Chapter I introduction Background of the Study

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4.1.5 Resolution
In resolution, the character Dalem Boncel deeply regretted his actions. And he was always daydreaming because of mistakes he did. So Boncel continued waiting for news of his messengers to bring back his parents.

When the messenger had returned, sad news obtained Dalem Boncel that both parents have died.

Utusan: Maaf Kangjeng, menurut penduduk sepulangnya dari sini, ibunda Kangjeng Dalem sakit parah dan akhirnya meninggal dunia. Beberapa hari kemudian, karena kesepian ayahanda Kangjeng Dalempun meninggal dunia .(Hal: 35)
"messenger: Sorry Kanjeng, according to residents was returning from here, Kanjeng Dalem's mother was seriously ill and eventually died. A few days later, because of loneliness Kangjeng Dalem father was died. (Page: 35)
Hearing the news, Dalem Boncel slumped and cried. Juag Awang and Nyimas Selir calmed Dalem Boncel down. Finally Dalem Boncel was daydreaming with empty eyes and remember the words of his parents while saying the name of Mother and father with quivering lips.

Mak Boncel: Ocen, anaking. Ini Emak, ibu kandungmu ibu yang mengandung dan melahirkanmu. Eling, anaking, eling. Janganlah kau jadi anak yang durhaka.

Pak Boncel: Dan aku ini bapakmu, Boncel Yang telah merawat, menjaga dan membesarkanmu apa kau tak ingat, Boncel.? Apa tak ingat...?!

Boncel. Jangan biarkan hatimu dikuasai napsu, Anakku. Jangan biarkan kekayaan dan kekuasaan membuatmu lupa. Eling, Nak, eling.
Boncel’s mother: Ocen, anaking. Mother, birth mother, pregnant mother and had you.

Eling, anaking, mindful. Do you become rebellious child.

Boncel’s father: And I'm your father, Boncel who has been taking care of you, maintain and raise do not you remember, Boncel.? what do not remember ...?!

Boncel. Do not let your heart be controlled by lust, child. Do not allow wealth and power makes you forget. (Page: 36)

Dalem Boncel finally screamed and called the name of his parents and apologized for his treatment.

Dalem Boncel: Emak, hampura Ocen

Bapak, hampura Ocen.
”Dalem Boncel: Mother pardon me

Father pardon me. (Page: 36)

4.2 Malin Kundang

4.2.1 Exposition

Exposition in Malin Kundang started with short prologue that introduces the main character, Mande Rubayah in Air Manis beach Villager. Mande Rubayah lived with her husband in hinterland. But they are less fortunate there, they moved to a fishing village on the foreshore.

A few years living in fishing villages, Mande Rubayah blessed with a boy named Malin Kundang, they were very love Malin Kundang.

At the age of ten, Malin Kundang often invited to the beach and taught to be a fisherman of his father expected to be an independent youth, strong and ingenious young fisherman. Although he was still a child, Malin Kundang quickly understood how to be fisherman as his father taught, because he was very smart and clever, Malin Kundang had a lot of friends.

Sudah Nampak pada diri Malin Kundang wataknya yang berkamuan keras, otaknya cerdas dan pintar bergaul.
"It seen on Malin Kundang that he is a strong-willed character, smart, clever and friendly. (Page: 6)
One day his father bid a farewell to go out to sea. At first, Mande Rubayah did not allow him to, however the husband went to sea to fulfill the needs of families finally she allowed him with a heavy heart.

Tidak seperti biasanya, ada perasaan haru di hati Mande Rubayah kepergian suaminya kali ini dirasa sangat berat tak tahu kenapa Mande Rubayah mempunyai perasaan seperti itu.

"Not as usual, there is compassion in her hearts about her husband's departure she felt very heavy this times she does not know why she such a feelings. (Page: 7)
Her husband set off by gracefully, Malin Kundang waved when his father stepped toward the boat. His father participate it, waved his arms and said.

Malin Kundang ayah berangkat, hati-hati dirumah bersama ibu, jangan nakal. Ya ayah, Malin akan baik-baik saja bersama ibu.

"Malin Kundang father was went, cautiously at home with your mother, do not be naughty. Yes father, Malin will be fine with her. (Page: 7)
One day the fishing village hit by an outbreak of a deadly disease. There had been many people who become victims. Malin Kundang was one of them. Mande Rubayah was more nervous because it had been a few days that her husband had not returned home. While Malin Kundang getting the disease. Mande Rubayah asked to her self why her husband had not yet returned.

Apa yang terjadi dengan suamiku, kenapa sudah sepekan tidak pulang. Apakah ia mendapat musibah di tengah lautan? Demikian tanya Mande Rubayah dalam hati, tak terasa air matanyapun berlinang.

"What happened to my husband, why he had not come home. Did he meet his doom in the middle of the ocean? That’s what Mande Rubayah asked in the heart, she could not stop her tears. (Page: 8)
Mande Rubayah tried to treat Malin, he brought famous doctors to treat her child. Mande Rubayah always prayed every morning and evening for curing his son. Because of her seriousness and sincerity of prayer, Malin Kundang condition was getting better. And soon Malin Kundang healed from the disease. After recovering from illness, Malin Kundang love to his mother was increased.

Because she had not heard the news of her husband yet, than Mande Rubayah started to sell cakes. Every morning Mande Rubayah sell cakes to villagers, in order to get earnings for their daily lives.

4.2.2 Rising Action

The Rising action in this book is telling about the growth Malin Kundang. Several years later, Malin Kundang had grown into a teenager. Results of his father's discipline still lasting and rooted in him. He had often participated along with other fishermen at sea, because he was an intelligent young man and tough, catches the fish much more than his other friends.

Malin Kundang very love to his mother, he is also known as a youth-friendly, not arrogant. But Malin Kundang did not satisfied with the situation. Often he sat at the beach thoughtfully. He said to him self, If I remain here, my destiny will not change, I have to went abroad, I hope my fate either. And if i am getting rich I'd made my mother happy.

Emakku sudah tua, sebagai orang anak aku belum pernah berbuat sesuatu untuk menyenangkan hatinya. Jika aku sudah menjadi orang kaya maka emakku akan kuajak dan kubangun rumah yang bagus dan indah.

"my mother is getting old, as a child I had never done anything to please her. If I had become a rich man then i'll take her and build a nice house for her. (Page: 11)
Every day, in the beach and in the home, Malin Kundang was always daydreaming. Mande rubayah often saw Malin daydreaming and finally asked.

Apa yang kau lamunkan anakku?

Oh emak, tidak mak tidak apa-apa.

Apakah karena kau sudah akil balig maka aku harus mencarikan anak gadis sebagai pendamping hidupmu?

Ah emak, aku belum pernah memikirkan hal itu.
"What are you doing my son?

Oh, it’s okey.

Is it because your puberty then I have to find a girl as a companion of your life?

mother, I've never thought about it. (Page: 11)

Malin Kundang was speechless, on the one hand he felt sorry for her old mother, should she leave her mother alone. But he wanted to go from village to seek a better fate again. He finally said, and asked for permission to leave. Mother I want to go abroad just want to make you happy. If i am rich you did not have to work anymore. I will fulfill your needs. Mande Rubayah was touched to hear the words from Malin Kundang.

Jadi kau hendak pergi merantau semata-mata hanya karena ingin menyenangkan dan membahagiakan emakmu. Sungguh mulia cita-citamu. Kau benar-benar anak yang berbakti.

"So are you going to migrate solely because you want to make me fun and happy. Truly noble your dream is. You are really filial son. (Page: 13)

Although reluctantly, Mande Rubayah allowed her son to go. Finally Malin left the village and reached the big harbor bustling with traders and big ships. He went to sail, Malin came to some skipper and asked for a job. From then Malin worked as crew member of merchant ships. At the first time Malin worked as a ships cleaner.

Due to his dilligence and inteligience, Malin Kundang was loved by the helmsman. Eventually the helmsman who had no children regarded as his own son. Malin was taught to steer the ship.

When the helmsman was getting older, Malin was appointed as his successor. Malin was very clever and talented trader. Within a few years he had became famous young merchant. In the port of Malaka Country he established a magnificent building for his office. His success and famous spreaded to the Minang Country his birthplace.

Malin Kundang married with a rich merchant's beautiful daughter. Malin Kundang life increasingly well established and happy. Meanwhile, mande rubayah every morning and evening was looking out to sea. He always prayed for her son to be survived. Mande Rubayah getting old. But never entrust the goods or any message to his mother.
4.2.3 Climax

Climax is the moment where becoming the greatest tension of the story. The Climax is usually the most exciting event. Mande Rubayah got the news from friends who've migrated to Malaka. Malin Kundang had been married with a beautiful woman like princess. Mande Rubayah was so excited and prayed for Malin Kundang to go home and visited her.

Ibu sudah tua Malin, kapan kau pulang. Ya tuhan lindungilah anakku dari segala marabahaya, pertemukanlah dia denganku sebelum ajal datang menjemputku.

" Malin i was getting old, when will you come home. Oh god please protect my child from all dangers, meet him to me before death come to pick me up. (Page: 17)

Every month since he received the news, Malin had not coming to see him. However Mande Rubayah was sure that at some day Malin Kundang will be back. Her hope was fulfilled. On a sunny day from a distance looked a beautiful and majestic ship sailed to the coast.

When the ship began to move closer, appears a man who was beautifully dressed. Their faces smile brightly decorated. Burhan and his wife who were Malin friends since early childhood immediately came to Mande Rubayah.

The conflict is getting more exciting when Mande Rubayah saw and believed that The young child was Malin Kundang. Due to the unbearable longing, Mande Rubayah hugged Malin Kundang. Malin recall old mother was very strong not like it. Because ashamed to her wife Malin spat and pushed her to fall.

Hai, perempuan tua, ibuku tidak seperti engkau! Melarat miskin dan dekil!.

Hai wanita tua, aku saudagar kaya, bukan anakmu, enyahlah dari hadapanku.
"Hey, old woman, my mother does not like you! Destitute poor and dirt !.

Hi old woman, I am a rich merchant, not your son, get away from me. (Page: 21)

Mande Rubayah who had just dropped was helped by Burhan’s wife. Malin is it true you've forgotten that I'm your mother. Mande Rubayah only could cry because Malin kundang embarrassed to admit his mother. Malin Kundang immediately ordered the guard to give money. However, Mande Rubayah refused she just wanted confession from his son.

Hai bendahara kapal, berilah wanita tua ini uang agar tidak menggangguku.

Aku tidak butuh uang.

Hai wanita tua, kau tidak butuh uang, lalu apa yang kau inginkan dariku?

Aku hanya butuh pengakuan bahwa aku adalah ibumu.
"Hi treasurer of the ship, give the old lady money that does not bother me.

I do not need money.

Hi old woman, you do not need money, then what do you want from me?

I just need the recognition that i am your mother. (Page: 22)

Mande Rubayah completely devastated by the limp he said. Young man may be i was old. If you are the Malin Kundang that was uterus nine months and ten days and I raised you with affection then you will cursed because you were not recognized me as your mother.

Jika kau adalah anakku yang kuberi nama Malin Kundang, yang kukandung selama Sembilan bulan sepuluh hari. Dan kubesarkan dengan air susuku maka terkutuklah engkau.

"If you were my son whom named Malin Kundang, which uteres for nine month of ten days. Who was exaggerated with my milk and then cursed. (Page: 23)
Mande Rubayah immediately prayed, o my god, you must know what is appropriate punishment you give to this rebellious child. Children who had insulted biological mother in front of many people, act on greatness. Hearing the words from Mande Rubayah, Malin and his wife and his entire crews creep and feared.

People also returned home each as well as Malin Kundang immediately left the beach and went back to the ship.

4.2.4 Falling Action

Falling Acton is the events that happened as a result of the climax and the story seem like will end soon. Malin Kundang was seemed nervous, however he could not lie to himself. Thought in his heart why I have to do something very nasty that she was my own mother.

Shame to his wife Malin Kundang was commit acts of disobedience. Malin Kundang very regret and wanted asked apologize to his mother. The ship continues to move out to sea Malaka. Suddenly a weather became dark with a large storm.

The entire crews felt fear as well as Malin and his wife. Suddenly the Malin immediately admitted his guilt.

Emak, aku telah durhaka kepada ibuku. Ibu yang mengandung dan telah melahirkanku dengan kasih saying, sungguh aku telah berdosa dan aku sangat menyesal.
"Mother, I have been disobedient to you. Who was pregnant and had been given birth to me with affection, indeed, have I sinned and I'm very sorry. (Page: 26)
Suddenly, crashing waves on Malin Kundang ship. Malin Kundang wife was thrown into the sea, one by one crews was thrown into the sea, Malin increasingly feared. He always regretted his actions and asked for the curse get lifted.

Emak, ampuni aku

Emak, ampuni aku!

Emak ampuni aku dan cabutlah kutukanmu.!
Mother, forgive me

Mother, forgive me!

Mother forgive me and please took your curse.! (Page: 27)
Inevitably, Malin Kundang ship destroyed and foundered. Malin eventually died.

4.2.5 Resolution

At the foot of the mountain there were pieces of the stone ship that was Malin Kundang ship. Not far from where it, appeared a rock that resembles a human body, it was said that Malin Kundang body who was rebellious son who was cursed him into stone.

Mother figure must be respected and loved, as a mother who was gave birth to us. So do not disobedient to parents, especially mother.

Orang yang durhaka kepada orangtuanya terutama kepada ibunya. Orang tersebut tidak akan masuk surga kecuali setelah mendapat pengampunan dari ibunya.

People who rebel against his parents, especially his mother. The people will not go to heaven unless after obtaining a pardon from his mother. (Page: 28)
Such as the story of Malin Kundang, moral message behind of this story is to not be arrogant and embarrassed to admit them as our parents. Our success depends on the prayer of parents.

4.3 Finding

The drama text of Karma Sang Pendosa and Malin Kundang book which are published in 2012. The analysis focused on the similarities which were discussing about the intrinsic elements. The writer just explains about plot in the story of the drama text and book.

The longest analysis actually is on the plot of the story. The writer uses plot Freytag’s pyramid. The Freytag’s pyramid has five phases which are divided into exposition, rising action, climax, falling action and resolution.

Folklore was generally intended to be a medium of entertainment, character development and inspired for the readers. For both those stories Karma Sang Pendosa and Malin Kundang has a similarities on the plot exactly the main characters who were disobedience to the parents so they got punishment. Moral messages for those both stories has a similarities for every doing bad things will get bad consequences too.

The writer found the similarities in sequences that are seen at exposition, rising action, climax, falling action and resolution. Here are the explanations:

  1. Exposition: the explanation about the main problem and main case; the writer introduced the main characters and their goal to have a better and brighter life.

  2. Rising Action: explanation about Boncel and Malin Kundang process to be success and rich man.

  3. Climax: Boncel and Malin Kundang were to be Dalem (regent) and nobleman. Explanations about Boncel and Malin rude characters were admitted to the parents.

  4. Falling Action: Boncel and Malin Kundang regretted his disobedient to his parents than apologize to them.

  5. Resolution: moral messages for not insubordinate to the parents especially for mother.

After explaining the plot based on Freyteg’s Pyramid, the writer drew a table that explains the similarities of the drama text and the book.


Karma Sang Pendosa

Malin Kundang


  • Telling main character Boncel.

  • Telling about Boncel’s home; Giriawas village in Garut West Java.

  • Introduction of some character: Master Karta, his servants (Isah, Imas, Minah, Karsih, Ningsih, Ijem, Surti), hunter 1, 2, 3.

  • Explanation about Master Karta who was; stingy, grumpy, like to mistreat.

  • Explanation about the situation at the Master Karta’s home.

  • Explanation of the main problem and main case; the servants always discuss about Master Karta. Boncel lost from Master Karta’s home.

  • Singing the servants song.

  • Explanation of the situation after Boncel lost.

  • Telling main character Mande Rubayah and Malin Kundang.

  • Telling about Malin Kundang’s home; Air Manis Beach in West Sumatra.

  • Explanation about the situation at the Malin Kundang’s village.

  • Explanation about Malin Kundang growth.

  • Malin’s father taught him to be fisherman.

  • Explanation of the main problem and main case; Malin Kundang suffer from disease.

  • Explanation when Malin’s Father went to sail.

Rising Action

  • Introduction of some character; Boncel Parents, Juragan Kapala, Juragan Istri, Dang Surya, traders.

  • Telling about Boncel work from Master Karta to Master Kapala.

  • Telling about Boncel cleverness and tenacity

  • Explanation Boncel live from destitute to be better.

  • Explanation about Boncel studied with Dang Surya.

  • Boncel has appointed to be clerk.

  • Telling about Boncel parents was very missing him.

  • Explanation about the Boncel’s mother situation she was very missing him.

  • Boncel father was bargaining with merchants.

  • Merchants told about Juag Awang and Dalem boncel who was bought the merchandaise.

  • Merchants told about the characteristic Dalem Boncel

  • Boncel Parents just realize that his son is still alive.

  • Explanation about Malin Kundang desire that he want to wander.

  • Explanation of the main problem; Mande Rubayah was getting old and Malin Kundang confused to left his mother alone.

  • Telling about Malin Kundang cleverness and tenacity.

  • Explanation Malin Kundang lives from destitute to be better.

  • Explanation about Malin who was worked with helmsman and taught how to be helmsman.

  • Malin Kundang has appointed to be helmsan.

  • Telling about Malin Kundang situation from poor man to be a richman.

  • Explanation about the Malin Kundang mother situation she was very missing him.


  • Explanation about Boncel was to be Dalem (regent) Boncel.

  • Introduction of some characters; Ponggawa (body guards), Juag Awang and Nyimas Selir (Boncel Wife’s).

  • Dalem Boncel who was very arrogant on the his position.

  • Dalem Boncel Mother when hug his son but he was push her until fall.

  • Dalem Boncel parents came to the kedaleman (Dalem Boncel Office)

  • Conflict between Dalem Boncel and his parents but Dalem Boncel didn’t realize them as his parents.

  • Explanation about Juag Awang and Nyimas Selir (second wife) characters; Juag Awang she was friendly and kind and Nyimas Selir she was reversed it.

  • Dalem Boncel parents was disappointed because his son don’t realized them as his parents.

  • Dalem Boncel parents give advices to his son don’t to be arrogant.

  • Dalem Boncel was expelled them from kedaleman.

  • Mande Rubayah got the news that Malin Kundang was to be nobleman.

  • Malin Kundang and his wife visited to the Air Manis Beach.

  • Mande Rubayah was very happy when seeing Malin. So she was hug him but Malin push her until fall.

  • Malin Kundang didn’t want to realize Mande Rubayah as his mother.

  • Explanation about his wife who was not friendly and kind.

  • Mande Rubayah prays to god for giving punishment to the son who wasn’t realized as his mother and insubordinate.

Falling Action

  • Dalem Boncel suffers from disease like scab, itching and purulent.

  • Dalem Boncel always complains about his disease.

  • Dalem Boncel called shaman to treat his disease.

  • Dalem Boncel punish to all shaman who was failed.

  • Some of shaman when he treated Dalem Boncel he was became trance and giving advice that Dalem Boncel was insubordinate to his parents.

  • Finally Dalem Boncel realized that he was wrong and insubordinate to them.

  • Malin Kundang always thinking about curse was giving by his mother.

  • Finally Malin Kundang realized that he was wrong and insubordinate to her.

  • So Malin Kundang ask apologize although late.

  • Suddenly, storm destroying the ship, Malin Kundang and his wife died.


  • The messenger came and report that his parent was died.

  • Dalem Boncel crying and regret was insubordinate to them

  • So Dalem Boncel remembered his parents advice and ask apologize although late.

  • Malin Kundang already cursed to be the stone.

  • Suggestion and advice from the author that we must obedient to our parents.

Chapter V

Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusions

Comparative literature is a study that requires us to compare a works with different works but have in common. Assessment of comparative literature basically not be fixed on the works of the famous writer, but in the study of comparative literature is not much different as to appreciate the activities of a literary work. The study of comparative literature can be done by taking at least two literary works.

Plot is one of intrinsic elements in a fictional work that has important role in building the story. The plot directly supports and creates the story as the player in the story it self. There are five steps of plot based on the Freytag’s Pyramid, they are exposition, rising action, climax, falling action and resolution.

The object analysis of this comparative research are two different literary works with different either cultural backgrounds, city, or time. Those literary works are Rosyid E Abby’s Karma Sang Pendosa and Tira Ikranegara’s Malin Kundang.

After reading Karma Sang Pendosa and Malin Kundang, the writer than compare the two literary works to finding the similarities on the plot. The writer concludes the similarities of the plot in the drama text and book are described in both showing and telling method. After considering those methods, the writer could easily collect the description through the dialogues or the narration in the drama text and book.

The writer found the similarities on the plot Karma Sang Pendosan and Malin Kundang and the writer will explain base on Freytag’s Pyramid. Here are the explanations:


Rising Action2 Falling Action4



  1. Exposition: the explanation about the main problem and main case; the writer introduced the main characters and their goal to have a better and brighter life.

  2. Rising Action: explanation about Boncel and Malin Kundang process to be success and rich man.

  3. Climax: Boncel and Malin Kundang were to be Dalem (regent) and nobleman. Explanations about Boncel and Malin rude characters were admitted to the parents.

  4. Falling Action: Boncel and Malin Kundang regretted his disobedient to his parents than apologize to them.

  5. Resolution: moral messages for not insubordinate to the parents especially for mother.

From the five steps Freytag’s Pyramid is the best comparative method in order to help the writer easily find out the similarities of the plot. In conclusion, the analysis that has been conducted by the writer completed the main purpose of this research which is to find out how the story describes the plot of Karma Sang Pendosa and Malin Kundang.

The writer has made a conclution that folklore was generally intended to be a medium of entertainment, character development and inspired for the readers. For both those stories Karma Sang Pendosa and Malin Kundang has a similarities on the plot exactly at the main characters who were disobedience to the parents so they got punishment. Moral messages for those both stories has a similarities for every doing bad things will get bad consequences too.

5.2 Recommendations

The writer realizes that this paper is still far from being perfect. Therefore, in this opportunity, the writer would like to give some suggestions that may be useful. The suggestions are aimed to the readers, further researchers, or anyone who is interested in conducting the same research topic. They are:

  • All readers are suggested to learn more about the comparative study of literature. How to compare two novels from different cultural backgrounds, nation, space, or time so the reader’s insight and experience in understanding not only the literary work itself but also the complex messages contained within the novels will improve.

  • Further researchers are suggested to conduct different topics from the same subject, to study the literary works more widely than the limitation of problems conducted by the writer.

  • Further researchers are suggested to learn from this paper by considering the strength and the weaknesses of this paper as a reference to produce a better research.

  • All readers are suggested to understand the story of any literature before conducting a study on it, because it is very important for your research.

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