—since males were more successful, then they must be more adaptive models…….sociological factors
—culture of masculinity (incidentally, the same could be said for race, income, and other ways we classify individuals)
—sought “lawful rules” for behavior; the impact of the environmental forces on individuals did not differ by gender; again, seeking universals
—focused on “hysterical” women’s self-reports of early experiences; based on “organismic” view viewed feminine role as inherently inferior; to question the interpretation meant a need for therapy; later interpretations refocused “penis envy” as quest for egalitarian status within an oppressive system
Social Cognitive theory
—modeling, interpretation of others’ motives, sense of efficacy—Bandura;
--attribution of success, failure based on gendered perspectives—to what do we attribute our outcomes?
BioPsychoSocial—our human condition is based on a dynamic interaction among our biological (genetic, health, etc), social (culture, peers, etc) and individual psychological characteristics; dynamic in that the tension between stability and change is constant.
Response to Perspectives on Gender
Women’s studies emerged as individuals recognized the male bias in research—(late 1800’s—Kathrine Chopin--Awakenings
Criterion of success in science, business, etc., were based on domains in which males were dominant
Weisstein—existing models devalue female/feminine perspectives (if one exists)
Womanist movement—response of women of color to the white, upper middle class orientation of the women’s/feminist movement—again, demonstrating that the essentialist view is not valid
Walker (1990) womanist comes from the word womanish: opposite of girlish—i.e. frivolous, irresponsible, not serious. A black feminist or feminist of color; from the colloquial expression of mothers to daughters “ You’re acting womanish,” i.e. like a woman. Usually referring to outrageious, audacious, courageous, or willful behavior. Wanting to know more and in greater depth than is considered “goof” for one. Interested in grown-up doings. Acting grown-up being grown-up. Interchangeable with other colloquial expressions: “You’re trying to be grown.” Responsible. In charge. Serious.