Courtship Display and Feeding Behavior of Mountain Hawk-Eagle



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赫氏角鷹的求偶與育雛行為

Courtship Display and Feeding Behavior of Mountain Hawk-Eagle




研究生:蔡偉勛 Tsai, Wei-Hsun


指導教授:孫元勳 Sun, Yuan-Hsun

摘要

赫氏角鷹(Spizaetus nipalensis)是台灣瀕臨絕種猛禽,有關牠的繁殖習性一直很欠缺。2006年8月到2007年1月,我們在延平林道以相機記錄其數量和觀察其求偶行為,在2007年4~5月觀察赫氏角鷹的育雛行為,分析其帶回的獵物及新鮮巢材的種類、時間和次數。

延平林道赫氏角鷹在12月時開始出現求偶展示行為。4月11和16日各在枋山溪上游(海拔750 m)加拉坂溪(海拔440 m)找到一個巢,巢樹皆為灰背櫟(Cyclobalanopsis hypophaea),樹高17 、23 m。巢內各有1隻雛鷹,對照日本亞種的資料,推估其日齡各約51、43日,據此回推其下蛋日各在1月7、21日左右,孵化日約在2月21日、3月4日;此二巢的雛鷹各在5月5、日9離巢,雛鷹期各為74、65天。加拉坂巢赫氏角鷹的獵物組成依序是大赤鼯鼠(Petaurista petaurista grandis)(12隻,33.3%),赤腹松鼠(Callosciurus erythraeus) (9隻,25%),斯文豪氏攀蜥(Japalura swinhonis)(4隻,11.11%),白面鼯鼠(Petaurista alborufus lena) (2隻,5.56%)和藍腹鷴(Lophera swinhoii)(2隻,5.56%),深山竹雞(Arborophila crudigularis)、台灣獼猴(Macaca cyclopis)、台灣藍鵲(Urocissa caerulea)、黃嘴角鴞(Otus spilocephalus)和不明蛇類,均為1隻(2.78%),不明種類的有2隻(5.56%)。枋山巢赫氏角鷹的獵物組成則依序是大赤鼯鼠 (8隻,28.57%),赤腹松鼠 (7隻,25%),白面鼯鼠 (3隻,10.71%)、藍腹鷴 (3隻,10.71%),深山竹雞 (2隻,7.14%),鼬獾(Melogale moschata subaurantiaca)、斯文豪氏攀蜥、黃嘴角鴞、褐鷹鴞(Ninox scutulata)和紅竹蛇(Elaphe poryphyracea),各為1隻(3.57%)。兩巢的獵物剛好都是4種哺乳類、4種鳥類和2種爬蟲類。

兩巢親鳥一天中最多各帶4次食物回巢,有時沒有帶回任何食物,餵食均由母鳥負責。加拉坂巢親鳥上、下午各帶回18次,枋山巢親鳥上、下午各帶回20、8次。加拉坂巢、枋山巢親鳥帶回大赤鼯鼠的隻數各在16時(4隻)、15時(3隻)最多,其它時段在1隻以下。兩巢親鳥各在8、9時帶回3、2隻赤腹松鼠,其它時段在1隻以下,上午多於下午。獵物藍腹鷴多在上午被帶回。

新鮮巢材也是由母鳥帶回,種類有灰背櫟、尾葉灰木(Symplocos caudata)、森氏紅淡比(Cleyera japonica)、細脈赤楠(Syzygium euphlebium)、錐果櫟(Quercus longinux)。帶回新鮮巢材的高峰時間是在8~11時。

關鍵字:繁殖、赫氏角鷹、食性、警戒、新鮮巢材

Abstract

Knowledge on the breeding biology of Mountain hawk-eagle(Spizaetus nipalensis), an endangered raptor, has been lacking in Taiwan. From August 2006 to January 2007, study was conducted to record the species’ number by camera and to observe its courtship display at the same time along the Yanping Forest Service Road. In addition, feeding behaviors of two pairs of hawk-Eagles were recorded in April-May 2007.

Results showed courtship display began in December. One nest was located at Fenshan (750 m a.s.l.) and Jialuoban (400 m a.s.l.) on April 11th and 16th, respectively. Both nests were built on Grey-dorsal oaks (Cyclobalanopsis hypophaea), 17 and 23 m in height, respectively. Each nest had one nestling, estimated 51 and 43 days old, based on the appearance and nestling growth pattern of the Japanese race (S. n. orientalis). Estimated laying dates were on 7th and 21st January and hatching date on 21st February and 4th March, respectively. The two young left the nest on 5th and 9th May, 65 and 74 days after hatching, respectively.

In sequence, prey taken by the Jialuoban birds consisted of Formosan giant flying squirrels (SquirrelPetaurista petaurista) (12 individuals, 33.3%), and Red-bellied tree squirrels (Callosciurus erythraeus) (9, 25%), Swinhoe's japaluras (Japalura swinhonis) (4, 11.11%), White-faced flying squirrels (Petaurista alborufus lena) (2, 5.56%), Swinhoe's pheasants (Lophera swinhoii) (2, 5.56%), and a Formosan hill partridge (Arborophila crudigularis) (1, 2.78%), a Formosan rock-monkey (Macaca cyclopis) (1, 2.78%), a Formosan blue magpie (Urocissa caerulea) (1, 2.78%), and a Mountain scopes owl (Otus spilocephalus) (1, 2.78%) . While that of the Fenshan nest were Formosan giant flying squirrels (8, 28.57%), Red-bellied tree squirrels (7, 25%), White-faced flying squirrels (3, 10.7%), Swinhoe's pheasants (3, 10.7%), Formosan hill partridges (2, 7.14%), a Formosan ferret-badger (Melogale moschata subaurantiaca) (1, 13.5%) , a Swinhoe's japalura (1, 13.5%), a Brown hawk owl (Ninox scutulata) (1, 13.5%), and a Red bamboo snake (Elaphe poryphyracea) (1, 13.5%). In all, prey species taken by both nests consisted of four species of mammals, four species of birds, and two species of reptiles.

Number of feeding trips ranged ≤4 times a day for each nest. Feeding was made exclusively by the female. With respect to time of day, equal numbers of prey, 18, were brought to the nest in the morning and afternoon for Jialuoban young, while more prey were taken to the nest in the morning (20) than in the afternoon (8) for Fenshan. The number of Formosan giant flying squirrels delivered to the nest was four at 16:00 (Jialuoban) and three at 15:00 (Fenshan), that of the remaining hours was ≤2 individuals; overall, there were more squirrels brought to the nest in the morning, which was same for the Swinhoe's pheasant.



During the nestling period, five green nest materials, including grey-dorsal oak, Symplocos caudata, Mori cleyera (Cleyera japonica), beautiful nerve Eugenia (Syzygium euphlebium), and long-glans oak (Quercus longinux) were brought back to the nest exclusively by female. Most nest materials were delivered to the nest at 08:00-11:00.

Key words: breeding, food habit, green nest material, mountain hawk-eagle, nest defense

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