Cooljarloo west project flora and vegetation assessment


Table 7:  Hectares Calculated for Each Community Recorded Within the



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Table 7: 

Hectares Calculated for Each Community Recorded Within the 

Cooljarloo West Project Area 

 

Plant Community 

No.  of Hectares* 

Located Within Reserve 

No. A40916 

W8 11.6 


no 

T5 17.2 


no 

H6 19.7 


no 

H7 19.7 


yes 

T3 19.9 


no 

F1 20.6 


no 

W4 23.6 


yes 

W6 24.4 


no 

T2 31.1 


no 

W7 44.4 


yes 

W2 60.7 


no 

H2 133.7 

no 

H1 179.5 



no 

T1 224.9 

no 

W1 240.5 



yes 

T4 343.5 

yes 

S1 455.8 



no 

W5 502.9 

no 

H3 1067.6 



no 

H5 1242.2 

yes 

H4 4829.6 



yes 

W3 13896.8 

yes 

 

 * does not include disturbed vegetation or mosaics 



 

The dominant plant communities recorded throughout the project area were H4 and W3. 

These communities are predominantly associated with the Bassendean System (Figure 

5) and are distributed throughout the Cooljarloo West and Falcon areas. 

 

The most restricted plant communities recorded were W8 and T5. Community W8 is 



associated with the lower slopes of dunes and may potentially occur further south 

within the Jurien System. Community T5 is located within the Bassendean System 

within Cooljarloo Swamp. This community was mapped at a single location and may 

potentially be restricted.  Community W4 was generally found in swale areas, however 

one occurrence adjacent to Woolka Rd was recorded on a low rise. The presence of 

Eucalyptus rudis and Melaleuca rhaphiophylla within this site is indicative of an 

underground mound spring. Structurally, this site is similar to other occurrences of W4 

mapped within swale areas and has been mapped as such. However, quadrat based 

studies may further delineate this occurrence from community W4, potentially 

representing a restricted community. 

 

 



 

 

 



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Tiwest Pty Ltd 

 

Cooljarloo West Project Area 

 

 

Flora and Vegetation Assessment  

Cooljarloo Spring (location 346029mE 6607267mN) is a potential Groundwater 

Dependant Ecosystem as defined by the Hydrogeological Record Series (Department of 

Environment 2005). The watertable is very close to the surface and recharge is via 

direct infiltration of rainfall through Guildford Sands. This site corresponds with 

Community H1 mapped immediately south of the private property (Duffy).  



4.2.3

 

Threatened Ecological Communities 

There are no Threatened Ecological Communities (TECs) known from within the 

project area (DEC 2009d).  None of the plant communities recorded correspond with 

listed TECs as defined by the Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC 

2009e). 

 

Community T5 may be similar to the Priority Ecological Community (PEC) ‘Priority 1– 



‘Claypans with mid dense shrublands of Melaleuca lateritia over herbs’. This claypan 

community is characterised by the presence of Eleocharis keigheryi (DRF) and 



Hydrocotyle lemnoides (P4) in addition to a number of amphibious taxa (Glossostigma 

diandrum,  Villarsia capitata). These species were not recorded within community T5 

however this community was only represented by one detailed recording site. 

Additional surveys would be required to determine whether this community represents a 

PEC. This could be further defined during potential quadrat based studies within the 

Cooljarloo West area. 

  

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Cooljarloo West Project Area 

 

 

Flora and Vegetation Assessment  

5.   RISK ASSESSMENT FOR FUTURE EXPLORATION 

DRILLING PROGRAMS 

5.1 FLORA 

 

5.1.1  Declared Rare Flora (DRF)  

 

Proposed drilling programs within the Falcon and Cooljarloo West leases have the 



potential to impact four DRF species, Andersonia gracilis, Anigozanthos viridis subsp. 

terraspectans,  Eremophila glabra subsp.  chlorella and Macarthuria keigheryi. These 

species and their potential habitats are summarised in Table 8. 

 

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Cooljarloo West Project Area 

 

 

Flora and Vegetation Assessment  

 

 



Table 8: 

DRF Species Located Within the Falcon and Cooljarloo West Leases 

 

Community Types Where 

Recorded* 

Species 

Falcon Area 

Cooljarloo 

West 

EPBC Act 1999 

Rank 

Comments 

Andersonia gracilis 

FCT1, FCT2, 

FCT3, FCT5 

H4, T4 


Endangered 

Drill lines within these communities will require surveying in accordance with the 



Wildlife Conservation Act 1950. There is likely to be sufficient local data to support 

a ‘Permit to Take’ for this species. Surveys may be conducted out of Spring however 

this species is best recognised when in flower between Sept-Nov. 

Eremophila glabra 

subsp. chlorella 

 

 



 

H1, H4


-

Drill lines within these communities will require surveying in accordance with the 



Wildlife Conservation Act 1950. This species is taxonomically recognisable 

throughout the year and is considered uncommon in the local area, occurring in 

isolated small populations. Due to the small number of plants known in the local area 

and limited regional data available, a ‘Permit to Take’ for this species will require 

extensive regional surveys. 

Anigozanthos viridis 

subsp. terraspectans 

FCT2, FCT5 

H1, H4, W1, 

T4, W3/H4 

Vulnerable 

Drill lines within these communities will require surveying in accordance with the 

Wildlife Conservation Act 1950. This species survives as seed in the topsoil and 

germinates post fire, with leaves senescing over the summer period. Areas of habitat 

that have not been burnt recently (<3years) are unlikely to have populations above 

ground.  This species is difficult to distinguish from other species within the ‘viridis’ 

group  without collections within the flowering period (August to November).  There 

is limited local and regional data available for this species – a ‘Permit to Take’ will 

require additional regional surveys. 

Macarthuria keigheryi  FCT9a 

W3, W7, H5,  

H4 

Endangered 



Drill lines within these communities will require surveying in accordance with the 

Wildlife Conservation Act 1950. This species survives as seed in the topsoil and 

germinates post fire. It is a perennial herb that will die back for a short period of time 

over the summer period (late January to February) and survive as rootstock. Areas of 

habitat that have not been burnt recently (<3years) are unlikely to have significant 

populations above ground. 

* only includes typical habitats

 

 

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Cooljarloo West Project Area 

 

 

Flora and Vegetation Assessment  

5.1.2  Priority Flora Species 

 

A total of 48 Priority Flora species are known from the Falcon and Cooljarloo West 



leases (Appendix E).  The majority of these species have large ranges, extensive 

habitats and populations located in secure tenure within the Conservation Estate. With 

these factors in consideration, it is anticipated that proposed drilling programs will have 

minimal impact on the local distributions of these species due to the linear nature of the 

disturbance proposed and minimal disturbance to the topsoil - full clearing of vegetation 

will not be required as drill rigs and associated vehicles drive over existing low 

vegetation and avoid trees. Occasionally a rubber tyred loader will be used to flatten 

vegetation for vehicle access where it is too high or thick for light vehicles and drill rigs 

to drive over.  

 

A number of these species are considered to be poorly known (particularly in the 



Cooljarloo area) or have restricted ranges (Table 9). It is recommended that the 

locations of these species will be avoided during drilling operations until further 

population data becomes available. 

 

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Cooljarloo West Project Area 

 

 

Flora and Vegetation Assessment  

Table 9: 

Poorly Known Priority Flora Species Located Within the Falcon and 

Cooljarloo West Leases 

 

Species 



No. 

Locations  

Community 

Types Where 

Recorded 

Comments 

Recommendations 

?Malleostemon 

sp. Cooljarloo 

(B.Backhouse 

s.n. 16/11/88) 

P1 


1 FCT5 

Species not found 

regionally in secure tenure 

and has a restricted range 

(30km), only known from 

1 location within the 

Falcon Lease 

Species is located outside of 

proposed drawdown and clearing 

areas in Falcon. Proposed drilling 

should avoid this location and the 

immediate habitat (buffer 100m) 

until further population data is 

available (337473mE 6617963mN) 



Chordifex 

reseminans  P1 

4 H4, 


H5 

Only 4 regional localities 

known for this species. Is 

likely to be uncommon 

within the Cooljarloo area 

Proposed drilling should avoid these 

locations and the immediate habitat 

(buffer 100m) until further 

population data is available: 

338499mE 6614214mN 

337759mE 6614034mN 

344789mE 6605146mN 

344431mE 6603065mN 

Lepidobolus 

densus P3 

1 FCT10 


Although this species has 

a large range, this record 

represents a locality hole 

(50km) for its distribution 

and habitat may be 

uncommon in the Falcon 

area 

Proposed drilling should avoid this 



location and the immediate habitat 

(buffer 100m) until further 

population data is available 

(338740mE 6618483mN) 



Lyginia excelsa 

P1 


1 H4 

This species has a very 

restricted range (15km) 

and is known from only 2 

regional localities. 

Proposed drilling should avoid this 

location and the immediate habitat 

(buffer 100m) until further 

population data is available 

(338117mE 6609508mN) 



Stylidium 

aceratum P2 

1 T1 


Collection previously only 

known from 1 locality 

north of Perth and 

represents a 100km range 

extension. Collection has 

been confirmed by 2 x 

taxonomic specialists 

working on the Stylidium 

group.  The specimen is a 

little unusual in form and 

has been lodged at the 

WAHerb. 


Proposed drilling should avoid this 

location and the immediate habitat 

until further population data is 

available (338649mE 6612700mN) 

 

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Cooljarloo West Project Area 

 

 

Flora and Vegetation Assessment  

5.2

 

VEGETATION 

 

A total of 11 plant communities recorded in the Cooljarloo West area occupy less than 



50ha and are potentially restricted (Table 10). 

 

Table 10: 

Plant Communities within the Cooljarloo West Project Area with 

<50ha Distribution 

 

Plant 

Community 

No.  of 

Hectares* 

Comments 

Recommendations 

Located 

Within 

Reserve 

No. A40916

W8 11.6 


very small representation 

within project area, 

possibly located further 

south within the Jurien 

System 

drilling operations should 



avoid community 

no 


T5 17.2 

may represent a PEC and 

has very small 

representation within 

project area 

drilling operations should 

avoid community, additional 

survey required within 

community before any 

proposed impacts to discern 

whether represents a PEC 

no 


H6 19.7 

very small representation 

within project area 

drilling operations should 

avoid community 

no 


H7 19.7 

very small representation 

within project area 

drilling operations should 

avoid community 

yes 


T3 19.9 

very small representation 

within project area 

drilling operations should 

avoid community 

no 


F1 20.6 

small representation within 

project area 

drilling operations should 

avoid community 

no 


W4 23.6 

small representation within 

project area, the 

occurrence adjacent to 

Woolka Rd within 

Mullering is likely to be 

associated with an 

underground mound spring 

and is considered to be 

significant 

drilling operations should 

avoid community 

yes 

W6 24.4 


community represented 

beyond project area (see 

WB 2003, Mattiske 1996, 

1997)  


No requirement to avoid 

community 

no 

T2 31.1 


small representation within 

project area 

drilling operations should 

avoid community 

no 

W7 44.4 


likely to be more 

widespread throughout the 

project area forming 

mosaics between dry 

woodland communities 

and water gaining areas 

there is no requirement for 

drilling operations to avoid the 

mapped locations of this 

community, however note that 

this community will require 

searching for DRF species 

(see Table 8) 

yes 


* does not include disturbed vegetation or mosaics 

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Cooljarloo West Project Area 

 

 

Flora and Vegetation Assessment  

5.3

 

SUMMARY OF POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF DRILLING 

PROGRAMS 

 

A summary of each FCT and plant community recorded in the Falcon and Cooljarloo 

West project areas is provided in Table 11.  This will assist in the development of Risk 

Management Plans for future proposed drilling programs. Shaded areas within the table 

denote wetland communities that should be avoided where possible to minimise erosion 

impacts and disruptions to local drainage patterns. 

 

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Cooljarloo West Project Area 

 

 

Flora and Vegetation Assessment  

Table 11: 

FCT and Plant Communities within the Falcon and Cooljarloo 

Leases Requiring Additional Survey or Avoidance during Exploration 

Drilling 

 

FCT/Plant 



Community 

Environmental Issues 

Comments 

W1 


habitat for DRF (Avt) 

requires survey 

W2 

none 


W3 


habitat for DRF (Mk) 

requires survey 

W4 

represented by <50ha 



avoid community 

W5 


none - 

W6 


represented by <50ha 

avoid community 

W7 

habitat for DRF (Mk) 



requires survey 

W8 


represented by <50ha 

avoid community 

T1 

none 


T2 


represented by <50ha 

avoid community 

T3 

represented by <50ha 



avoid community 

T4 


habitat for DRF (Ag, Avt) 

requires survey 

T5 

represented by <50ha 



avoid community 

S1 


none 

H1 



habitat for DRF (Egc, Avt) 

requires survey 

H2 

none 


H3 


none - 

H4 


habitat for DRF (Ag, Avt, Mk) 

requires survey 

H5 

habitat for DRF (Mk) 



requires survey 

H6 


represented by <50ha 

avoid community 

H7 

represented by <50ha 



avoid community 

F1 


represented by <50ha 

avoid community 

FCT1 

habitat for DRF (Ag) 



represented by <50ha 

avoid community 

FCT2 

habitat for DRF (Ag, Avt) 



requires survey 

FCT3 


habitat for DRF (Ag) 

requires survey 

FCT4 

none 


FCT5 


habitat for DRF (Ag, Avt) 

requires survey 

FCT6 

represented by <50ha 



avoid community 

FCT7 


represented by <50ha 

avoid community 

FCT8 

none 


FCT9a 


habitat for DRF (Mk) 

requires survey 

FCT9b 

represented by <50ha, however community likely to more extensive 



throughout Cooljarloo West area in mosaics between wet and dry 

communities  

FCT10 


represented by <50ha however similar communities represented 

beyond project area (see WB 2003, Mattiske 1996, 1997) 

FCT11 


none - 

note: Ag denotes Andersonia gracilis, Egc; Eremophila glabra subsp. chlorella, Mk; Macarthuria keigheryi and Avt; 



Anigozanthos viridis subsp. terraspectans 

note: shading denotes wetlands 



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Flora and Vegetation Assessment  

6. 

DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 

6.1 

POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF EXPLORATION DRILLING 

Exploration drilling within the Falcon and Cooljarloo West project areas have the 

potential to adversely impact flora and vegetation. Potential impacts include: 

 



 

Disturbance to plant communities. Full clearing of vegetation will not be required 

along exploration drill lines as drill rigs and associated vehicles drive over existing 

low vegetation and avoid trees. Occasionally a rubber tyred loader will be used to 

flatten vegetation for vehicle access where it is too high or thick for light vehicles 

and drill rigs to drive over.  

 



 



Loss of individuals of significant flora species. There are a number of Declared Rare 

and Priority Flora species that may potentially be located within areas to be 

disturbed 

 



 

Risk of fire – Vehicle movement and machinery operation has the potential to cause 

fires in densely vegetated areas 

 



 

Negative impacts to conservation values of reserves – Part of the project area is 

located within Reserve No. A40916. Introduction of weeds or plant diseases, or 

ignition of a wildfire during drilling activities could impact the conservation value 

of the reserve. 

 



 

Potential introduction and spread of weeds and plant diseases such as P. cinnamomi 

by ground disturbance activities and vehicle traffic. 

 



 

Indirect impacts – Ground disturbance activities may impact surface drainage 

patterns and cause drainage shadows or ponding, impacting on the health of the 

flora 


 

6.2 RECOMMENDATIONS 

The following recommendations are made based on the results of the flora and 

vegetation surveys and are relevant for future works within the Falcon and Cooljarloo 

West project areas: 

 



 



Where possible all wetlands should be avoided (Table 11) to minimise erosion 

impacts and disturbances to local drainage patterns. 

 

Where possible, proposed drilling programs should utilise existing cleared access 



tracks to minimise clearing 

 



Proposed drilling programs should avoid all known locations of DRF species (Table 

8) and poorly known significant flora species (Table 9). 



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Cooljarloo West Project Area 

 

 

Flora and Vegetation Assessment  

 



Potential impacts to DRF species Macarthuria keigheryi and Andersonia gracilis 

may be supported with a ‘Permit to Take’ application. 

 

Potential impacts to DRF species Anigozanthos viridis subsp. terraspectans and 



Eremophila glabra subsp.  chlorella may require regional surveys to collect 

population data to support a’Permit to Take’ application. 

 

Proposed drilling programs should consider the framework summarised in Table 11 



for impacts to FCTs and plant communities recorded in the Falcon and Cooljarloo 

West project areas. This identifies communities requiring avoidance or additional 

survey to appropriately manage impacts to restricted (<50ha) communities and DRF 

species. 

 

Weed and P. cinnamomi hygiene measures in the form of an integrated hygiene 



management plan for proposed drilling programs should be implemented.  

 



Quadrat based floristic assessments should be conducted if proposed drilling 

programs identify viable orebodies for mining. This will provide the appropriate 

level of investigation and regional context to support an impact assessment under 

the Environmental Protection Act 1986

 

 

 



 

 

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