Chelation and Detoxification chelation. Clinical Metal Toxicology

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EDTA, porphyria

Woods SM, Peters HA and Johnson SAM: Chelation therapy in cutaneous porphyria. A review and report of a five-year recovery. Arch Derm 84:920, 1961

Peters H, Bichinan P and Reese H: Therapy of acute, chronic and mixed hepatic porphyria patients with chelating agents. Neurology (8): 621, 1958.

Peters HA: Trace minerals, chelating agents and the porphyrias. Fed Proc 20(3) Part II Supp#10: 793, 1961

Peters HA, Johnson SAM, Cam S, Oral S, Müftü Y and Ergene T: Hexachlorobenzene-induced porphyria: Effect of chelation on the disease, porphyrin and metal metabolism. Am J Med Sci 251:314, 1966.

Peters HA: Trace minerals, chelating agents and the porphyrias. Fed Proc 20 (Suppl 10):227, 1961

Peters HA, Johnson SAM, Cam S, Oral S, Müftü Y and Ergene T: Hexachlorobenzene-induced porphyria: Effect of chelation on the disease, porphyrin and metal metabolism. Am J Med Sci 251:314, 1966.


Chen IW, Park HM, King LR, Bahr GK and Goldsmith RE: Radioimmunoassay of parathyroid hormone: peripheral plasma immunoreactive parathyroid hormone response to ethylenediaminetetraacetate. J Nucl Med 15:763, 1974.

Ghiringhelli L and Respighi E: The tubular reabsorption of phosphorus during the test of parathyroid stimulation by versenate (test of Kaiser &Ponsold). Atti Acad Med Lombarda 18:191, 1963.

Ghiringhelli L, Marinoni E and Respighi E: Study of the parathyroid function by means of the Kaiser &Ponsold test in a group of thyroidectomized patients. Minerva Med 54:2829, 1963.

Jones KH and Fourman P: Edetic-acid test of parathyroid insufficiency. Lancet 2:119, 1963.

Lockefeer JH, Hackeng WHL and Birkenhagër JC: Parathyroid hormone secretion in disorders of calcium metabolism studied by means of EDTA. Act Endocr 75:286, 1974

Parfitt AM: Study of parathyroid function in man by EDTA. J Clin Endocr 29:569, 1969

Tsang RC, Chen I-W and McEnerg P: Parathyroid function tests with EDTA infusions in infancy and childhood. J Pediatr 88:250, 1976.

EDTA, rheumatoid disease

Leipzig LS, Boyle AJ, McCann DS: Case histories of rheumatoid arthritis treated wiith sodium or magnesium EDTA. J Chronic Dis 22:553, 1970.

EDTA, sarcoidosis

Johnson SAM: Use of the chelating agent edathamil disodium in acrosclerosis, sarcoidosis and other skin conditions with comments on tryptophan metabolism in sarcoidosis. Wisconson Med J 59:651, 1960.

EDTA, scleroderma

Fuleihan FJD, Kurban AK, Abboud RT, Beidas-jubran N and Farah FS: An objective evaluation of the treatment of systemic scleroderma with disodium EDTA, pyridoxine and reserpine. Brit J Derm 80:184, 1968.

Hösli P: Therapy of scleroderma with the disodium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; a contribution to the toxicology of versenate. Part I. Arzneimittelforschung 10:65, 1960.

Klein R and Harris SB: Treatment of scleroderma, sclerodactylia and calcinosis by chelation (EDTA). Am J Med 19:798, 1955

Müller SA, Brunstig LA and Winkelmann RK: The treatment of scleroderma with the new chelating agent edathamil. Arch Dermatol 3:305, 1962.

Winder PR and Curtis AC: Edathamil in the treatment of scleroderma and calcinosis cutis. Arch Derm 82:732, 1960.

EDTA, teratogenesis

Marsh L and Fraser FC: Chelating agents and teratogenesis. (Letter) Lancet 1:846, 1973

Swenerton H and Hurley LS: Teratogenic effects of chelating agents and their prevention by zinc. Science Vol 173-3991:62, 1971

EDTA, toxicity

Ahrens FA and Aronson AL: Toxicity of calcium ethylenediaminetetreacetate in dogs. Am Soc Exp Biol 27:1401, 1968

Ahrens FA and Aronson AL: A comparative study of the toxic effects of calcium and chromium chelates of ethylenediaminetetraacetate in the dog. Toxic Appl Pharmac 18:10, 1971.

AItmann J, Wakim KG and Winkelmann RK: Effects of edathamil disodium on the kidney. J Invest Dermatol (38): 215, 1962.

Bauer RO, Rullo FR, Spooner C, et al: Acute and subacute toxicity of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) salts. Federation Proc (11): 321, 1952

Foreman H, Finnegan C and Lushbaugh CC: Nephrotoxic hazard from uncontrolled edathamil calcium-disodium therapy. JAMA 160:1042, 1956.

Foreman H: Toxic side effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. J Chron Dis (16):319, 1963

Kimmel CA: Effect of route of administration on the toxicity and teratogenicity of EDTA in the rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol (40)2:299, 1977

Payne JM and Sansom BF: The relative toxicity in rats of disodium ethylene diamine tetra-acetate, sodium oxalate and sodium citrate. J Physiol 170:613, 1964

Peterson CR: Adverse effects of chelation therapy. JAMA 250:2926, 1983

Raymond JZ and Gross PR: EDTA: preservative dermatitis. Arch Derm 100:436, 1969

Remagen W, Hiller FK and Sanz CM: Metabolic changes in experimental poisoning with ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid. Arzneimittelforschung 11:1097, 1961

Reuber MD: Hepatic lesions in young rats given calcium disodium edetate. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 11:321, 1967

Shibata S: Toxicological studies of EDTA salt (sodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate. Folia Pharmacol Japonica 52:113, 1956

Shibata S: Toxicological studies of EDTA salt (sodium ethylenediamine tetra-acetate. Chem Abst 51:9918, 1957

History of Chelation

Aposhian HV: DMSA and DMPS - Water soluble antidotes for heavy metal poisoning. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 23:193, 1983

Aronov DM: First experience with the treatment of atherosclerosis patients with calcinosis of the arteries with trilon-B (disodium salt of EDTA). (Russ, Moscow) KlinMed 41:19, 1963

Bechtel JT, White JE and Estes EH Jr: The electrocardiographic effects of hypocalcemia induced in normal subjects with edathamil disodium. Circulation 13:837, 1956.

Belknap EL: EDTA in the treatment of lead poisoning. Indust Med & Surg (21):305,1952.

Brugsch HG: Fatal cases involving EDTA (Edathamil) therapy for lead poisoning. Arch Ind Health 20:285, 1959.

Berlin M, Ullrebg S: Increased uptake of mercury in mouse brain by dimercaptopropanol. Nature 197:84, 1963

Boyle AS, Mosher LE, McCann DS: Some in vivo effects of chelation-I: Rheumatoid arthritis. J Chronic Dis 16:325, 1963.

Boyle AJ and McCann DS: New concept relating parathyroids to atherosclerotic plaque reversal. Circulation Suppl 2:35. 1967

Butler AM: Use of calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetate in treating heavy-metal poisoning. Arch Indust Hyg Occupat Med 7:136, 1952.

Brecher A: Bye-Bye Bypass: The Truth About Chelation Therapy. Troup, Texas, Health Savers Press, 1989.

Casdorph HR: Chelation therapy: a reappraisal. N Z Med J 66, 1983.


Blake DR, Hall ND, Bacon PA, Dieppe PA, Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM: The importance of iron in rheumatoid disease. Lancet :1142, 1981.

Blake DR, Hall ND, Bacon PA, Dieppe PA, Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC: Effect of a specific iron chelating agent on animal models of inflammation. Ann Rheum Dis 42:89, 1983.

Cook JD, Finch CA, Smith NJ: Evaluation of the iron status of a population. Blood 48(3):449, 1976.

Frackelton JP, Cranton EM: Iron and copper supplementation with EDTA chelation therapy. J Holistic Med 8(1):63, 1986

Proper R, Nathan D: Clinical removal of iron. Ann Rev Med 33:509,1982

Rudolph CJ, McDonagh EW and Barber RK: The effect of EDTA chelation on serum iron. J Adv Med 4:39, 1991

Salonen J, Nyyssonen K, Korpela H, et al: High stored iron levels are associated with excess risk of myocardial infarction in Eastern Finnish men. Circulation 86(3):803, 1992.

Sullivan JL : Iron and the sex difference in heart disease risk. Lancet 1(8233):1293, 1981.

Sullivan JL :Iron, aspirin and heart disease risk, editorial. JAMA 247(6):751, 1982.

Sullivan JL: Vegetarianism, ischemic heart disease, and iron, editorial, Burr ML: Reply to letter by Sullivan, editorial. Am J Clin Nutr 37:882, 1983

Sullivan JL: Sex, iron, and heart disease. Lancet 2:1162, 1986.

Sullivan JL: The iron paradigm of ischemic heart disease. Am Heart J 117:1177, 1989.


Agerty HA: Lead poisoning in children. Medical Clinics of North America. (36):1587, 1952.

Angle CR and McIntire MS: Lead poisoning during pregnancy. Fetal tolerance of calcium disodium edetate . Am J Dis Child 108:436, 1964.

Aronson AL and Hammond PB: Effect of two chelating agents on the distribution and excretion of lead. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 146:241-251, 1964

Aronson AL, Hammond PB and Strafuss AC: Studies with calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetate in calves; toxicity and use in bovine lead poisoning. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 12:337-349, 1968.

Bessman SP, Ried H and Rubin M: Treatment of lead encephalopathy with calcium disodium versenate. Ann Med Soc DC 21:312, 1952.

Batuman V, Landy E, Maesaka JK, Wedeen RP: Contribution of lead to hypertension with renal impairment .N EngI J Med 309(1):17, 1983.

Batuman V, Maesaka JK, Haddad B, et al: The role of lead in gout nephropathy. NEJM (304)9:520, 1981.

Castellino N and Aloj S: Effects of calcium sodium ethylenediaminetetra-acetate on the kinetics of the distribution and excretion of lead in the rat. Brit J Indust Med 22:172, 1965.

Centers for Disease Control: Preventing lead poisoning in young children. p61 October 1991

Chisolm JJ Jr: The use of chelating agents in the treatment of acute and chronic lead intoxication in childhood. J Pediat 73:1, 1968.

Chisolm JJ Jr: Chelation therapy in children with subclinical plumbism. Pediatrics 53:441, 1974.

David 0, Hoffman SP, Sverd J, Clark J, Voeller K: Lead and hyperactivity, behavioral response to chelation: A pilot study. Am J Psychiatry 133:1155, 1976.

Emmerson BT: Chronic lead nephropathy. The diagnostic use of calcium EDTA and the association with gout. Australian Ann Med 12: 310, 1963.

Ericson JE, Shirahata H, Patterson CC: Skeletal concentrations of lead in ancient Peruvians. N Engl J Med 300:946, 1979.

Feigen RD, Shannon DC, Reynolds SL, Shapiro LW and Connelly JP: Lead poisoning in children. Clin Pediat 4:38, 1965

Foreman H, Hardy H, Shipman T, et al: Use of calcium ethylenediaminetetraacetate in cases of lead intoxication. Am Archiv Indust Hyg Occup Med (7): 148, 1953.

Fromke VL, Lee MY and Watson CJ: Porphyrin metabolism during Versenate® therapy in lead poisoning. Intoxication from an unusual source. Ann Intern Med 70:1007, 1969.

Kety SS and Letnoff TV: Treatment of lead poisoning with sodium citrate. Proc Soc Exp Biol & Med 46:476, 1941.

Kehoe RA: Value of calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate and British Antilewisite in therapy of lead poisoning. 20(3) Part II Supp#10:196, 1961

Mehbod H: Treatment of lead intoxication. Combined use of peritoneal dialysis and edetate calcium disodium. JAMA 201:972, 1967.

Moel DI and Kunar K: Reversible nephrotoxic reactions to a combined 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol and calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid regimen to asymptomatic children with elevated blood lead levels. Pediatrics 70:259, 198

Moncrieff AA, Koumides OP, Clayton BE, Patrick AD, Renwick AGC and Roberts GE: Lead poisoning in children. Arch Dis Child 39:1, 1964

Morgan JM: Chelation therapy in lead nephropathy. South Med J 68:1001, 1973

Petrovic L, Stanovic M, Savicevic M and Poleti D: Aerosol inhaltion of CaNa2EDTA (mosatil) by workers constantly exposed to lead poisoning. Brit J Indust Med 17:201, 1960

Preventing lead poisoning in young children: A statement by the Centers for Disease Control ,U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. p55, 1991

Rieders F, Dunnington WG and Brieger H: The efficacy of edathamil calcium disodium in the treatment of occupational lead poisoning. Indust Med 24:195, 1955

Rubin M, Gignac S, Bessman SP and Belknap EL: Enhancement of Lead Excretion in Humans by Disodium Calcium Ethylenediamine Tetraacetate. Science (117): 659, (June 12), 1953

Sachs HK, Blanksma LA, Murray EF and O’Connell MJ: Ambulatory treatment of lead poisoning: report of 1,155 cases. Pediatrics 46:389, 1970

Seto DSY and Freeman JM: Lead nephropathy in childhood. Am J Dis Child 107:337, 1964..

Shrand H: Treatment of lead poisoning with intramuscular edathamil calcium-disodium. Lancet 1:310, 1961.

Stankovic D and Keser-Stankovi, M: Effects of EDTA on liver and kidneys and protective effects of EDTA on these organs in animals treated with lead. Folia Med (14):101, 1979

Thatcher RW, Lester ML, McAlester R, Horst R: Effects of low levels of cadmium and lead on cognitive functioning in children. Arch Environ Health 37(3):159, 1982

Weeden RP, Mallik DK and Batitman V: Detection and treatment of occupational lead nephropathy. Arch Intern Med. (139); 53, 1979.

Weinig E and Schwerd W: Il Nocere! Hazards of treatment of lead poisoning with calcium versenate. 100:1788, 1958.

Whitaker JA, Austin W and Nelson JD: Edathamil calcium disodium (Versenate) diagnostic test for lead poisoning. Pediatrics 29:384, 1962.


Campbell JR, Clarkson TW, and Omar MD: The therapeutic use of 2,3-dimercaptopropne-1-sulfonate in two cases of inorganic mercury poisoning" J Am Med Assoc. 256:3127, 1988

Canty AJ, Kishimoto R: British anti-lewisite and organo mercury poisoning. Nature 253:123, 1972

Lund ME, Banner W Jr., Clarkson TW, and Berlin M: Treatment of acute methymercury ingestion by hemodialysis with N-acetylcysteine (Mucomyst) infusion and 2,3-dimercaptopropane sulfonate. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 22:31, 1984

Magos L, Webb M, and Hudson AR: Complex formation between selenium and methylmercury. Chem Biol Interact. 28(2-3):359, 1979 Dec.

Michael E. Godfrey, Damian P. Wojcik, Cheryl A. Krone. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Volume 5, Number 3 / 2003, 189 – 195

Mercury Detoxification of Autistic Children: Consensus Position 2001/jun/2/mercury_autism2.htm - 42k Pediatrics 1993Sep;92(3):464-5

CBER 2003 Thimerosal in vaccines.

Magos L. 2001. Review on toxicity of ethylmercury, including its presence as a preservative in biological and pharmaceutical products. Journal of Applied Toxicology. 21: 1-5.

Magos L. 2003. Neurotoxic character of thimerosal and the allometric extrapolation of adult clearance half-time to infants. Journal of Applied Toxicology 23: 263-9.

Statement from the Committee on Safety of Medicines – Further data support safety of thiomersal in vaccines. Feb 2003.

Hviid A, Stellfeld M, Wohlfahrt J and Melbye M. 2003. Association between thimerosal-containing vaccine and autism. JAMA 290: 1763-6.

Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Studies on autism http://www.cdc. gov/ nip/vacsafe/concerns/autism/autism-res-cdc.htm#Thimerosal and Risk of Autism.

Geier MR & Geier DA. 2003. Thimerosal in childhood vaccines, neurodevelopmental disorders, and heart disease in the United States. Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons.8(1):6-11.

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Theodoros N. Teknos, MD; et al.The Effect of Tetrathiomolybdate on Cytokine Expression, Angiogenesis, and Tumor Growth in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;131:204-211

Brewer GJ, Johnson V, Dick RD, Kluin KJ, Fink JK, Brunberg JA Treatment of Wilson disease with ammonium tetrathiomolybdate. II. Initial therapy in 33 neurologically affected patients and follow-up with zinc therapy. Arch Neurol. 1996 Oct;53(10):1017-25

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