Chelation and Detoxification chelation. Clinical Metal Toxicology



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EDTA, arrhythmia

Jick S and Karsh R: The effect of calcium chelation on cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disturbances. Am J Cardiol 4:287, 1959.

Nayler WG: Ventricular arrhythmias following the administration of Na2EDTA. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 137:5, 1962

Soffer A, Toribara T, Moore-Jones D and Weber D: Clinical applications and untoward reactions of chelation in cardiac arrhythmias Arch Inten Med 106:824, 1960.

Surawicz B: Use of chelating agent, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, in digitalis intoxication and cardiac arrhythrnias. Prog in CardiovascularDis p. 432, 1960.

Surawicz B, MacDonald MG, Kaljot V,et al: Treatment of cardiac arrythmias with salts of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Am Heart J(58): 493, 1959.

Surawicz B, MacDonald MG, Kaljot V and Bettinger JC: The effect of intravenous administration of disodium and dipotassium EDTA on cardiac arrhythmias. In:Seven MJ and Johnson LA (Editors) Metal -binding in Medicine, JB Lippincott Co. Philadelphia, 1960

Szekely P and Wynne NA: Effects of calcium chelation on digitalis-induced cardiac arrhythmias. Brit Heart J 25:589, 1963.



EDTA, atherosclerosis

Birk RE and Rupe CE: The treatment of systemic sclerosis with disodium EDTA, pyridoxine and reserpine. Henry Ford Hosp Med Bull 14:109, 1966

Blankenhorn DH: Calcium deposits in the plaque. In: Evolution of the Plaque. (Ed.RJ Jones) Univ Chi Press Chicago pp297.

Boyle AJ, Jasper JJ, McCormick H, et al: Studies in human and induced atherosclerosis employing - (EDTA). Bull Swiss Acad Med Sci 13:408, 1957

Boyle AJ, Clarke NE, Mosher RE, McCann DS: Chelation therapy in circulatory and scleros­ing diseases. Fed Proc 20(3) (Part II) (suppl 10):243-257, 1961.

Brucknerova O, Tulacek J and Krojzl O: Chelates in the treatment of obliterating arteriopathies. Vnitrni Lek 14:841, 1968.

Brucknerova O and Malinovska V: First clinical experience with combined treatment with chelation III and glucagon in ischemic disease of the lower extremities, Cas Lek Cas 119:814,1980.

Brucknerova O, Tulacek J: Chelates in the treatment of occlusive atherosclerosis. (Czech, Praha) Vnitr Lek 18:729, 1972.

Casdorph HR: EDTA chelation therapy, efficacy in arteriosclerotic heart disease. J Holistic Medicine 3(1):53, 1981.

Casdorph HR: EDTA chelation therapy II, efficacy in brain disorders. J Holistic Medicine 3(2):101, 1981.

Casdorph HR, Farr CH: EDTA chelation therapy Ill: Treatment of peripheral arterial occlu­sion, an alternative to amputation. J Holistic Medicine 3(1):3, 1983.

Chappell LT and Stahl JP: The correlation between EDTA chelation therapy and improvement in cardiovascular function: a meta-analysis. J Adv Med 6(3):139, 1993.

Chappell LT, Stahl JP and Evans R: EDTA chelation treatment for vascular disease: a meta-analysis using unpublished data. J Adv Med 7(3):131, 1994.

Cappell LT, Janson M, Whitaker J: A challenge to cardiovascular surgeons. J Adv Med 9(3): 153, 199

Chappell LT and Margolis S: Point-Counterpoint on EDTA chelation therapy. Alternative Therapies 1(2):53, 1994

Chappell LT: EDTA chelation therapy should be more commonly used in the treatment of vascular disease. Alternative Therapies Health Med 1:53, 1995.

Chappell LT, Miranda R, Rubin M, Carter JP and Trowbridge J: Chelation therapy (Letter). Circulation 92:1350, 1995.

Clarke NE Sr, Clarke NE Jr, Mosher RE: Treatment of occlusive vascular disease with disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Amer J Med Sci 732:110, 1960.

Clarke NE, Clarke CN, and Mosher RE: Treatment of angina pectoris with disodium ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid. Am J of Med Sci 232:654, 1956.

Clarke NE Sr: Atherosclerosis, occlusive vascular disease and EDTA. Am J Cardiol 6(2):233, 1960.

Clarke NE, Clarke CN, Mosher RE: The "in vivo" dissolution of metastatic calcium: An approach to atherosclerosis. Am J Med Sci 229:142,1955.

Cranton EM and Frackelton JP: The current status of EDTA chelation therapy in the treatment of occlusive arterial disease. Journal of Holistic Medicine 4: 24, 1982.

Cranton EM: The current status of EDTA chelation therapy, editorial. J Holistic Med 7(1):3, 1985.

Craven, PC and Morelli HF: Chelation therapy. West J Med, 122:277, 1975.

Donald GF, Hunter GA, Roman W and Taylor AEJ: Current concepts of cutaneous porphyria and its treatment with particular reference to the use of sodium calcium-edetate. Brit J Derm 82:70, 1970.

EDTA chelation therapy for arteriosclerotic heart disease. Medical Letter 23,1981.

EDTA chelation therapy for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Medical Letter 36:48 l994.

Friedel W, Schulz FH Schroder L: Therapy of atherosclerosis through mucopolysaccarides and EDTA (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid). (German) Deutsch Gesundh 20:1566, 1965.

Gibson T: Letter to the editor-The benefits of EDTA chelation therapy for atherosclerosis. Med J Australia 143(3):127, 1985.

Godfrey ME: EDTA chelation as a treatment of arteriosclerosis .N Z Med J 93:199, 1990.

Godfrey ME, Frackleton JP and Chappell LT: Chelation therapy for intermittent claudication (Letter). Z Med J 107:495, 1994

Godfrey ME, Agnihotri R and Strauss A: Chelation and arteriosclerosis. N Z Med J 101(838):21, 1988.

Gordon GB, Vance RB: EDTA chelation therapy for atherosclerosis: History and mechanisms of action. Osteopathic Annals 4:38, 1976.

Gould RG: Metals and chelating agents in relation to atherosclerosis. Fed Proc 20 (Suppl 10):252, 1961

Grumbles LA: Radionuclide studies of cerebral and cardiac arteriography before and after chelation therapy. New Horizons in Holistic Health II (Symposium). Chicago, May 27, 1979.

Guldager B, Jelnes R, Jorgenson SJ, et al: EDTA treatment of intermittent claudication - a double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Intern Med 231:261, 1992.

Hancke C and Flytlie K: Benefits of EDTA chelation therapy in arteriosclerosis: a retrospective study of 470 patients. J Adv Med 6(3):161,1993.

Julian JJ: Pass or Bypass? Chelation Extends Life. Hollywood, Wellness Press, 1981.

Kitchell JR and Meltzer LE: The potential uses of EDTA chelation therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Prog of Cardiovascular Dis 3:338, 1961.

Kitchell JR, Palmon F, Aytan N, Meltzer LE: The treatment of coronary artery disease with disodium EDTA, a reappraisal. Am J Cardiol 11:501, 1963.

Lamar CP: Chelation therapy of occlusive arteriosclerosis in diabetic patients. Angiology 15:379, 1964.

Lamar CP: Chelation endarterectomy for occlusive atherosclerosis. J Am Geri Soc 14(3):272, 1966.

Lamar CP: Calcium chelation of atherosclerosis, nine years' clinical experience. Read before the Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the American College of Angiology, San Juan, PR, Dec 8, 1968. (Transcript available from ACAM, 23121 Verdugo Dr., Suite 204, Laguna Hills, CA 92653.)

Lamb DJ and Leake DS: The effect of EDTA on the oxidation of low density lipoprotein. Atherosclerosis 197894:35, 1992.

Malinovska V, Zechmeister A, Brucknerova E et al: Ultrahistochemical study of the effect of glucagon and Chelation III on arterial wall structure after experimental calcification. Folia Morphologica 28:20,

Malinovska V, Zechmeister A, Malinovsky L et al: The therapeutic effect of glucagon and chelation III on the arterial wall after experimental lipidosis and calcification. Scripta Medica 1983:56(7):391

Margolis S: Chelation therapy is ineffective for the treatment of peripheral vascular disease. Alternative Therapies Health Med 1:53, 1995.

Meltzer LE, Ural, ME and Kitchell JR: The treatment of coronary artery disease with disodium EDTA. in :Seven JJ and Johnson LA (eds): Metal Binding in Medicine. JB Lipincott Co Philadelphia pp 132, 1960

McCann DS, Koen Z, Zdybek G and Boyle AJ: Effect of chelation on phosphorus metabolism in experimental atherosclerosis. Circ Res 11:880, 1962

McDonagh EW and Rudolph CJ: Non invasive treatment for sequellae of failed coronary circulation: 100% occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery, 30% stenosis right coronary artery and left ventricular contractility deficit. J Neurol Orthop Med Surg 12:169, 1993.

McGill WF: The effects of EDTA chelation therapy on plaque calcium and mineral metabolism in atherosclerotic rabbits. Dissertation Abstracts International Vol. 41, No. 04, October, 1980.

McGillem MJ and Mancini GB: Inefficacy of EDTA chelation therapy for coronary atherosclerosis. N Eng j Med 318:1618, 1988

Meltzer LE, Ural ME, Kitchell JR: The treatment of coronary artery disease with disodium EDTA, in Seven MJ, Johnson, LA (eds): Metal Binding in Medicine. Philadelphia, J.B. Lippen­cott Co, 1960, pp 132

Mongan ES: The treatment of progressive systemic sclerosis with disodium edetate. Arthitis Rheum 8:1145, 1965.

Nikitina EL, Abramova MA: Treatment of atherosclerosis patients with Trilon-B (EDTA). (Russ, Moscow) Kardiologiia 12:137, 1972

Olszewer E, Carter JP: EDTA chelation therapy in chronic degenerative disease. Medical Hypothesis 27:41, 1988.

Olszewer E and Carter JP: Chelation therapy: a retrospective study of 2,870 patients. J Adv Med Vol 2 #1/2:197, 1989.

Olszewer E, Sabbag FC and Carter JP: A pilot double-blind study of sodium magnesium EDTA in peripheral vascular disease. J Natl Med Assoc 82:173, 1989

Olwin JH and Koppel JL: Reduction of elevated plasma lipid levels in atherosclerosis following EDTA therapy. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 128:1137, 1968

Pentel P, Jorgensen C and Somerville J: Chelation therapy for the treatment of atherosclerosis, an appraisal. Minn Med Feb:101,1984.

Perry HM Jr: Chelation therapy in circulatory and sclerosing diseases. Fed Proc 20 (Suppl 10):254, 1961

Rathmann KL and Golightly LK: Chelation therapy of atherosclerosis. Drug Intell Clin Pharm 18:1000, 1984

Spence JD: Chelation therapy for intermittent claudication. ACP Journal Club, July/August page 8, 1992

Stevenson JG and Covington TR: Chelation therapy in atherosclerosis. Ann Intern Med 97:789, 1982

VanDer Schaar P: Brief Communication: Exercise Tolerance Tests in Chelation Therapy. J Adv Med 2(4): 563, 1989.

van Rij AM, Solomon C, Packer SGK, et al: Chelation therapy for intermittent claudication. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Circulation 90, 1194, 1994.

Walker FMcG: The effects of EDTA chelation therapy on plaque calcium and mineral metabolism in atherosclerotic rabbits. Physiology (Dissertation Abstracts International) Vol. 41, No. 04, 1980.

Walker M: How to Prevent or Reverse Hardening of the Arteries in: Chelation Therapy. M Evans Co, Inc., New York, 1981.

Walker M: The Miracle Healing Power of Chelation Therapy. Canfield, Ohio, Fischer Publishing, 1984.

Walker M: The Chelation Way: The Complete Book of Chelation Therapy. Garden City Park, NY, Avery Publishing, 1990.

Walker M: Chelation Therapy: How to Prevent or Reverse Hardening of the Arteries. Atlanta, '76 Press, 1987.

Walker M and Gordon G: The chelation Answer. Atlanta, ’76 Press, 1983.

What is chelation therapy for arteriosclerosis? Br Med J 285: 1982.

Whitaker, J: You have alternatives to bypass surgery. Health Healing Lett Feb, 1993

Wilder LW, DeJode LR, Milstein SW, et al: Mobilization of atherosclerotic plaque calcium with EDTA utilizing the isolation-perfusion principle. Surgery 52:793, 1962.

Wirebaugh SR and Geraets DR: Apparent failure of edetic acid chelation therapy for the treatment of coronary atherosclerosis. DICP Ann Pharm 24:22, 1990.



EDTA, calcium

Burckhardt P, Boillat AM, Reudi B, et al: Effect of parathyroid hormone immunoheterogeneity. Schweiz Med Wochenschr (105) 50:1692, 1975.

Davis H and Moe PJ: Favorable response of calcinosis universalis to edathamil disodium. Pediatriacs 24:780, 1959.

Dudley HR, Ritchie A, Schilling A, et al: Pathologic changes associated with the use of sodium ethylene diamine tetraacetate in the treatment of hypercalcemia. NEJM (252): 331, 1955

Fink CW and Baum J: Treatment of calcinosis universalis with chelating agents. Am J Dis Child 105:390, 1963.

Gibbons HL: Edetate disodium calcium, calcium-channel blockers, and heart disease. JAMA 246:1728, 1981.

Herd JK and Vaughan JH: Calcinosis universalis complicating dermatomyositis — its treatment with disodium EDTA. Report of two cases in children. Arthritis Rheum 7:259, 1964.

Holland JF, Danielson E and Sahagian-Edwards A: Use of EDTA in hypercalcemic patients. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 84:359, 1953.

Kalliomaki JL, Markkanen TK and Mustonen VA: Serum calcium and phosphorous homeostasis in man studied by means of the sodium EDTA test. Acta Med Scan 170:211, 1961.

Kaman RL, Rudolph CJ, Mcdonagh EW and Walker FM: Effect of EDTA chelation therapy on aortic calcium in rabbits on atherogenic diets: quantitative and histochemical studies. J Adv Med 3(1):13, 1990

Marcelle R and Lecomte J: On the cardiovascular activities of the sodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. C R Soc Biol 153:1483, 1959

Rudolph CJ and McDonagh EW: Effect of EDTA chelation and supportive multivitamin trace mineral supplementation on carotid circulation: case report. J Adv Med 3,(1):5, 1990.

Rudolph CJ, Mcdonagh EW And Barber RK: A nonsurgical approach to obstructive carotid stenosis using EDTA Chelation. J Adv Med 4(3):157, 1991

Scott PJ: Chelation therapy for degenerative vascular disease. N Z Med J 95:538, 1982.

Sloth-Nielsen J, Guldager B, Mouritzen C, et al: Arteriographic findings in EDTA chelation therapy on peripheral arteriosclerosis. Am J Surg 162:122, 1991.

Soffer A: Chelation therapy for arteriosclerosis. JAMA 233:1206, 1975.

Wissler RW, Vesselinovitch D: Regression of atherosclerosis in experimental animals and man. Mod Concepts Cordiovasc Dis 46:28, 1977.

EDTA, cancer

Blumer W and Cranton EM: Ninety percent reduction in cancer mortality after chelation therapy with EDTA. J Adv Med 2:183, 1989



EDTA, digitalis

Cohen S, Weissler AM and Schoenfeld CD: Antagonism of the contractile effect of digitalis by EDTA in the normal human ventricle. Am Heart J 69:502, 1965.

Eliot RS and Blout SG Jr: Calcium, chelates and digitalis. A clinical study. Am Heart J 62:7, 1961

Nguyen-The-Minh: Treatment of digitalis intoxication with EDTA Na2. Presse Med 71:2385, 1963

Pavek K, Drinal J and Selecky FV: Circulatory effects of disodium edetate in digoxin-induced ventricular tachycardia. Cardiologia 50:297, 1967

Rosenbaum JL, Mason D and Seven, MJ: Effect of disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on digitalis intoxication. All J ed Sci (240): 77, 1960



EDTA, granulomatosis

Hansotia P, Peters H, Bennett M and Brown R: Chelation therapy in Wegener’s granulomatosis. Treatment with EDTA. Ann Otol 78:388, 1969.



EDTA, kidneys

Cranton EM: Kidney effects of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA): A literature review. J Holistic Medicine 4:152, 1982.

Doolan PD, Schwartz SL, Hayes JR, Mullen JC, Cummings NB: An evaluation of the nephro­toxicity of ethylene diamine tetraacetate and diethylene trinenine pentaacetate in the rat. Toxicol AppI Pharmocol 10:481, 1967

Favre HR and Wing AJ: Simultaneous 51Cr edetic acid, inulin, and endogenous creatinine clearances in 20 p Myslak Z and Buczkowski M: Effect of calcium versenate upon kidneys during saturnism therapy. Pol Arch Med Wewnettrzmej (31); 853, 1961

Oliver LD, Mehta R, Sarle HE: Acute renal failure following administration of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Texas Medicine February 80:40, 1984

Peart WS, Quesada,T and Tenyi T: The effects of EDTA and EGTA on renin secretion. Br J Pharmacol (59) 2: 247, 1977

Peter G, Keberle M, Schmid K: Distribution and renal excretion of desferrioxamine and ferioxamine in the dog and in the rat. Biochem Pharmacol 15:93. 1966

Reuber MD: Accentuation of Ca edetate nephrosis by cortisone. Arch Path 76:382, 1963.

Reuber MD and Bradley JE: Acute versenate nephrosis occurring as the result of treatment for lead intoxication. JAMA (174): 263, 1960.

Reuber MD and Lee CW: Calcium disodium edetate nephrosis in inbred rats. Arch Environ Health (13): 544, 1966.

Reuber MD: Severe nephrosis in older male rats given calcium disodium edetate. Arch Environ Health 15:141, 1967.

Riordan HD, Cheraskin E, Dirks M, et at: Another look at renal function and the EDTA treatment proces. J Othomolecular Medicine 2(3):185, 1987

Schwartz SL, Hayes JR, Ide RS, Johnson CB and Doolan PD: The nephrotoxicity of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Biochem Pharmacol (15): 377, 1966

Schwartz SL, Johnson CB and Coolan PD: Study of the mechanism of renal vacuologenesis induced in the rat by ethylenediaminetetraacetate. Mol Pharm 6:54, 1970.

Schwartz SL, Johnson CB, Hayes JR and Doolan PD: Subcellular localization of ethylenediaminetetraacetate in the proximal tubular cell by the rat kidney. Biochem Pharmacol 16:2413, 1967

Sehnert KW, Clague AF, Cheraskin E: The improvement in renal function following EDTA chelation and multivitamin-trace mineral therapy: A study in creatinine clearance. Medical Hypothesis 15(3):307, 1984

Stacey BD and Thorborn GD: Chromium-51 ethylenediaminetetraacetate for estimation of glomerular filtration rate. Science 152:1076, 1966.

Stamp TCB, Stacey TE and Rose GA: Comparison of glomerular filtration rate measurements using inulin, 51Cr-EDTA, and a phosphate infusion technique. Clin Chim Acta 30:351, 1970.

Stamp TCB: 51Cr-edetic-acid clearance and G.F.R. (Letter) Lancet 2:1348, 1968

Timmermann A and Kallistratos G: Chemotherapy in nephrolithiasis. Isr J Med Sci 7:689, 1971.

Timmermann A and Kallistratos G: Modern aspects of chemical dissolution of human renal calculi by irrigation. J Urol 95:469, 1966

Timmerman A, Kallistratos G and Genner 0: In situ lysis of kidney stones. Urologic technique and drugs. Congr Int Ther 161-75.

Truss F: Clinical significance of kidney stone chemolysis. Kidney tolerance to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Med Welt (7): 238, 1971.

EDTA, multiple sclerosis

Davis FA, Becker FO, Michael JA and Sorensen E: Effect of intravenous sodium bicarbonate, disodium EDTA and hyperventilation on visual and oculomotor signs in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neuro-surg Psychiat 33:723, 1970.



EDTA, pharmacological action

Aronson AL: The mechanism of renal transport and excretion of EDTA with interspecies comparison. Toxic Appl Pharmac 18:1,1971

Batchelor TM, McCall M and Mosher RM: Potassium diuresis induced by edathamil disodium. JAMA 187:305, 1964.

Bates GW, Billups C and Saltman P: The kinetics and mechanism of iron (III) exchange between chelates and transferrin. II. The presentation and removal with ethylene diamine tetraacetate. J Biol Chem 242:2816, 1967.

Birk RE and Rupe CE: Systemic sclerosis. Fourteen cases treated with chelation (disodium EDTA) and/or pyridoxine, with comments on the possible role of altered tryptophan metabolism in pathogenesis. Henry Ford Hosp Med Bull 10:523, 1962

Brien TG and Fay J: [51Cr] EDTA biological half life as an index of renal function. J Nuc Med. (13) 5:339, 1972

.Estep HL, Gardner CT Jr, Taylor JP, Minott A and Tucker HStG Jr: Phosphate excretion patterns following intravenous injection of ethylenediaminetetraacetate ((EDTA). J Clin Endocr 25:1385, 1965

Foreman H, Vier M and Magee M: The metabolism of C14 labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in the rat. J Biol Chem 203:1045, 1953.

Foreman H and Trujillo T: Metabolism of carbon 14 labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in human beings. J Lab Clin Med (43): 566, 1954.

Frackelton JP: Monitoring renal function during EDTA chelation therapy. J Holistic Med 8(1):33, 1986

Chantler C and Barratt TM: Estimation of glomerular filtration rate from plasma clearance of 51-chromium edetic acid. Arch Dis Child 47:613, 1972.

Chantler C, Garnett ES, Parsons V and Veall N: Glomerular filtration rate measurement in man by the single injection method using 51Cr-EDTA. Clin Sci 37:169, 1969

Heath DA, Knapp MS and Walker WHC: Comparison between inulin and 51Cr-labelled edetic acid for the measurement of glomerular filtration-rate. Lancet 2:1110, 1968.

Hegsted DM: Major minerals. Section A. Calcium and phosphorus. In: RS Goodheart and ME Shields (Eds.). Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Lea and Febiger, Phila., p. 266, 1974

Reuter H, Niemeyer G and Gross R: The distribution of EDTA and citrate in blood and plasma. Throm Diath Haemorrh 19:213, 1968.

Soffer A and Toribara T: Changes in serum and spinal fluid calcium effected by disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate. J Lab Clin Med (58): 542, 1961

Spencer H, Greenberg J, Berger E, Perrone M and Lazlo D:Studies on the effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in hypercalcemia. J Lab Clin Med (47): 29, 1956.

Spencer H, Vankinscott V, Lewin I and Lazlo D: Removal of calcium in man by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. (EDTA). J Clin Invest (31):1023, 1952

Tamburino G, Fiore CE and Petralito A: Comparison of effects of EDTA (versonate) infusion on plasma calcitonin levels in senile osteoporotic and age matched healthy subjects. Ircs Med Sci: Libr Compend 4(8): 362, 1976

Tate SS: Effect of metal ions and EDTA on the activity of rabbit liver fructose 1,6-diphosphatase Biochim Biophys Res Commun 24:662, 1966.

Teisinger J: Biochemical responses to provocative chelation by edetate disodium calcium. Arch Environ Health 23:280, 1971

Uhl HSM, Brown HH, Zlatkis A, Zak B, Myers GB and Boyle AJ: Effect of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid on cholesterol metabolism in rabbits. Am J Clin Path 23:1226, 1950.

Yang WC: Stimulatory effect of EDTA on cardiac mitochondrial respiration. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2:22, 1960.

Yukimura T: Effects of EDTA and verapamil on renin secretion. Osaka-Shiritsu Daigaku Igaku Zasshi 28(3): 309, 1979



EDTA , platelets

Berkman N, Michaeli Y, Or R and Eldor A: EDTA dependent pseudothrombocytopenia: a clinical study of 18 patients and a review of the literature. Am J Hematol 36:195, 1991



Cowan DH, Robertson AL, Shook P, Giroski P. Platelet adherence to collagen: role of plasma, ADP, and divalent cations. : Br J Haematol. 1981 Feb;47(2):257-67.

Kindness G and Frackelton JP: Effect of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) on platelet aggregation in human blood. J Adv Med 2(4):519, 1989.

Marney SR Jr and Des Prez RM: Rabbit platelet injury by soluble antigen and antibody. III. Effects of the sodium and magnesium salts of EDTA and EGTA. J Immun 106:1446, 1971

Mayan H, Salomon 0, Pauzner R, et al: EDTA induced pseudothrombocytopenia. South Med J 85:213, 1992

Payne BA and Pierre RV: Pseudothrombocytopenia: a laboratory artifact with potentially serious consequences. Mayo Clinic Proc 59:123, 1984

Popovici A, and Rubin M: EDTA as an anticoagulant in clinical laboratory studies. Soc Exper and Biol Med 74:415, 1950

Rossi EC: Effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citrate upon platelet glycolysis. J Lab Clin Med 69:204, 1967

Rudolph CJ, Mcdonagh EW and Barber RK: An observation of the effect of EDTA chelation and supportive multivitamin/trace mineral supplementation on blood platelet volume: a brief communication. J Adv Med 3(3):179, 1990

Suvorov A and Markosyan RA: Some mechanisms of EDTA on platelet aggregation. (All Union Cardiol. Res. Cent. Moscow, Russia.) Byall Eksp Biol Med (1)5: 587, 1981.

EDTA, politics

Couric JM: Chelation therapy overdone. FDA Consumer 16:28. 1982.

Cranton EM and Frackelton JP: Negative Danish Study of EDTA chelation biased. Townsend Letter for Doctors July, 604-605, Letter, 1992.

Flytlie K and Hancke C: Letter to the editor: EDTA manipulated. J Adv Med 6(1):53, 1993

Hancke C and Flytlie K: Manipulation with EDTA. Ugeskr Laeger 154:2213, 1992

Montgomery MR: Advances in medical fraud: chelation therapy replaces Laetrile. J Florida Med Assoc 73:681, 198

Nodine JH: Edetic acid therapy. (Letter) JAMA 212:628, 1970

Patterson R: Chelation therapy and Uncle John. CMAJ 140(7):829, 1989

Proceedings: Hearing on EDTA Chelation Therapy of the Ad Hoc Scientific Advisory Panel on Internal Medicine of the Scientific Board of the California Medical Society, March 26, 1976, San Francisco, California (Transcript available ACAM, 23121 Verdugo Dr., Suite 204, Laguna Hills, CA 92653.)

Schachter MB: Health fraud versus innovation-a letter to the editor. J Adv in Med 6(3):198, 1993

Scott PJ. Chelation therapy: evolution or devolution of a nostrum? N Z Med J 101:109, 1988

Shaw D: Letter to the editor-chelation therapy. N Z Med J 96:144, 1983

Soffer A: Chelation clinics, an abuse of the physician's freedom of choice. Chest 86:157, 1984.

The Committee on Scientific Dishonesty (UVVU): Conclusion concerning complaints in connections with trial of EDTA versus placebo in the treatment of arteriosclerosis. Danish Research Councils

van Rij AM, Solomon C, Packer SGK and Hopkins WG: [Chelation therapy] Response (Letter). Circulation 5:1350, 1995.

van Rij AM, Solomon C, Packer SGK and Hopkins WG: [Effectiveness of EDTA chelation therapy] Response (Letter). Circulation 5:1352, 1995.



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