Cooljarloo west project flora and vegetation assessment


METHODS  3.1 PRELIMINARY



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3. METHODS 

3.1 PRELIMINARY 

MAPPING 

Aerial photography of the project area was initially interpreted at a scale of 1:10,000. 

Maps provided were overlain with information provided by various Department of 

Environment and Conservation (DEC) databases (DEC 2009c,d) including the 

Threatened (Declared Rare) Flora Database, WAHerb Database and Threatened 

Ecological Community (TEC) Database in addition to historical data provided by 

Woodman Environmental (2006a&b, 2007a&b, 2009) and Tiwest (2009). 

Woodman Environmental Consulting Pty Ltd 

 

13. 


Tiwest Pty Ltd 

 

Cooljarloo West Project Area 

 

 

Flora and Vegetation Assessment 

3.2 FIELD 

SURVEY 

Experienced botanists carried out the structural plant community mapping in November 

2008. Structural plant community mapping (no plots) was chosen over quadrat based 

floristic community mapping for the following reasons: 

 

1.

 



The mineral exploration will have a Low impact on the vegetation therefore only 

a Level 1 survey (EPA 2004) is required 

2.

 

Plotless mapping allows for more sample locations in less time than quadrat 



based studies making it ideal for assessing areas for species composition and 

finding uncommon taxa when compared to quadrat studies 

 

Plant collections were undertaken under the following licenses: 



 

 



Greg Woodman 

SL008043 

75-0708 (DRF)  

 



Bianca Taylor  

SL008044 

80-0708 (DRF) 

 



David Coultas  

SL008065 

79-0708 (DRF) 

 



Kylie Greenacre 

SL008064 

78-0708 (DRF) 

 



Brendan Stratton 

SL008068 

 

 

All areas surveyed were traversed by vehicle and on foot to map vegetation boundaries. 



Detailed recording sites were taken at each community boundary change and regularly 

within communities. At each site a standard recording sheet was used to ensure the 

consistent collection of flora and site data. At each site the following information was 

collected within a 20m radius: 

 



 



Site location (including GPS co-ordinates, GDA Zone 50); 

 



Surface soil type, colour and presence of outcropping; 

 



Position of site in the local landscape; 

 



Site condition, including fire history and presence of any disturbance (as defined 

by Bush Forever (Government of Western Australia 2000); 

 

Height and cover of any tree species present; 



 

Height and cover of dominant vascular understorey plant species present; 



 

Presence of any other vascular plant species, including significant species; and 



 

Vegetation structure (as defined by Muir (1977)). 



 

A total of 155 recording sites were established within the project area during 2008 

(Figure 1, 2). A historical summary of the sampling regimes used within the Cooljarloo 

West project area and Falcon project area during various surveys conducted by 

Woodman Environmental is provided in Table 3. 

Woodman Environmental Consulting Pty Ltd 

 

14. 


Tiwest Pty Ltd 

 

Cooljarloo West Project Area 

 

 

Flora and Vegetation Assessment 

 

Table 3: 

Summary of Sites and Quadrats Established Within the Cooljarloo 

West Project Area and Falcon Area During Various Studies 

Conducted by Woodman Environmental  

 

Project Area 

Sampling Regime 

Reference 

2008 Survey 

155 detailed recording sites 

Cooljarloo 



West 

Mullering Area 

131 detailed recording sites 

WEC 2006b 

37 detailed recording sites 

WEC 2006a 

Falcon 

96 quadrats



*# 

WEC 2007a, 2009 

*quadrats 10m x 10m 

#includes 16 regional quadrats 

 

An adaptation of the Muir (1977) classification of vegetation structure was used to 



describe the plant communities, as this has been used for the majority of historical 

vegetation studies in the region. This adaption utilises the vegetation classification 

system described in Table 1 in Muir (1977) and omits the use of floristic and soil codes 

which have been replaced by full Genus and Species labels in addition to descriptions of 

surface soils. 

 

Where possible, the conservation status of each plant community was determined by 



referring to available regional studies in addition to comparisons with the Threatened 

Ecological Community (TEC) database provided by the Department of Environment 

and Conservation (2009e). 

 

Specimens of all plant species that were not identifiable in the field were collected for 



identification at the Western Australian Herbarium (WAHerb).  Plant species 

nomenclature used in this report follows Packowska and Chapman (2000).  All names 

were checked using the Max Database to ensure their validity.  The conservation status 

of all species collected was checked using the current Department of Environment and 

Conservation list (DEC 2009f).  Conservation status code definitions are presented in 

Appendix A. 

 

All specimens of conservation significant species (including range extensions) collected 



from the project area will be submitted to the WAHerb upon completion of the project. 

 

4. RESULTS 



4.1 FLORA 

A total of 617 native plant taxa and 42 introduced (weed) taxa were recorded within the 

Cooljarloo West project area during studies conducted between 2005 and 2008. 

Collectively, a total of 657 native plant taxa and 49 introduced taxa have been recorded 

by Woodman Environmental during various studies conducted within Tiwest Cooljarloo 

leases (Appendix B).  

 

The Declared Plant (weed) Moraea flaccida (One-leaf Cape Tulip) was recorded at 3 



locations during the surveys. This species is listed as a P1 species, prohibiting the 

movement of plants, seeds and contaminated machinery within the state (DAF 2009).  



Woodman Environmental Consulting Pty Ltd 

 

15. 


Tiwest Pty Ltd 

 

Cooljarloo West Project Area 

 

 

Flora and Vegetation Assessment 

 

A total of 34 DRF and Priority Flora species were recorded during the surveys 



conducted within the Cooljarloo West project area by Woodman Environmental 

between 2005 and 2008. A summary of DRF and Priority Flora species recorded within 

the project area and Falcon area by Woodman Environmental in addition to data 

provided by Tiwest (2009) and the Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC 

2009c) is provided in Table 4.  Appendix A provides a description of conservation 

status codes (DEC 2009a).  

 

 

Woodman Environmental Consulting Pty Ltd 



 

16. 


Tiwest Pty Ltd 

 

Cooljarloo West Project Area 

 

 

Flora and Vegetation Assessment  

Table 

4: 

DRF and Priority Flora Species Recorded within the Project Area and Falcon Area during Surveys

Conducted by Woodman Environmental 2005- 2008 in Addition to Data Provided by Tiwest (2009) and the Department of 

Environment and Conservation (DEC 2009c) 

 

Species 

Conservation 

Status 

Falcon Area 

Cooljarloo West* 

No. of Locations

~

?Malleostemon sp. Cooljarloo (B. Backhouse s.n. 16/11/88) 

P1 

 

 



 

FCT5


-

1

Acacia benthamii 

P2   

 

 



-

H3

1



Andersonia gracilis 

DRF 


 

FCT1, 


FCT2, 

FCT3,


FCT5, FCT6 

H4, (H6), T4, (W3), (H5), 

(H7) 

>350 


Angianthus micropodioides 

P3 


 

FCT1, 


FCT2, 

FCT5


H1, 

H2, H4, S1, T4, T1, W1 

32 

Anigozanthos humilis subsp. chrysanthus 

P4 


 

H4 



1

Anigozanthos viridis subsp. terraspectans^ 

DRF 


 

FCT2, 


FCT5

H1, 


H4, (H5), (W3), W1, T4, 

W3/H4,  


36 

Arnocrinum gracillum 

P2   


 

 

-



W3

6

Baeckea sp. Perth Region (R.J. Cranfield 444) 

P3 

 

FCT2, 



FCT3, 

FCT5,


FCT11 

H4, T4, W1, W3, W7, H5, 

H4/T4, H4/W1 

58 


Banksia dallanneyi subsp. pollosta 

P3   


 

 

 



-

H4, W3


3

Banksia platycarpa 

P4 


 

FCT3, 


FCT5, 

FCT9a,


FCT11 

T4, T4, W3, W7 

160 

Beaufortia bicolor 

P3   


 

 

 



-

W3, H5


3

Beaufortia eriocephala 

P3   


 

 

-



H6

1

Calectasia palustris 

P1 

 

 



 

FCT3, 


FCT11

-

9



Chordifex chaunocoleus 

P4   


 

 

-



H4

5

Chordifex reseminans 

P1   

 

 



 

-

H4, H5



4

Conostephium magnum 

P4   


 

 

-



PP

1

Conospermum scaposum 

P3 

 

 



FCT5, 

FCT9a


H4, 

H5, W5, W7, T3, W3 

89 

Desmocladus biformis 

P3   


 

-

W3 



1

Eremophila glabra subsp. chlorella 

DRF 


(W3), H1, H4 



Eryngium pinnatifidum subsp. palustre 

P3   


 

 

 



-

H4, S1


3

Eucalyptus johnsoniana

#

DRF   


 

 

-



PP

1

Frankenia glomerata^ 

P3 



H1, H4, S1, T4 



13 

Grevillea thelemanniana subsp. Coojarloo (B.J. Keighery 28 B) 

P1 


 

FCT2, 


FCT3, 

FCT5


W1, (W3), T4/H4, H4, H3, 

T4, S1, T1, H1, T3, (H5) 

51 

Woodman Environmental Consulting Pty Ltd 

 

 17.


 

Tiwest Pty Ltd 

 

Cooljarloo West Project Area 

 

 

Flora and Vegetation Assessment  

Table 

4: 

DRF and Priority Flora Species Recorded within the Project Area and Falcon Area during Surveys

Conducted by Woodman Environmental 2005- 2008 in Addition to Data Provided by Tiwest (2009) and the Department of 

Environment and Conservation (DEC 2009c) 

 

Species 

Conservation 

Status 

Falcon Area 

Cooljarloo West* 

No. of Locations

~

Goodenia ?trichophylla 

P3   


 

 

 



-

W3, H5


2

Haloragis foliosa^ 

P3 


 

 

 



FCT3

T2d


2

Hensmania stoniella 

P3 


FCT5, FCT9a, FCT9b 

W3, T1 


112 

Hibbertia helianthemoides 

P3 


 

 

 



FCT5

-

2



Hypocalymma serrulatum 

P3 


 

 

 



FCT8, 

FCT11


-

6

Hypocalymma tetrapterum 

P3 

 

 



 

FCT5


-

6

Isopogon sp. Badgingarra (A.S. George 14200) 

P2 

 

FCT2, 



FCT3, 

FCT4,


FCT5, FCT9b, FCT11 

H4, T3, (W3), S1 

81 

Jacksonia carduacea 

P3 


FCT3, FCT5, FCT9a 

W3, H4 


24 

Lasiopetalum lineare 

P3 


FCT9a, FCT10 

H5, W3, W4 

70 

Lepidobolus densus ms 

P3 


 

 

 



FCT10

-

1



Leucopogon sp. Yanchep (M. Hislop 1986) 

P3   


 

 

-



W3/W5

1

Loxocarya gigas 

P2   

 

 



-

H4

1



Lyginia excelsa 

P1   


 

 

-



H4

1

Macarthuria keigheryi 

DRF 

FCT9a 


(H4), W3, W7, T4/H4, H5, T4 

154 


Melaleuca clavifolia^ 

P1 FCT3, 

FCT9a, 

FCT9b,


FCT10, FCT11 

 

H4, H5, H5, W3, W4, W5, 



W7, H7, W6, W3/W1, W3/H4 

584 


Meionectes tenuifolia 

P3   


 

-

H4 



2

Onychosepalum microcarpum 

P1   


 

 

 



-

H4, H5


8

Onychosepalum nodatum 

P3 


 

FCT2, 


FCT3, 

FCT5,


FCT9a 

H4, W3 


32 

Platysace ramosissima 

P3 FCT5, 

FCT9a, 

FCT9b 


H4, H5, W3 

97 


Schoenus griffinianus 

P3 


 

 

 



 

 

FCT9b



H4, W3

5

Schoenus natans 

P4   

 

 



-

W1

1



Schoenus pennisetis 

P1 


FCT5 

H5, H4, T1, T4 , W3 

29 

Stenanthemum sublineare 

P2   


 

 

-



W3

1

Stylidium hymenocraspedum ms^ 

P2 

FCT9a  


W3, S1 

13 


Stylidium aceratum 

P2   


 

 

-



T1

1

Woodman Environmental Consulting Pty Ltd 



 

 18.


 

Tiwest Pty Ltd 

 

Cooljarloo West Project Area 

 

 

Flora and Vegetation Assessment  

Table 

4: 

DRF and Priority Flora Species Recorded within the Project Area and Falcon Area during Surveys

Conducted by Woodman Environmental 2005- 2008 in Addition to Data Provided by Tiwest (2009) and the Department of 

Environment and Conservation (DEC 2009c) 

 

Species 

Conservation 

Status 

Falcon Area 

Cooljarloo West* 

No. of Locations

~

Stylidium longitubum 

P3 


S1, H1, W1, T4 



Thysanotus glaucus 

P4 


 

 

 



FCT9a

W3

5



Verticordia lindleyi subsp. lindleyi 

P4 FCT5, 

FCT9a, 

FCT9b 


H4, H5, W3 

26 


Verticordia amphigia 

P3   


-

T4/H4 


 

1

Villarsia submersa 

P4   

 

 



-

W1

1



*note brackets () indicate atypical habitats that are a product of edge effects of mosaic communities that were not mapped or historical data points collected when GPS datums were not as 

accurate (+/- 200m) in comparison with todays GPS datums (+/- 7m) 

^includes locations where species not positively identified ie Melaleuca ?clavifolia 

# the recording of Eucalyptus johnsoniana in the project area is erroneous. The latitude and longitude details for herbarium record PERTH 05220459 do not match the locality details 

(Tootbardie Rd) 

~locations refer to the number of GPS points within the database and are not related to number of plants

Woodman Environmental Consulting Pty Ltd 

 

 19.


 

Tiwest Pty Ltd 

 

Cooljarloo West Project Area 

 

 

Flora and Vegetation Assessment  

Andersonia gracilis (DRF) (Plate 1) is a straggly shrub to 0.5m with pink and purple 

flowers between September and November (DEC 2009f). It is known from 4 localities 

between Kojonup and Wongonderrah Rd, a range of approximately 360km. This 

species has been recorded within the Birdwhistle Nature Reserve and Wongonderrah 

Nature Reserve (DEC 2009g) and prefers winter wet habitats. A total of 137 locations 

of  Andersonia gracilis are found in the project area, within communities H4, H5, H6, 

H7, T4 and W3. 

 

 



 

Plate 1: 

Andersonia gracilis

 

photos by K. Atkins and M. Hislop

 

 

Anigozanthos viridis subsp. terraspectans (DRF) (Plate 2) is a perennial herb to 0.2m 

with green and yellow flowers between August and September (DEC 2009f). It is 

known from 11 localities between Boonanarring and Wongonderrah Rd, a range of 

approximately 80km. This species has been recorded within Reserve No. A40916 and 

prefers winter wet habitats (DEC 2009g). A total of 25 locations of Anigozanthos viridis 

subsp. terraspectans are found in the project area, within communities H1, H4, H5, T4, 

W1,W3 and W3/H4. 

 

 

Woodman Environmental Consulting Pty Ltd 



 

20.


Tiwest Pty Ltd 

 

Cooljarloo West Project Area 

 

 

Flora and Vegetation Assessment  

 

 



Plate 2: 

Anigozanthos viridis 

subsp.

 terraspectans

 

photo by B. and B. Wells

 

 

Macarthuria keigheryi (DRF) (Plate 3) is a perennial herb to 0.2m with green and white 

flowers between September and March (DEC 2009f). It is known from 7 localities 

between Perth and Wongonderrah Rd, a range of approximately 165km (DEC 2009g). 

This species has not been recorded within secure tenure within the conservation estate. 

Macarthuria keigheryi is a short lived (<5 years) disturbance opportunist that 

regenerates after fire from rootstock and seed stored in the topsoil. A total of 130 

locations of Macarthuria keigheryi are found in the project area, within communities 

H4, T4, T4/H4,W3 and W7. 

 

 

 



Plate 3: 

Macarthuria keigheryi

 

photos by G. Keighery 

 

Eremophila glabra subsp. chlorella (DRF) (Plate 4) is a sprawling shrub to 1m with 

green and yellow flowers between July and November (DEC 2009f). It is known from 8 

localities between Quairading and Arrowsmith River, a range of approximately 340km 

(DEC 2009g). This species has been recorded within Reserve No. C971 and Mogumber 

Woodman Environmental Consulting Pty Ltd 

 

21.


Tiwest Pty Ltd 

 

Cooljarloo West Project Area 

 

 

Flora and Vegetation Assessment  

Nature Reserve and prefers clay soils within winter-wet habitats. A total of 4 locations 

of Eremophila glabra subsp. chlorella are found in the project area within communities 

H1, H4 and W3. 

 

 

 



Plate 4: 

Eremophila glabra 

subsp.

 chlorella

 

photos by A. Brown 

 

A number of poorly known taxa and range extensions were recorded within the project 



area (Table 5) 

 

Table 5: 



Poorly Known Taxa and Range Extensions Recorded within the 

Cooljarloo West Project Area 

 



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