99


Tropical evergreen seasonal needle-leaved montane forest (40) 99

Tropical evergreen seasonal needle-leaved montane forest (40) 99

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS 99

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 99

CHARACTERISTIC 100

DESCRIPTION 100

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 100

NAME 100


Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved upper-montane forest (41) 100

Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved upper-montane forest (41) 100

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 100

CHARACTERISTIC 101

DESCRIPTION 101

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 101

NAME 101

Bosque tropical siempreverde estacional mixto montano superior (42) 101

Bosque tropical siempreverde estacional mixto montano superior (42) 101

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 101

CHARACTERISTIC 102

DESCRIPTION 102

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 102

NAME 102


Tropical evergreen seasonal needle-leaved upper-montane forest (43) 102

Tropical evergreen seasonal needle-leaved upper-montane forest (43) 102

CHARACTERISTIC 103

DESCRIPTION 103

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 103

NAME 103


Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved altimontane forest (44) 103

Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved altimontane forest (44) 103

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS 103

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 103

CHARACTERISTIC 104

DESCRIPTION 104

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 104

NAME 104


Tropical evergreen seasonal mixed altimontane forest (45) 104

Tropical evergreen seasonal mixed altimontane forest (45) 104

Ecosystem dynamics 104

Climatic conditions 104

Fire exposure 104

Special conditions 104

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 104

WATER REGIME 104

VEGETATION DATA 104

OTHER OBSERVATIONS 105

Literature 105

CHARACTERISTIC 106

DESCRIPCION 106

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 106

NAME 106

Tropical evergreen seasonal needle-leaved altimontane forest (46) 106

Tropical evergreen seasonal needle-leaved altimontane forest (46) 106

Ecosystem dynamics 106

Geology 106

Climatic conditions 106

Special conditions 106

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 106

WATER REGIME 106

VEGETATION DATA 106

CHARACTERISTIC 107

DESCRIPTION 107

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 107

NAME 107


Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved alluvial forest, occasionally inundated (47) 107

Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved alluvial forest, occasionally inundated (47) 107

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS 107

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 107

CHARACTERISTIC 110

DESCRIPTION 110

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 110

NAME 110


Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved alluvial forest, seasonally inundated (48) 110

Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved alluvial forest, seasonally inundated (48) 110

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 110

CHARACTERISTIC 112

DESCRIPTION 112

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 112

NAME 112

Tropical evergreen seasonal alluvial forest dominated by bamboo, seasonally inundated (49) 112

Tropical evergreen seasonal alluvial forest dominated by bamboo, seasonally inundated (49) 112

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 112

CHARACTERISTIC 114

DESCRIPTION 114

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 114

NAME 114


Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved alluvial gallery forest (50) 114

Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved alluvial gallery forest (50) 114

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 114

CHARACTERISTIC 117

DESCRIPTION 117

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 117

NAME 117

Tropical evergreen seasonal lowland broad-leaved palm swamp forest (51, 53) 117

Tropical evergreen seasonal lowland broad-leaved palm swamp forest (51, 53) 117

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 117

CHARACTERISTIC 119

DESCRIPTION 119

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 119

NAME 119


Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved lowland swamp forest (52, 54) 119

Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved lowland swamp forest (52, 54) 119

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 119

CHARACTERISTIC 121

DESCRIPTION 121

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 121

NAME 121

Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved lowland swamp forest, seasonally inundated (55) 121

Tropical evergreen seasonal broad-leaved lowland swamp forest, seasonally inundated (55) 121

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 121

CHARACTERISTIC 122

DESCRIPTION 122

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 122

NAME 122


Tropical semi-deciduous broad-leaved well-drained lowland forest (56) 122

Tropical semi-deciduous broad-leaved well-drained lowland forest (56) 122

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 122

WATER REGIME 122

VEGETATION DATA 123

NC: lowland and submontane: Enterolobium cyclocarpum, Schyzolobium parahybum, Byrsonima crassifolia, Calycophyllum candidissimum, Cupania glabra, Hymenaea courbaril, Neea psicotrioides, Tabebuia spp., Attalea butyracea, Rollinia jimenezii, Lonchocarpus spp., Quercus oleoides, ground covered by Bromelia pinguin. 123

FAUNISTIC OBSERVATIONS 124

OTHER OBSERVATIONS 124

Literature 124

CHARACTERISTIC 125

DESCRIPTION 125

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 125

NAME 125

Tropical semi-deciduous broad-leaved lowland forest with palm, well-drained, Bay Islands variant (57) 125

Tropical semi-deciduous broad-leaved lowland forest with palm, well-drained, Bay Islands variant (57) 125

CHARACTERISTIC 126

DESCRIPTION 126

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 126

NAME 126

Tropical semi-deciduous broad-leaved submontane forest (59) 126

Tropical semi-deciduous broad-leaved submontane forest (59) 126

CHARACTERISTIC 128

DESCRIPTION 128

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 128

NAME 128

Tropical semi-deciduous mixed submontane forest (60) 128

Tropical semi-deciduous mixed submontane forest (60) 128

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 128

CHARACTERISTIC 129

DESCRIPTION 129

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 129

NAME 129


Tropical semi-deciduous broad-leaved lower montane forest (61) 129

Tropical semi-deciduous broad-leaved lower montane forest (61) 129

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 129

CHARACTERISTIC 130

DESCRIPTION 130

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 130

NAME 130

Tropical semi-deciduous mixed lower montane forest (62) 130

Tropical semi-deciduous mixed lower montane forest (62) 130

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 130

CHARACTERISTIC 131

DESCRIPTION 131

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 131

NAME 131


Tropical semi-deciduous broad-leaved alluvial gallery forest (63) 131

Tropical semi-deciduous broad-leaved alluvial gallery forest (63) 131

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 131

CHARACTERISTIC 134

DESCRIPTION 134

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 134

NAME 134

Tropical semi-deciduous broad-leaved lowland swamp forest (64) 134

Tropical semi-deciduous broad-leaved lowland swamp forest (64) 134

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 134

CHARACTERISTIC 136

DESCRIPTION 136

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 136

NAME 136


Caribbean mangrove forest on clay (65) 136

Caribbean mangrove forest on clay (65) 136

Caribbean mangrove forest on coraline sand (66) 136

Caribbean mangrove forest on coraline sand (66) 136

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 136

CHARACTERISTIC 140

DESCRIPTION 140

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 140

NAME 140

Pacific mangrove forest on clay (67, 68) 140

Pacific mangrove forest on clay (67, 68) 140

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS 140

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 140

CHARACTERISTIC 143

DESCRIPTION 143

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 143

NAME 143

Tropical deciduous broad-leaved lowland forest, well-drained (69) 143

Tropical deciduous broad-leaved lowland forest, well-drained (69) 143

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS 143

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 143

Brosimun alicastrum, Simarouba glauca, Ficus ovata, F. glabrata, F. Obtusifolia, F.conitifolia, Cecropia peltata, Chlorophora tinctorea, Myrospermum frutescens, Bursera graveolens, Lonchocarpus minimiflorus, L. phaseolifolius, L. Phlebophyllus, Bombacopsis quinatum 144

Guazuma ulmifolia, Cordia dentata, Plumeria rubra, Karwinskia calderonii, Cassia grandis, Gliricidia sepium, Cochlospermum vitifolium, Tecoma stan, Pithecellobium dulce, Caesalpinia eriostachys, Byrsonima crassifolia. 144

In guatemala: Ceiba pentandra, Sapranthus nicaraguensis, Cochlospermum vitifolium, Lysiloma spp., Thouinidium decandrum, Simarouba glauca, Acacia spp., Croton spp., Karwinskia calderon, Bursera bipinnata, Luhea spp., Euphorbia spp., Aristolochia spp. 144

CHARACTERISTIC 147

DESCRIPTION 147

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 147

NAME 147


Tropical deciduous microphyllous lowland forest, well-drained (70) 147

Tropical deciduous microphyllous lowland forest, well-drained (70) 147

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 147

CHARACTERISTIC 149

DESCRIPTION 149

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 149

NAME 149

Evergreen broad-leaved shrubland on steep karstic hills (71) 149

Evergreen broad-leaved shrubland on steep karstic hills (71) 149

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 149

CHARACTERISTIC 150

DESCRIPTION 150

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 150

NAME 150


Seasonal evergreen mixed lower montane shrubland (72) 150

Seasonal evergreen mixed lower montane shrubland (72) 150

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 150

CHARACTERISTIC 151

DESCRIPTION 151

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 151

NAME 151

Evergreen broad-leaved lowland shrubland (73) 151

Evergreen broad-leaved lowland shrubland (73) 151

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 151

CHARACTERISTIC 153

DESCRIPTION 153

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 153

NAME 153


Deciduous broad-leaved lowland shrubland, well-drained (75) 153

Deciduous broad-leaved lowland shrubland, well-drained (75) 153

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 153

CHARACTERISTIC 155

DESCRIPTION 155

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 155

NAME 155

Deciduous broad-leaved lowland riparian shrubland (76) 155

Deciduous broad-leaved lowland riparian shrubland (76) 155

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 155

CHARACTERISTIC 157

DESCRIPTION 157

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 157

NAME 157


Deciduous broad-leaved shrubland swamp with dispersed shrubs (79) 157

Deciduous broad-leaved shrubland swamp with dispersed shrubs (79) 157

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 157

CHARACTERISTIC 158

DESCRIPTION 158

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 158

NAME 158

Evergreen shrubland swamp dominated by bamboo shrubs (80) 158

Evergreen shrubland swamp dominated by bamboo shrubs (80) 158

CHARACTERISTIC 159

DESCRIPTION 159

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 159

NAME 159

Tall-grass savanna with evergreen broad-leaved trees (81) 159

Tall-grass savanna with evergreen broad-leaved trees (81) 159

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 159

CHARACTERISTIC 161

DESCRIPTION 161

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 161

NAME 161


Tall-grass waterlogged savanna with evergreen broad-leaved trees and/or palms (82) 161

Tall-grass waterlogged savanna with evergreen broad-leaved trees and/or palms (82) 161

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 161

CHARACTERISTIC 162

DESCRIPTION 162

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 162

NAME 162

Short-grass savanna with needle leaf trees (85) 162

Short-grass savanna with needle leaf trees (85) 162

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 162

CHARACTERISTIC 164

DESCRIPTION 164

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 164

NAME 164


Short-grass waterlogged savanna with needle-leaved trees (86) 164

Short-grass waterlogged savanna with needle-leaved trees (86) 164

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 164

CHARACTERISTIC 166

DESCRIPTION 166

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 166

NAME 166

Short-grass savanna with deciduous shrubs (87, 88, 89) 166

Short-grass savanna with deciduous shrubs (87, 88, 89) 166

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS 166

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 166

CHARACTERISTIC 169

DESCRIPTION 169

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 169

NAME 169

Herbs and grass swamp with shrubs and/or palms (90) 169

Herbs and grass swamp with shrubs and/or palms (90) 169

CHARACTERISTIC 170

DESCRIPTION 170

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 170

NAME 170

Short-grass savanna submontane or montane without woody plants (91) 170

Short-grass savanna submontane or montane without woody plants (91) 170

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 170

CHARACTERISTIC 173

DESCRIPTION 173

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 173

NAME 173


Short-grass savanna without trees or shrubs, waterlogged (92) 173

Short-grass savanna without trees or shrubs, waterlogged (92) 173

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS 173

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 173

CHARACTERISTIC 175

DESCRIPTION 175

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 175

NAME 175


Tropical altimontane meadow or paramo (93) 175

Tropical altimontane meadow or paramo (93) 175

Vegetación de páramo, altimontano (93) 175

Vegetación de páramo, altimontano (93) 175

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS 175

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 175

CHARACTERISTIC 179

DESCRIPTION 179

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 179

NAME 179


Tall sedge swamp (94) 179

Tall sedge swamp (94) 179

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 179

CHARACTERISTIC 180

DESCRIPTION 180

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 180

NAME 180

Eleocharis marsh (95) 180

Eleocharis marsh (95) 180

CHARACTERISTIC 181

DESCRIPTION 181

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 181

NAME 181

Pantano marino con muchas suculentas (96) 181

Pantano marino con muchas suculentas (96) 181

CHARACTERISTIC 182

DESCRIPTION 182

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 182

NAME 182

Salt meadow poor in succulents (97) 182

Salt meadow poor in succulents (97) 182

CHARACTERISTIC 183

DESCRIPTION 183

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 183

NAME 183

Fire-induced fern lowland thicket(98) 183

Fire-induced fern lowland thicket(98) 183

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 183

CHARACTERISTIC 185

DESCRIPTION 185

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 185

NAME 185


Scarcely vegetated lava flow (100, 101) 185

Scarcely vegetated lava flow (100, 101) 185

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 185

CHARACTERISTIC 188

DESCRIPTION 188

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 188

NAME 188

Scarcely vegetated scree (103) 188

Scarcely vegetated scree (103) 188

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS 188

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 188

CHARACTERISTIC 190

DESCRIPTION 190

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 190

NAME 190

Scarcely vegetated tropical dune and beaches(104) 190

Scarcely vegetated tropical dune and beaches(104) 190

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 190

CHARACTERISTIC 193

DESCRIPTION 193

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 193

NAME 193


Tropical coastal transition vegetation on very recent sediments, moderately drained (105) 193

Tropical coastal transition vegetation on very recent sediments, moderately drained (105) 193

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 193

CHARACTERISTIC 195

DESCRIPTION 195

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 195

NAME 195

Coastal vegetation on karstic hills (106) 195

Coastal vegetation on karstic hills (106) 195

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 195

CHARACTERISTIC 196

DESCRIPTION 196

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 196

NAME 196


Coastal transition swamp vegetation on very recent sediments (107) 196

Coastal transition swamp vegetation on very recent sediments (107) 196

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS 196

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 196

CHARACTERISTIC 198

DESCRIPTION 198

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 198

NAME 198


Scarcely vegetated saline flat (109, 110) 198

Scarcely vegetated saline flat (109, 110) 198

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 198

CHARACTERISTIC 200

DESCRIPTION 200

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 200

NAME 200

Tropical freshwater reed-swamp formation (111) 200

Tropical freshwater reed-swamp formation (111) 200

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS 200

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 200

CARACTERISTIC 202

DESCRIPTION 202

Name 202


Tall-herbs lowland swamp 112 202

Tall-herbs lowland swamp 112 202

Ecosystem dynamic 202

Geology 202

Climatic conditions 202

CARACTERISTICs soil 202

Water regime 202

Vegetation data 202

Other observations 202

Niacargua: originally classified as herb marsh with organic deposits. 202

CHARACTERISTIC 203

DESCRIPTION 203

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 203

NAME 203


Rooted underwater communities of tropical salt waters (Seagrass beds) 203

Rooted underwater communities of tropical salt waters (Seagrass beds) 203

Ecosystem dynamics 203

Literature 204

CHARACTERISTIC 205

DESCRIPTION 205

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 205

NAME 205


Mid stream river of the Caribbean (119) 205

Mid stream river of the Caribbean (119) 205

cARACTERISTIC 207

DESCRIPTION 207

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 207

NAME 207


River course of the Pacific littoral (120) 207

River course of the Pacific littoral (120) 207

CARACTERISTIC 208

DESCRIPTIÓN 208

Classification-code and map-code 208

Name 208


Tectonic lakes (124, 125, 128) 208

Tectonic lakes (124, 125, 128) 208

Physical condition 208

Ecosystem dinamics 208

Special conditions 208

water regime 208

Vegetation data 208

Faunistic observations 210

Other observations 211

Literature 211

Tectonic lakes of El Salvador 211

DESCRIPTION 219

Classification-code and map-code 219

Name 219


Predominantly brackish lake or canal of the Caribbean littoral plain (129) 219

Predominantly brackish lake or canal of the Caribbean littoral plain (129) 219

Physical conditions 219

Ecosystem dynamics 219

Geology 219

Water regime 219

Vegetation data 219

Aquatic (semi) sessile life forms 220

FAUNISTIC OBSERVATION 220

Other observations 220

DESCRIPTION 222

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 222

NAME 222

Open estuary of the Pacific (130) 222

Open estuary of the Pacific (130) 222

Semi-closed estuary of the Pacific (132) 222

Semi-closed estuary of the Pacific (132) 222

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS 222

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS 223

Faunistic observations 223

Other observtions 223

Characteristic 225

DESCRIPTION 225

CLASSIFICATION-CODE AND MAP-CODE 225

NAME 225

Open estuary of the Caribbean (131) 225

Open estuary of the Caribbean (131) 225

Semi-closed estuary of the Caribean (133) 225

Semi-closed estuary of the Caribean (133) 225

PHYSICAL CONDITIONS 225

Water regime 226

Faunistic observations 226

Other oservations 227

DESCRIPTION 228

Classification-code and map-code 228

Name 228


Coral reef of the Caribbean (134) 228

Coral reef of the Caribbean (134) 228

Ecosystem dinamycs 228

Special conditions 228

Water regime 228

Faunistic Observations 228

Other observations 229




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