Child development is



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CHILD DEVELOPMENT IS……

The study of how a child grows and develops, from conception to age 18



5 STAGES OF CHILD DEVELOPMENT

1. Infancy – birth to 12 months

2. Toddler – 12 months to 3 years

3. Preschool – 3 years to 6 years

4. Schoolage – 6 years to 12 years

5. Adolescents – 13 years to 18 years



GROWTH and DEVELOPMENT

Growth = a child’s physical increase in size or amount that is

easily observed

Development = The ability of a child to do things that are

complex and difficult

LAWS of GROWTH and DEVELOPMENT

1. Growth proceeds from head to foot

First infant lifts head to see object, later gains

muscle strength AND control to pick up an object, and

later learns to move toward the object.

2. Growth proceeds from near to far

First moves whole body, then it moves outward to arms, hands, and then fingers.

Waving “Hi” = First they learn to wave with arms, then wave with their hand and wrist, and then wave with fingers.

3. Growth proceeds form simple to complex

Sleep and eat, later babbles and eats with fingers.

First wave “Hi” and then say it
AREAS of DEVELOPMENT
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT

▪Developing and controlling gross and fine motor skills

▪The child’s physical growth in size and in proportion.

Gross motor = large muscles (lift head, roll, sit up, crawl, walk)

Fine motor = small muscles (hands and fingers)

▪Development is most rapid during the first three years.



COGNITIVE / INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT

▪The ability of the brain to take in and process information.

▪The people in the child’s environment are most important in

building / creating a strong learning environment.

▪ A child recognizing their name, recognizing their parent, language, recognizing that when he shakes a rattle it makes noise
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

▪A child learning and discovering the expectations and rules for

learning to get along with and understand others.

▪Moving from being egocentric (self-centered) to being able to

relate with others.

▪A child smiling at parent, child learning to share, imaginary friend


EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT

▪The ability to recognize and understand feelings and how to

respond to them appropriately.

▪Jealousy, being afraid, smile, laugh, sad, showing empathy


MORAL DEVELOPMENT

▪Identifying personal values and learning right from wrong

▪Respecting human rights, behaving accordingly, developing

principles to guide behavior, listening to their conscience

▪Being a good example is the best way to build a child’s conscience.


ERIK ERICKSON

The 8 Stages of man

Studied the stages of personality development throughout the life cycle.

This is always redeveloping itself. Each level defines a new social awareness and

interaction possible for the individual.
MEMORY JOGGER: ERICKSON = 8 letters for 8 stages of man (hold up 8 fingers)

Letter E = Erickson, Eight, Emotional

       = Emotions


1. Trust vs. Mistrust (Infancy)

The degree to which a child learns to trust or mistrust others.

Determined by the type and amount of care the child receives.
2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (2-4 years)

The degree to which a child is allowed and encouraged freedom and self-direction


3. Initiative vs. Guilt (4-6 years)

The degree to which a child is allowed control of his/her body, choices, fantasy, motor activities, and language activities.

Begins to develop social skills (cooperating, leading, following)
4. Industry vs. Inferiority (school age)

The degree to which they learn that work is worthwhile and meaningful.

They learn to discipline themselves and to get along with others
5. Identity vs. Role Confusion (Adolescence)

The degree and ability to which the individual can bring together all the things learned about him/herself and integrate these different roles into a whole that shows continuity with the past while preparing for the future.

Mature, view the world differently, establish identity, require good role models
6. Intimacy vs. Isolation (Young Adulthood)

The degree to which they can share with and care about another person without fear of losing oneself in the process.

Influences friendships, marriage, relationship with children, with own parents

Determines self-acceptance, a level of confidence, a feeling of being worthwhile.


7. Generativity vs. self-absorption (Adulthood)

The degree of concern for family and other people beyond the immediate family


8. Integrity vs. Despair (Aging)

The degree to which the individual can look back on their life with satisfaction and acceptance.



JEAN PIAGET

He Researched and defined the cognitive / Intellectual skills of

children and how they learn
MEMORY JOGGER: Notice his last name ends with “Get” and he taught how children GET SMART – point to head and say “Get smart”
4 Cognitive Stages
1. Sensorimotor (birth -2 years old)

MEMORY JOGGER: Stick out your tongue to help you

Children (babies) learn about and experience the world through their senses

(see, touch, hear, taste, and smell). This is why everything goes in their mouth.


2. Preoprational (2-7 years old)

MEMORY JOGGER: The word operate is part of Preoperational



and you Need smarts to OPERATE.

The child begins to form concepts (wondering about the reality of people like Santa Clause) and use symbols as words. This allows the child to communicate and gain language development

(police) (nike)  (no smoking) (bathroom)  (stop) M (McDonalds)
3. Concrete Operational (7-11 years old)

Children learn to reason and use simple deductive logic to arrive at conclusions.

The child is able to imagine what another person might be thinking or feeling,

therefore their thinking becomes more flexible.


4. Formal Operational (11 years old - adult)

Highest level of mental development-thinking abstractly.




ARNOLD GESELL
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT of CHILDREN

Came up with physical development age norms. (sit, stand, walk, …)

These standards are used today in medical profession to monitor.
LAWRENCE KOHLBERG
Moral Development of CHILDREN

MEMORY JOGGER: KO MO Dude



Knock Out is not a moral thing to do
1. Preconventional

Children begin life with no sense of right or wrong.

Learn quickly the certain behaviors are punished and others rewarded

Learn to avoid punishment and strive for behavior or acts rewarded


2. Conventional (about age 9)

Learn to behave according to a sense of what others need or want.

They follow established rules and respect authority

Begin to act in accordance with what is right and wrong.


3. Post Conventional (about age 16)

Mature morally.

Respect human rights and develop individual principles to guide their behavior and choices.

Their motivation to act a certain way comes from within, not just to follow the rules.


ABRAHAM MASLOW
Basic needs must be met at each level or there is no advancement.
MEMORY JOGGER:

Mas – LOW (get low in voice and in posture) HI -erarchy of needs (get high in voice and in posture)
1. Physiological Needs: air, food, drink, rest

2. Safety and Security: stability, freedom from fear and anxiety, weather

3. Love and Belonging: affection, intimacy from friends and family

4. Esteem needs: self-respect, respect for others, self-acceptance

5. Self-actualization: being able to think beyond one’s self, doing what one is suited for and capable of

doing. Doing one’s best.

FREUD
Three Theoretical Components of Personality:

ID – Pleasure Principle, ID wants whatever needs seem

satisfying and wants it now
EGO - Reality Principle, mediator between unbridles passions of

ID and the limits imposed by the real world and the

ideas of the SUPEREGO.
SUPEREGO- Right from Wrong principle. Like a conscience.

PSYCHO SEXUAL THEORY

Freud believed that how a child experienced various conflicts determined their personality.
1. ORAL (first 5 or 6 years)

Child activities and needs are dominated by the mouth.

Child learns to experience and know the world with the mouth
2. ANAL (first 5 or 6 years)

The anus is the focus of pleasurable sensations. Toilet training


3. Phalic (first 5 or 6 years)

Genitals are most important body part


4. Latency (ages 7-11)

Sexual needs are quiet or not important. Energy and interests are put into academic learning and extra-curricular activities.


5. Genital (adolescence and adulthood)

Genitals are focus of pleasurable sensation and individuals seek stimulation and satisfaction.

The biological function of the genitals is for reproduction.

Goal of healthy adult was to love and to work.



Freud

The first stage is the Oral Stage. It runs from birth to age 2. In the oral stage infants and toddler explored the world primarily with their most sensitive area, their mouths. They also learn to use their mouths to communicate. The next stage is the Anal Stage. In the anal stage, children learned to control the elimination of bodily wastes. The Phallic Stage (3-5 years of age) is probably the most controversial. The word phallic means penis-like. In this stage, children discover their sexual differences. The phallic stage is followed by a Latency Period in which little new development is observable. In this stage, boys play with boys, and girls with girls, typically. Sexual interest is low or non-existent. The final stage is the Genital Stage. It started around 12 years of age and ends with the climax of puberty. Sexual interests re-awaken at this time (there were sexual interests before, dormant and repressed from the phallic stage).



Structural Model (id, ego, superego)

  The Id The id is driven by the pleasure principle, which strives for immediate gratification of all desires, wants, and needs. If these needs are not satisfied immediately, the result is a state anxiety or tension. For example, an increase in hunger or thirst should produce an immediate attempt to eat or drink. The id is very important early in life, because it ensures that an infants needs are met. If the infant is hungry or uncomfortable, he or she will cry until the demands of the id are met.

However, immediately satisfying these needs is not always realistic or even possible. If we were ruled entirely by the pleasure principle, we might find ourselves grabbing things we want out of other people's hands to satisfy our own cravings. This sort of behavior would be both disruptive and socially unacceptable. According to Freud, the id tries to resolve the tension created by the pleasure principle through the primary process, which involves forming a mental image of the desired object as a way of satisfying the need.

The Ego The ego is the component of personality that is responsible for dealing with reality. According to Freud, the ego develops from the id and ensures that the impulses of the id can be expressed in a manner acceptable in the real world. The ego functions in both the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious mind.

The ego operates based on the reality principle, which strives to satisfy the id's desires in realistic and socially appropriate ways. The reality principle weighs the costs and benefits of an action before deciding to act upon or abandon impulses. In many cases, the id's impulses can be satisfied through a process of delayed gratification--the ego will eventually allow the behavior, but only in the appropriate time and place.

The ego also discharges tension created by unmet impulses through the secondary process, in which the ego tries to find an object in the real world that matches the mental image created by the id's primary process.

The Superego The last component of personality to develop is the superego. The superego is the aspect of personality that holds all of our internalized moral standards and ideals that we acquire from both parents and society--our sense of right and wrong. The superego provides guidelines for making judgments. According to Freud, the superego begins to emerge at around age five.

There are two parts of the superego:



  1. The ego ideal includes the rules and standards for good behaviors. These behaviors include those which are approved of by parental and other authority figures. Obeying these rules leads to feelings of pride, value, and accomplishment.

  2. The conscience includes information about things that are viewed as bad by parents and society. These behaviors are often forbidden and lead to bad consequences, punishments, or feelings of guilt and remorse.

The superego acts to perfect and civilize our behavior. It works to suppress all unacceptable urges of the id and struggles to make the ego act upon idealistic standards rather that upon realistic principles. The superego is present in the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious.

The Interaction of the Id, Ego, and Superego With so many competing forces, it is easy to see how conflict might arise between the id, ego, and superego. Freud used the term ego strength to refer to the ego's ability to function despite these dueling forces. A person with good ego strength is able to effectively manage these pressures, while those with too much or too little ego strength can become too unyielding or too disrupting.

According to Freud, the key to a healthy personality is a balance between the id, the ego, and the superego.

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