Maiden, J. H. (Joseph Henry) (1859-1925)
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Prepared from the print edition of Parts 51-60 Critical revision of the genus
eucalyptus, published by William Applegate Gullick Sydney 1924. 610pp.
All quotation marks are retained as data.
First Published: 1924
583.42 Australian Etext Collections at botany prose nonfiction 1910-1939
South Wales and Director of the Botanic Gardens, Sydney)
Macaulay's “Essay on Milton”
In Journ. Roy. Soc. N. S. W., xlix, 312 (1915).
FOLLOWING is the original description :—
Arbuscula gracilis nunc 10 feet alta, erecta, cortice longis tenuibus lamellis
secedente. Ramulis glaucis, plerumque subteretibus sed ultimus ramulis
angulatiusculis. Foliis maturis obscuro-viridibus, rigidissimis petiolatis (petiolis 1–
5 cm.) lanceolatis, paullo falcatis usque ad 8 cm. longis et 2 vel 3 cm. altis. Venis
plurimis. Umbellis usque ad 7 capitulo, pedunculis 1 cm. pedicellis dimidio
aequilongis. Operculo fere hemisphaerico, umbonato, plus dimido cupula
aequilongo. Cupula conoidea plerumque 2-angulata. Antheris amplis, paralleliter
aperientibus, glandula dorsum fere adhaerente. Fructibus subcylindroideis, maturis
A specimine culta solum nota.
A slender young tree, 10 feet or more high, at the present time, erect in habit, the
bark falling off in long thin flakes (ribbons).
Glaucous, branchlets generally round, though ultimate branchlets somewhat
Juvenile leaves.— Not available.
Mature leaves.— Dull green, of the same colour on both sides, rather rigid,
petiolate (petioles 1–1
5 cm.), lanceolate, only slightly falcate, up to 8 cm. long and
angle to the midrib. Venation not very prominent, the leaves covered with oil-dots,
and evidently rich in oil.
Flowers.— Very floriferous, umbels leaf-opposed to the last leaf, the umbels up
to seven in the head, with peduncles of 1 cm. and pedicels of half that length. The
operculum pointed when half ripe, but when ripe nearly hemispherical and with an
umbo, rather longer than half the length of the calyx tube, which is conoid, has
(usually) two angles, and tapers into the distinct pedicel.
Filaments pale yellow or cream-coloured, which dry orange-red and exhibit a
pretty contrast with the cream-coloured anthers. Anthers large, creamy-white,
opening in parallel slits, the gland nearly filling up the back, and the filament
attached almost at the base.
Fruits.—Subcylindroid, but not seen ripe. Thin, defined rim. The tips of the
valves, now represented by a persistent style and unexpended stigma, will, when
ripe, probably become awl-like and will protrude beyond the orifice, in this respect
I name this plant in memory of Mr. Sheath, a first-class horticulturist, who was
keen on the cultivation of native plants.
In April, 1917, I received spontaneously grown specimens from Dr. F. Stoward,
who described it as “A Mallee, 15–20 feet high and 1 foot or more at some distance
from the ground. Bark rough on old trees, smooth on saplings.”
Known only from a cultivated specimen in the King's Park, Perth, Western
Australia. (The late Mr. J. Sheath, Superintendent up to 1913.) Mr. Sheath informed
me that he received the seed from “the Eastern Gold-fields, near the South
Australian border” (of Western Australia). He further informed me that it had been
sent to him as E. erythronema. I have received additional specimens from the same
plant from Mr. Sidney William Jackson, of Sydney, and from Dr. F. Stoward,
Government Botanist of Western Australia, whose attention I had invited to the
plant. (Original description.)
In April, 1917, I received flowering twigs, still without juvenile foliage and
perfectly ripe fruit, from the Kunonoppin district, “grows on various classes of
soil” (Dr. F. Stoward, No. 145). Kunonoppin is a railway station 174 miles from
Perth in an easterly direction, on the Northam-Merredin railway line, and this will
give a clue to the locality of the species. I trust that our Western Australian friends
will soon be able to secure adequate material.
This species belongs to the Macrantheroe, of which there are many members, and,
in the absence of ripe fruits, I hesitate to indicate any close affinities. I am very
anxious to get seeds.
In Journ. W. A. Nat. Hist. Soc., i, 20 (May, 1904).
Following is the original description:—
Arborescent, attaining a height of 40–50 feet or more with a stem diameter of 11/2
feet; bark dark grey, moderately thick, rough, persistent on the lower portion of the
trunk, upwards thin and decorticating in small sheets, that on the cylindrical
branches and branchlets whitish and smooth. Leaves alternate, conspicuously
petiolate, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, straight or falcate, shortly acuminate, thick,
almost coriaceous, 3–6 inches long, veins numerous, very fine, divergent,
circumferential one close to the edge, dull-greyish on both sides. Peduncles axillary
or lateral, solitary, or forming short terminal panicles through leaf-suppression,
terete or hardly angular, erect or spreading, 1/2–3/4 inch long, each bearing an
umbel 6–8 moderate-sized flowers. Calyx-tube turbinate, in bud above 3 lines long,
smooth or scarcely striate, tapering into a short pedicel, lid hemispherical,
terminating in a straight obtuse beak, broader than and as long as or longer than the
tube, with 10–15 longitudinal raised lines; stamens pale-coloured, inflected in the
bud; anthers broadly oblong, with parallel distinct cells. Ovary shortly conical in the
centre. Fruit obovoid, about 5 lines long, 3–31/2 lines across, faintly and irregularly
striate, slightly or not at all contracted at the summit, border thin, concave; valves
usually 4, subulate, the points included. Seeds brown, irregular, without
appendages, fertile ones 1 line long, 3/4 line broad, sterile, about as long as broad.
In the same Journal, iii (January, 1911), I wrote:—
I found this species at Milly's Soak, near Cue, one of the type localities, and
following are the notes taken by me on the spot:
E. striaticalyx is far less numerous than E. microtheca, and is on the edge of the
microtheca belt. Called “York Gum” by local people, but they are free-and-easy
with their names for trees. It was plentiful on a donga. Stumps are now seen 12–18
inches in diameter between Milly's Soak and Jack's Well, and it was formerly
extensively cut for firewood, but the neighbourhood of Milly was made a recreation
reserve and the remaining trees were saved.
Tree of 30–40 feet. Bark dark grey or blackish, flaky, thin, yellow inside, covering
the whole of the trunk and part of the branches.
Timber very hard, pinky pale brown or pale brown when fresh. Rather erect in
habit. Would be called a Black Box in Eastern Australia. Neither Mr. Fitzgerald nor
I found flowers, but I collected timber and juvenile leaves, which he did not.
Milly's Soak, and about 4 miles east of Nannine, September,. 1903 (W. V.
Fitzgerald). The localities are in the Murchison district of Western Australia.
So far as observed, the new plant is confined to calcareous areas, with a
permanent supply of fresh water at shallow depths. It appears to reproduce readily
from seeds, suckers freely, and is apparently a moderately fast grower. Roughly, it
covers an area of 5 square miles at Milly's Soak, and about 4 square miles east of
Nannine. Both areas have in years past been largely drawn on for use in the various
mines, and for fuel, and are now practically denuded of all matured examples. In the
first-named locality the species is associated with E. microtheca F.v.M., in places
being almost superseded by that species. Near Nannine the accompanying congener
consists of irregularly grown examples of E. rostrata Schlecht. The presence of
these Eucalypts offers a pleasing variation to the monotony of the greyish-foliaged
“Mulga” (Acaciae), which cover a vast proportion of these districts. It may be
remarked that the so-called “White Gum” at Milly's Soak is the E. microtheca
F.v.M., and the “Flooded Gum” east of Nannine is E. rostrata Schlecht, partly.
1. With E. foecunda Schauer.
The new species constitutes one of the “Flooded Gums,” or the “York Gum” of
the Cue and Nannine mining districts. In cortical characters, the crooked nature of
the trunk and in the wood is not very different from that of the true “York Gum” (E.
foecunda Schauer, var. loxopheba), but the foliage, flowers, and fruit are very
different. (Original description.)
2. With E. incrassata Labill.
In the latter characteristics (flowers and fruit) it more closely approximates E.
calyx lid being broader than the tube and conspicuously ribbed. (Original
In my opinion this is a variety of E. incrassata. The juvenile leaves are as nearly
as possible the same as those of var. dumosa collected by me at Dongarra. The
Dongarra trees are large, so are those of the same species at Kangaroo Island, South
Australia. The Milly's Soak trees are exceptionally large for E. incrassata, so are
those of the two localities I have quoted. The timbers of the two species appear to be
The fruits are those of E. incrassata, while the ribs of the opercula are
characteristic of those of E. incrassata.
I shall be glad if any correspondent can favour me with flowers, but at present I
see no grounds for separating it from the protean and widely-diffused E. incrassata
3. With E. dumosa A. Cunn.
In the last paragraph, under E. incrassata, I really referred to E. dumosa, for many
years, by Bentham and others, included in E. incrassata. The two species are very
close (see Part IV, p. 97, Plate 16, and Part XXXVIII, p. 223), and some botanists
may be unwilling to separate them. The buds and fruits of E. striaticalyx are larger,
and the pedicels more distinct, but I cannot find that the leaves and floral organs are
specifically different from those of E. dumosa. I give it the benefit of the doubt at
present, because of its geographical distribution.
In Papers and Proc. Roy. Soc., Tasmania, 198 (1912), with a plate.
Arbor mediocra, altudinem 40–50 pedes attinens; ramusculi teretes, graciles.
Cortex trunci in laminis duris, similiter “Peppermint” generis. Folia alternata, semi-
coriacea, angusta lanceolata v. lineata (taeniola) 12 uncias longa, 1/2 uncia lata;
venis parum insignis acutis obliquis, vena peripherica a folii margine conspicue
remora. Pedunculis axillaris, solitariis 5–9 floris pedicellis vix ullis. Calyx turbinatis
operculum hemisphericum v. conicum. Fructus turbinatus, margo contracto,
concavo, 1/2 uncia longa, 1/4 uncli lata, valvae prorsus inclusae.
A tree about 40 to 50 feet high and 2 feet in diameter, with a “Peppermint” bark.
“Sucker” leaves linear-lanceolate, straight, 4 to 6 inches long, 1/2 inch wide,
opposite or alternate. Normal leaves narrow-linear to linear, lanceolate, up to nearly
1 foot long, thin, venation not pronounced, but best seen in larger leaves, lateral
veins very oblique, intramarginal vein removed from the edge. Peduncles axillary,
but (through the falling off of the leaves) the inflorescence sometimes appears
paniculate. Flowers few in the head. Calyx pyriform; operculum small, compressed,
Fruits pear-shaped, 1/2 inch long and 1/4 inch wide, tapering into a short pedicel,
rim countersunk, valves not exserted.
The specimens upon which this species is founded were obtained by Mr. L. G.
Irby, at St. Mary's Pass, Tasmania.
1 and 2. With E. Sieberiana F.v.M., and E. amygdalina Labill.
In its native habitat—
It was found growing amongst trees of E. virgata and E. amygdalina Labill., and
from which he (Mr. Irby) states the species is easily differentiated in the field from
its congeners. The bark is finer checked than E. virgata, running more closely to the
“Peppermint” bark in texture than the latter species.
The leaves, both “sucker” and normal, are much narrower than those of E. virgata,
and of a different appearance altogether. They are long and linear, varying greatly in
common. It is on the ribbony appearance of the leaves that the specific name is
The fruits, however, are almost identical with those of E. virgata, and yet the
general appearance of the tree is more like that of E. amygdalina. (L. G. Irby.)
“These results indicate that this form is somewhat closely associated with the
Tasmanian E. virgata. The oil from the latter, however, contained more eucalyptol
and more eudesmol, while that of E. taeniola had more phellandrene, as indicated
by the rotation figures.” (Original description.)
In the above passages, for E. virgata Sieb. (a shrubby tree as its name denotes),
read E. Sieberiana. For an account of the confusion that has grown up between E.
virgata and E. Sieberiana see Part XXXIX, p. 283. E. virgata is not found in
Tasmania. E. taeniola seems sufficiently separated from E. Sieberiana by its fibrous
or “peppermint” bark, and from E. amygdalina by its long linear juvenile leaves.
The following note by L. Rodway, the Government Botanist of Tasmania,
expresses a view which will doubtless be borne in mind :—
In the neighbourhood of St. Mary's Pass, Mr. Irby observed in the forest of mixed
Mountain Ash and Black Peppermint (E. Sieberiana and E. amygdalina—J.H.M.) a
few trees which differed from either, but were called Black Peppermint by local
inhabitants. The trees were medium-sized, with a rough, persistent, semi-fibrous
bark. The juvenile leaves were narrow, opposite, and sessile, very like those of
Black Peppermint. The mature leaves also resembled the leaves of that species, only
tended to grow much longer. Flowers and fruit smaller than, but much like those of
Mountain Ash. Fruit is pear-shaped, much restricted at the orifice, rim narrow,
valves deeply sunk; stalks slightly flattened. R. T. Baker described it as a new
species under the name of E. toeniola, but it seems probable it is a hybrid between
Black Peppermint and Mountain Ash. (Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., 12, 1917.)
IN the original description, copied at Part XVI, p. 202, this little-known species is
presumed to be a shrub. The following statement by Mr. C. E. Lane-Poole,
Conservator of Forests of Western Australia, shows that it is really a medium-sized
It does not grow to a large size. In fact, the one photographed is the largest that I
perhaps 50 feet in height, and with a stem diameter of, say, 2 feet J.H.M.). It has the
largest fruit of any of the tree-Eucalypts as opposed to the Mallees, the fruit being as
large as, if not larger than, the Tuart, E. gomphocephala, of the South-West. The
bark adheres for 2 or 3 feet from the ground. The rest of the stem is, however,
perfectly clean. The leaves are more coriaceous than any of the other Eucalypts, the
nearest being E. torquata (Mr. Lane-Poole is of course speaking of the local or Gold
Fields Eucalypts, J.H.M.), though, owing to the decorticating bark, there is no
difficulty in distinguishing between the two, even in the distance. It is used for fuel,
and is known as Blackbutt; indeed, the cutters see no difference between it and E.
The rough part of the bark, at the butt, is hard and flaky. The timber is of a rich
deep brown colour, with a touch of red in it; it is very hard and interlocked, and
there is no doubt it is of a high class. It seems a pity that practically its only use at
present is for fuel.
It is confined to Western Australia, and the only previous locality known is
Hampton Plains, near Coolgardie. Mr. C. E. Lane-Poole sends it from 4 miles south
of Higginsville, on the Norseman road. It is fairly common along the Norseman
I have received from Prof. T. G. B. Osborn, of Adelaide, a specimen labelled :—
of Fraser Range, Western Australia. (R. Helms, 5th November, 1891.) This is
evidently referred to by Mueller and Tate in Journ. Roy. Soc. S.A., xvi, 358.
In the Journal of the Expedition, p. 128, I find under 4th (not 5th) November—
. . . when we came to a big patch of splendid Blackbutt timber the natives turned
off for this rock-hole. The Blackbutt timber is of the Eucalyptus species; it is a
useful timber, splitting easily. The natives make their long spears out of this wood.
the two days was given at 31° 35' 45" and 26' 20", and the locality about 100 miles
south-east of Coolgardie.
E. Stricklandi could readily be taken for a Morrell.
2. In Part XXXV, p. 122, and XVI, p. 204, of this work, I refer to a specimen
labelled similarly to No. 1 as belonging to E. Campaspe Moore. Both specimens
were collected on the same date and at the same place.
In Papers and Proc. Roy. Soc., Tasmania, 177, 1912.
Arbor altitudineum 40 pedes attinens, ramulis validis superne quadrangulatis.
Folia opposita sessile oval v. cordata acuminata 2–3 uncias longa, v. falcato-
lanceolata 9 inches longa, 1 inch lata, obscure pennivena, vena peripherica a
margina remotiuscula. Pedunculi axillari, brevi 3 uncias longi, complanati 3 flori;
calyx tubus compressus circiter 2 uncias longus cum operculo conico obtuso.
Fructus hemispherici, vitrei unialata, 6 inches longi; margo crassus valva exserta.
Systematic Description.—A tree attaining a height of 30 to 40 feet and a
diameter of 12 inches, with a flaky bark at the butt. Sucker leaves, sessile, opposite,
oval at the first, the lower pairs nearly always so, up to 2 inches long and 1 inch
wide, then cordate, acuminate, up to 3 inches long and 11/2 inch wide. Normal
leaves lanceolate, falcate, up to 9 inches long and 1 inch wide, subcoriaceous,
occasionally shining on the upper surface. Venation distinct, lateral veins
moderately oblique, intramarginal vein removed from the edge. Branchlets in sucker
growth terete, but angular at first on the others. Peduncles axillary, flattened, short,
thick, 1/4 inch long, three sessile flowered. Calyx compressed, angular, under 1/2
inch long; operculum conical.
Fruit hemispherical, 1/2 inch in diameter, shining, rim thickened, convex with a
very narrow groove below it, valves well exserted.