Methodology This chapter focuses on research methodology which will be used in this study to analyze Books based literary theories.
3.1 Research Method
The objectives of this study, this study will employ qualitative research and apply descriptive research. The reason why the researcher will use qualitative method is because this research is conducted to get depth description about the similarities on the plot of Karma Sang Pendosa by Rosyid E Abby with Malin Kundang book by Tira Ikranegara.
Sugiyono (2009:9) said that:
Metode penelitian kualitatif adalah metode penelitian yang berlandaskan pada filsafat postpositivisme, digunakan untuk meneliti pada kondisi objek yang alamiah, (sebagai lawannya adalah eksperimen) dimana peneliti adalah sebagai instrumen kunci, teknik pengumpulan data dilakukan secara triangulasi (gabungan), analisis data bersifat induktif/kualitatif, dan hasil penelitian kualitatif lebih menekankan makna dari pada generalisasi.
“Qualitative research method is a research method based on the postpositivism philosophy, used to examine the condition of natural objects, (as a contrary of experiment) in which the researcher is the key instrument, the data collection technique is conducted by triangulation (combined), the data analysis is inductive/qualitative, and the results emphasize the meaning rather than the generalization”.
The writer also uses descriptive method. Descriptive method is used to describe specific behavior as it occurs in the environment. It describes object or subject of the research just as it is.
The purpose of a descriptive method is to examine a phenomenon that is occurring at a specific place(s) and time. A descriptive method is concerned with conditions, practices, structures, differences or relationships that exist, opinions held, processes that are going on or trends that are evident.
According to Maxwell (1992:279), qualitative descriptive method is:
“Qualitative descriptive studies offer a comprehensive summary of an event in the everyday terms of those events. Researchers conducting such studies seek descriptive validity, or an accurate accounting of events that most people (including researchers and participants) observing the same event would agree is accurate, and interpretive validity, or an accurate accounting of the meanings participants attributed to those events that those participants would agree is accurate.”
Based on Maxwell statement, the method used for this research is qualitative descriptive method. The method describes the problem or case proposed based on the available fact, the specific ones, then be investigated to solve the problems and draw the general conclusions. Qualitative descriptive are typically an eclectic but reasonable and well-considered combination of sampling, and data collection, analysis, and presentational techniques.
3.2 Research Design
The designed as a descriptive research, this research consists as three stages can be described as follow:
The writer did the library research and collected the data from a drama text and book. The writer could find material to support his research topic by developing a research strategy. He could acquire a lot of reference through books from several writers. Besides that, the writer also used the internet as a supporting media to get some information needed for this research.
The writer analyzed the two literary works of Karma Sang Pendosa with Malin Kundang based on the theory. The writer read some books related to the subject. He also learned the contents of Karma Sang Pendosa and Malin Kundang. He reads the story, looked for the similarities, and then underlined the sentences and dialogs pointing.
Reporting refers to arranging paper to report the result of the research.
3.3The Technique of Collecting the Data
The writer needs data in the form of the plot of the two literary works Karma Sang Pendosa with Malin Kundang. The researcher collects the data by reading the book of Malin Kundang and drama text of Karma Sang Pendosa.
The writer uses the drama text and book as data and then he read it as a reasearch; the goal of this step is to find out about the similarities of the plot in the text and book. Next the writer finds out the biography about the authors and the writer making a summary of it. Everything about process of research has been done by the writer. The last step is to give the result of the research to the advisor, so the correction of the advisor is really important.
3.4 The Technique of Analyzing the Data
In analyzing the data, the writer compares the plot of Karma Sang Pendosa by Rosyid E Abby with Malin Kundang book by Tira Ikranegara and analyzing it based on the theory.
In analyzing the data, the writer firstly determined the similarities on the plot of the story, which would be analyzed. Secondly, the writer generally determined analyzing the description in the narrations or dialogs from both of the book. After that, the writer categorized the data into five steps of Freytag’s Pyramid of the plot. The analysis would had been explained in descriptive form.
Karma Sang Pendosa
At Kandangwesi Village, which is located at the base of Giriawas Mountain, lived a poor family who lived by gathering woods. To ease the burden of his parents, the boy (Boncel) went off and work for an evil and stingy wealthy person. His job was to look for grass and clean Paser’s (his master’s favourite horse) stable. Even though he worked day and night, he often got yelled by his masters, and sometimes he even beaten up.
One morning, he look for grass into the woods as usual. He went for the whole day but couldnt find any fresh grass. Because he’s afraid of being punished, he didnt come back to his master’s house. He went away from the village.
A few days later, he met a few hunters who asked him to go to Garut with them. At Garut, Kanjeng Dalem Garut has having an open house to every noble man around, and also the noble men from Cianjur. Between the noble men, is Kanjeng Dalem Cianjur, accompanied by Juragan Kapala and his company. They say, the noble and kind Juragan Kapala is currently in search for a servant. So, Boncel go and work for him.
Because he is so deligent, Boncel was loved by his new master. Juragan Kapala and his wives never forbid his son, Dang Surya, teach Boncel reading and writing. Eventually, Boncel became very smart in these things. His handwriting came out beautiful. When Juragan Kapala was promoted to be the Patih, Bonel was recruited to be the clerk at the Royal office.
Because of his reliable and hard working figure, Boncel then promoted to be the asesor, replacing the old asesor who is also promoted to be the cutak. Then. Boncel was chosen to be the prosecutor at Bogor, and married to Juag Awang, the daughter of Kanjeng Dalem Caringin. When Kanjeng Dalem Caringin retires, Boncel was chosen to be his replacement. That poor boy from nowhere finally became a Dalem. He goes by the name Dalem Boncel or Kanjeng Dalem Boncel.
At Kandangwesi Village, Boncel’s old home, his parents are in agony because their only son went missing and there were no news from him. Every effort came to nothing, but still no result.
10 years passed away. Until a word came, informing them that Boncel is now has a title as Kanjeng Dalem at Caringin. The name and the characteristics is an exact match with their long lost son.
They went a long way, Boncel’s parents, in hope to meet their beloved son. But what ddid they get? Dalem Boncel didnt want to admit them as his parents. He even kicked them and told them to go away rudely.
In the end, Boncel feels sorry, because his body got a disease which caused his whole body to itch and fester. But, his regret couldnt matter anymore. He didnt get the chance to ask for forgiveness because his parents have passed away.
Malin Kundang by Tira Ikranegara was a folklore legend from west Sumatra, his name was Malin, to makes his mother happy, he left the village. In the end, Malin was adopted by a rich family which made him a nobleman. And then one day, Malin went to his old village and met his real mother, but Malin didn’t admit that she was his mother and humiliated her. She was very furious. She prays to god, to give Malin a well-deserved punishment. And God granted her wish. Malin was turned into a stone for being such an ungrateful child.
Tira Ikranegara is a actor, writer and Indonesia film director. He was born in Loloan West Bali in 19 September 1943. He married with Kay Ikranegara and has two son, they are Innosanto Negara and Biko Negara.
After graduated from high school, he continued to Gajah Mada University’ Medical Faculty. Although, he didn’t finish his study because he chose to start a career on art. He himself never actually thought that he would get into the acting world, but he kept getting job offers on acting. His first movie was Pagar Kawat Berduri, which was banned for a little while by the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI).
At that time, Ikranegara always joked that he wanted to play an act with Suzanna. His second movie was Bernafas dalam Lumpur, also starring Suzanna.
Besides becoming an actor, he was also once guest lecturer at California University in 1974 and then was chosen to be a lecturer at Ohio University in the 1980’s.
During his career, Ikranegara has acted on 13 movies. Some awards that he has acquired are Best Supporting Male Actor at Festival Film Bandung (2009) and Best Male Actor at Indonesian Movie Award (2009).
His love for art made him, along with Putu Wijaya, did a deconstruction to traditional theaters, especially at Bali. He wanted to conduct a performance which has a pre-Indonesian culture roots, like his partners, WS Rendra who did it through Javanese culture and Arifin C. Noer with Cirebon and Betawi Culture.
FILMOGRAFI Pagar Kawat Berduri (1961), Bernafas dalam Lumpur (1970), Si Doel Anak Modern (1976), Cinta Biru (1976), Dr. Siti Pratiwi (1979), Untukmu Indonesiaku (1980), Djakarta 66 (1982), Kejarlah Daku Kau Kutangkap (1985), Keluarga Markum (1986), Bintang Kejora (1986), Laskar Pelangi (2008), Under The Three (2008), Garuda Didadaku (2009), Sang Pencerah (2010). SINETRON Sebuah Pintu Kalbu (1992), Dukun Palsu (1995), Masih Ada Waktu (1997).
Rosyid E Abby
A director and a writer of drama text, television script, short story, poem, essay, article, radio script, either in Bahasa or English. He is used to translate and adapt both Indonesian and world-wide drama works into Sundanese language, such as the ones by William Shakespeare, Anton Chekhov, Putu Wijaya, Motinggo Boesye, N. Riantiarno, Molliere, Yudhistira ANM Massardhie, etc. He also often performs a poet reading, be a judge and speaker of art and cultural events, and also as an informant on local television programs.
Place, Date of Birth:
Bandung, 19 September 1965
Journalism Department, Akademi Komunikasi Masa (AKM) Bandung (1985-1988)
Reporter of Suratkabar Mingguan (SKM) Sunda “Galura” and ”Pikiran Rakyat” (1989-present). He recently is the Managing Editor of the last-mentioned media.
Lecturer at English and Photography and Film Department, Faculty of Arts and Letters, Pasundan University.
Data Analyses and Findings In this chapter, the writer uses descriptive method, which means the data will be discusses the analyses and findings a comparison and similarities on the plot “Karma Sang Pendosa by Rosyid E Abby” and “Malin Kundang by Tira Ikranegara”.
Name of the characters and place in the earlier times:
Kanjeng Dalem is title in java when someone was became king/regent in the earlier times.
Juag is the title for noblewoman.
Selir is nickname for the second wife of nobility.
Dang is title for child nobility.
Juragan is title for rich man.
Ponggawa is title who was became a body guard.
Kedaleman is the place for king.
4.1 Plot of Karma Sang Pendosa
In the discussion of the plot, the writer refers to the theory of Freytag's Pyramid which formulates that the plot is divided into five stages; exposition, raising action, climax, falling action and resolution.
Exposition in Karma Sang Pendosa started with short prologue that introduces the main character, Boncel in Kandangwesih Village (name of village in Garut City West Java). Boncel and servants, Isah, Minah, Karsih, Ningsih, Ijem, and Surti worked in mansion house belongs to Master Karta.
“Halaman sebuah rumah besar milik juragan karta, di desa Kandangwesih, kaki gunung giriawas. Pagi hari disana terdapat beberapa jemuran yang tiang tiangnya terbuat dari bambu”. (Hal: 3)
The yard of a mansion house belongs to Master Karta, in the village of Kandangwesih, giriawas foot of the mountain. In the mornings there are several poles clothesline poles made of bamboo. (Page: 3)
Boncel and servants they were always complaining because Master Karta’s treatment is very bad and stingy. Master Karta also always scolded and berated them.
“Kami para babu juragan karta, di sinilah, di sinilah kami bekerja. Mencari penghidupan, biar punya masa depan walau sang juragan bengis, kami tak akan meringis. Walau sang juragan pelit kami bekerja dengan gesit. Bekerja, bekerja, bekerja, biar punya masa depan, bekerja, bekerja, bekerja, biar kami bisa makan. (Hal: 3)
“We're the Karta’s servants. Here, is where we work make a living to have a future.
Although the skipper violent, we will not wince. Although the skipper stingy, we work with nimble. Work, work, work let me have a future. Work, work, work let us could eat. (Page: 3)
In the morning servants always worked hard, because if they were lazy Master Karta would be angry. So Imas, Isah, Ijem, Surti Ningsih, Minah, Karsih were always talking about Master Karta. The servants always nagged while working, than they has any argument about life.
“Imas: Huh kerja, kerja, setiap hari selalu bekerja. Setiap pagi selalu begini, seolah-olah hidup ini tak ada habis habisnya untuk bekerja, monoton taka da variasi.
Ijem: Kita ini rupanya dilahirkan untuk jadi babu. Kapan hidup kita ini meningkat? Apa sampai mati? Melarat terus tak ada habis-habisnya!
Surti: Perempuan seperti kita ini, Imas, Ijem, memang dilahirkan untuk melarat. Kerja keras macam apa pun, tak akan merubah nasib. Inilah takdir kita. Takdir untuk jadi orang miskin! Takdir untuk jadi babu!
Ningsih: Jangan ngomel. Jalani saja. Kalau tidak begini, mana mungkin kita bisa hidup. Hidup ini kan untuk bekerja.
Karsih: Apa tidak terbalik tuh, Ningsih? Bukan hidup untuk bekerja. Yang betul adalah bekerja untuk hidup. Kalau tidak bekerja, kita tidak punya duit. Kalau tidak punya duit, kita tidak bisa makan. Kalau tidak makan, kita tidak bisa hidup alias ko’it. Kesimpulannya, kita bekerja ini ya untuk mempertahankan hidup!
Ningsih: Karsih, karsih, Kamu ini bisanya cuma membalik-balik kata. Kata dibolak-balik, hasilnya malah membingungkan. Sekarang saya tanya sama kamu, hidup untuk makan atau makan untuk hidup, mana yang betul?
Minah: Alah, sudahlah! Buat apa pusing-pusing mikir kalimat yang dibolak-balik. Itu mah kerjaan ahli bahasa, bukan kerjaan kita. Kerjaan kita mah, Kerjaan ini nyuci dan bersih-bersih yang harus kita selesaikan cepat-cepat, jangan sampai Juragan Karta marah! (Hal: 4) Imas: huh, every day we always work. Every morning is always like this, as if life is endless exhausted to work, there is not variation.
Ijem: We are apparently born to be servants. When will our lives improve? Destitute continue endlessly!
Surti: Women like us, Imas, ijem, was born to poverty. The hard work of any kind, will not change the fate. This is our destiny. Destiny to be poor! Destiny to be a servant!
Ningsih: Do not grumble. Just do it. If not so, how could we live. Life is right to work.
Karsih: is it not inverted, Ningsih? Live is not to work. The really is working for a living. If we does not work, we do not have money. If you do not have money, we can not eat. In conclusion, we work to survive!
Ningsih: Karsih, Karsih, you are just flipping. The results are confusing. Now I ask the same question to you, live to eat or eat to live, which is the correct?
Minah: it’s okay! Why we are thinking about inverted sentences. It is linguistic job, not ours. Our job is just to clean up, we must quickly to done it before skipper Karta will be angry! (Page: 4)
When the servants was busy to talk and complain, Master Karta called out very loudly, the servant panicked and quickly cleared their work. So Master Karta asked them where Boncel is. The servants expalin Boncel’s habitual action but Master Karta didn’t like it and angry. Than Master Karta told to the servants that Boncel was looking for to me and suggest them don’t be lazy if they wanted to live.
”Juragan Karta: Babu, babu-babu!
Para Babu: Iya juragan?
Juragan Karta: apa kalian melihat si boncel?
Para Babu: Boncel juragan?
Juragan Karta: Iya conge! Siapa lagi yang kutanyakan selain si pemalas itu?
Karsih: Maaf, Juragan setahu Karsih, Boncel tak pernah malas. Dia sangat getol.
Juragan Karta: Getol, getol! Aku tidak tanya pendapatmu soal anak tak tahu diri itu.Yang kutanyakan apa kalian lihat dia?
Minah: Maaf, Juragan setahu Minah, Boncel tahu diri, Juragan! Dia bisa menempatkan dirinya sebagai bujang yang...
Juragan Karta: Kamu lagi! Aku juga tidak tanya pendapatmu soal anak sialan itu. Yang kutanyakan di mana dia sekarang?!
Isah: Maafkan Isah, Juragan... Kan Juragan tahu sendiri, tiap pagi dia sering mencari rumput. Barangkali dia masih di huma, Juragan.
Ijem: Mohon maaf, Juragan... Barangkali dia ada di leuwi. Biasanya, sepagi ini dia suka mandi di pancuran...
Imas: Mungkin Si Boncel ngasruk ke hutan, Juragan. Maafkan Imas, kan Juragan sendiri yang suruh dia ngarit rumput tiap pagi.
Ningsih: Ningsih juga maafkan, Juragan. Mungkin dia pulang dulu ke rumahnya. Soalnya...
Juragan Karta: Alah, sudahlah, sudah! Mungkin, mungkin! Masa tidak ada yang tahu pasti, ke mana dia pergi?! Dasar babu, mulutnya selalu nyeroscos. Bawel!
Isah: Kalau menurut Isah, Juragan, mungkin Boncel itu.
Juragan Karta: Mungkin lagi, mungkin lagi! Lagi-lagi mungkin! Sudah, sudah! Aku tak mau dengar lagi omongan kalian! Cepat, kerjakan saja tugas kalian! Dan jangan lupa kalian, nanti kalau Si Boncel datang, suruh dia menghadapku! Jangan sampai nanti cambukku menyentuh tubuhnya lagi. Paham?!!
Para Babu: Pahaaam, Juragan.
Juragan Karta: Sudah, lanjutkan kerja kalian! Sing garetol siah, bisi teu dibere nyatu! (Hal: 5) ”Master Karta: servants!
Servant: yes Master?
Master Karta: did you see a Boncel?
Servant: Boncel Master?
Master Karta: yes! Who else it would be except that lazy person?
Karsih: pardon me, as i know he is diligent person.
Master Karta:i dont ask your opinion! Where is Boncel?
Minah: pardon me, as i know he is a self- aware.
Master Karta: i dont ask your opinion about that boy, where is he now?
Come on, we work so we have a future. Come on, we work so can eat. Come on, we work forget the sadness. Come on, we work with a heart full of exuberant. (Page: 7)
Five days later in a wilderness. Under a green tree, Boncel with filthy clothes and scruffy was contemplating his fate and he ran away from his master and he didn’t know what he will do. Suddenly, there was a scream that was chasing a deer. Finally Boncel helped the hunters. So Boncel told about his Master and his home.
The hunters told about Master Kapala who was kind and invited Boncel to join with them to Kedaleman.
Pemburu 1: Terimakasih, anak muda. Siapakah anak muda ini? Pagi-pagi keliaran di hutan belantara Cipatujah? Boncel: Aku adalah pengembara, namaku Boncel. Pemburu 4: Boncel? Lalu, tujuanmu hendak ke mana, pagi-pagi begini sudah ada di sini?Boncel: Namanya juga pengembara, Mamang, aku tak punya tujuan pasti. Ke mana kaki membawaku, ke sanalah aku melangkah. Pemburu 2: Pengembara? Memangnya dari mana asalmu? Boncel: Dari Desa Kandangwesi, Mamang. Pemburu: Desa Kandangwesi? Jauh sekali. Bukankah desa itu berada di kaki Gunung Giriawas? Boncel: Benar sekali, Mamang Desaku di kaki Gunung Giriawas Ibu bapakku orang miskin makan dari hasil mencari suluh, aku pun tak tinggal diam, Jadi bujang di rumah orang kaya, hartawan pelit tak kenal ramah, kerjanya marah-marah tak keruan, aku kerja tak pernah lalai, tiap pagi cari rumput ke huma. Bahkan sampai masuk hutan tak lupa membersihkan istal semua kukerjakan dengan giat namun tetap ku dicela dan dimaki terkadang disiksa dipukuli hingga tak kuat menahan diri lima hari lalu, seperti biasa kucari rumput ke huma dan ke hutan, entah apa sebabnya sejak pagi sampai siang tak kutemui juga rumput segar, akhirnya aku tak berani pulang. Karna takut dimarahi Juragan. Pemburu 3: Apa ibu-bapakmu tahu, kau minggat dari rumah Juraganmu itu?
Boncel: Tidak. Ku tak mau susahkan mereka, biar derita kutanggung sendiri ku kan cari masa depanku yang gemilang. Kelak jika ku berhasilku kan bawa mereka ke puncak bahagia. Pemburu 1: Kalau begitu, ikutlah ke Garut bersama kami. Di sana Kangjeng Dalem Garut sedang menerima tamu agung, para menak Cianjur. Menurut kabar, Kangjeng Dalem Cianjur ada bersama para menak itu, diiring Juragan Kapala dan para pengiringnya yang lain. Kabarnya pula, Juragan Kapala orangnya sangat ramah dan baik hati, tak pernah memarahi para pekerjanya. Ada baiknya kamu mengabdi saja di Juragan Kapala. Siapa tahu nasibmu bisa berubah. (Hal: 8) Hunter 1: thank young boy. Who is this young man? Early in the morning in the wilderness wildness Cipatujah (name of the forest in garut)? Boncel: i’m nomad, my name is Boncel. Hunter 4: Boncel? Then, where is your destination, so early already here? Boncel: i’m nomed, i don’t have a destination. Where the feet take me, that's where I step. Hunter 2: nomed? Wher do you come from? Boncel: from kandangwesi village. Hunter: kandangwesi village? It is so far. Is it the village at the foot of Mount Giriawas? Boncel: Absolutely, It's My village at the foot of Giriawas mountain, my parents are poor, we ate from results of looking for a torch, i worked in stingy rich man, each morning looking for grass to the forest, Five days ago, as usual I looked for grass to the forest, but i didn’t get any grass Finally, i did not dare went home because i was scared of being scolded by Master Karta. Hunter 3: are your parents know that you escaped from your Master house? Boncel: i dont want to burden them. let alone bear the pain. I will be looking my future, than if succeed i take them to the top right of the happiness. Hunter 1: Then, join with us to Garut(name of city in the west java). There is Kanjeng Dalem (title of name in west java/ we call now regent) Garut are receiving important guests menak Cianjur. According to the newspaper, Reportedly Similarly, Master Kapala its very friendly and kind, never scolding workers. It helps you to serve only in Master Kapala hopefully fate can be changed. (Page: 8)
There is the beginning of Boncel’s life that will be changed and his goal will be achieved for the happiness of his parents.