Dandaragan mallee



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INTERIM RECOVERY PLAN NO. 164 

 

 



DANDARAGAN MALLEE 

 

(EUCALYPTUS DOLOROSA) 

 

INTERIM RECOVERY PLAN 

 

2004-2009 

 

Gillian Stack



1, 

Gina Broun



2

 & Val English



3

1

 Project Officer, WA Threatened Species and Communities Unit, CALM, PO Box 51 Wanneroo, 6946. 



2

 Flora Conservation Officer, CALM’s Moora District, PO Box 638, Jurien Bay 6516. 

3

 Acting Senior Ecologist, Threatened Species and Communities Unit, CALM, PO Box 51 Wanneroo, 6946. 



 

 

 



Photograph: S.D. Hopper

 

  



 

June 2004 

 

Department of Conservation and Land Management 



Western Australian Threatened Species and Communities Unit (WATSCU) 

PO Box 51, Wanneroo, WA 6946 

 

 

 



 

 


 

Interim Recovery Plan for Eucalyptus dolorosa 

 

FOREWORD 

 

Interim Recovery Plans (IRPs) are developed within the framework laid down in Department of Conservation 



and Land Management (CALM) Policy Statements Nos. 44 and 50. 

 

IRPs outline the recovery actions that are required to urgently address those threatening processes most 



affecting the ongoing survival of threatened taxa or ecological communities, and begin the recovery process. 

 

CALM is committed to ensuring that Critically Endangered taxa are conserved through the preparation and 



implementation of Recovery Plans or Interim Recovery Plans and by ensuring that conservation action 

commences as soon as possible and always within one year of endorsement of that rank by the Minister. 

 

This Interim Recovery Plan will operate from June 2004 to May 2009 but will remain in force until withdrawn 



or replaced. It is intended that, if the taxon is still ranked Critically Endangered, this IRP will be reviewed after 

five years and the need for a full Recovery Plan assessed. 

 

This IRP was given regional approval on 4 June, 2004 and was approved by the Director of Nature 



Conservation on 22 June, 2004. The allocation of staff time and provision of funds identified in this Interim 

Recovery Plan is dependent on budgetary and other constraints affecting CALM, as well as the need to address 

other priorities. 

 

Information in this IRP was accurate in May 2004. 



 

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

 

The following people have provided assistance and advice in the preparation of this Interim Recovery Plan: 



 

Eric Bunn  

Senior Research Scientist (Propagation Science), Botanic Garden and Parks Authority 

Rebecca Carter 

Regional Leader, Nature Conservation, CALM’s Moora District 

Andrew Crawford 

Technical Officer, CALM's Threatened Flora Seed Centre 

Amanda Shade 

Horticulturalist, Botanic Garden and Parks Authority 

 

Thanks also to the staff of the W.A. Herbarium for providing access to Herbarium databases and specimen 



information, and CALM's Wildlife Branch for assistance. 

 

 



2

 


 

Interim Recovery Plan for Eucalyptus dolorosa 

 

SUMMARY 

 

Scientific Name: 



Eucalyptus dolorosa 

Common Name: 

Dandaragan Mallee 



Family: 

Myrtaceae 



Flowering Period: 

February - March 



CALM Region: 

Midwest 


CALM District: 

Moora District 



Shire: 

Dandaragan 



Recovery Team: 

Moora District Threatened Flora and 

Communities Recovery Team 

 

Illustrations and/or further information: Brown, A., Thomson-Dans, C. and Marchant, N. (Eds) (1998) Western 



Australia’s Threatened Flora. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia; Brooker, M.I.H. and 

Hopper, S.D. (1993) New series, subseries, species and subspecies of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) from Western Australia and 

from South Australia. Nuytsia 9(1), 1-68; Rossetto, M., Jezierski, G., Hopper, S.D. and Dixon, K.W. (1999) Conservation 

genetics and clonality in two critically endangered eucalypts from the highly endemic south-western Australian flora. 



Biological Conservation 88, 321-331.  

 

Current status: Eucalyptus dolorosa was declared as Rare Flora in July 1989, and is currently ranked as Critically 

Endangered under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950.  E. dolorosa is listed as Endangered under the Commonwealth 



Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation  Act  1999 (EPBC Act). It currently meets World Conservation 

Union (IUCN) Red List

 

Category ‘CR’ under criterion D (IUCN 2000) as it is only known from few individuals in a single 



population. The main threats are inappropriate fire regimes, lack of recruitment and restricted distribution.  

 

Description: Eucalyptus dolorosa is a low mallee to 2.5 m tall with stout stems and rough grey bark on the older stems. 

The juvenile leaves are broadly falcate, and light bluish-grey in colour. The adult leaves are slightly glossy and green, 

lanceolate to falcate, and measure 10 x 2 cm. They have a moderately dense vein network and numerous oil glands. The 

inflorescences are axillary, but are clustered at the leafless ends of branchlets, appearing to be terminal. There are 7 flowers 

in each. The buds have pedicels up to 1 cm long and are rhomboid in shape, 9 x 6 mm with a slightly beaked operculum. 

The stamens are very numerous. The fruits have stalks to 7 mm long, and are cup-shaped to globose, measure 1 x 1.4 cm, 

and have four valves. The seeds are brown, pyramidal and winged (Patrick and Brown 2001) 

 

Habitat requirements: Eucalyptus dolorosa is currently known from a single population west of Dandaragan. It is 

confined to lateritic breakaway slopes and a summit in mallee heath over low scrub, amongst massive ironstone blocks 

(Brown et al. 1998).   

 

Critical habitat: The critical habitat for Eucalyptus dolorosa comprises the area of occupancy of the known population; 

similar habitat within 200 metres of the known population; and additional nearby occurrences of similar habitat that do not 

currently contain the species but may have done so in the past and may be suitable for translocations. 

 

Habitat critical to the survival of the species, and important populations: Given that this species is listed as Critically 

Endangered, it is considered that all known habitat for wild and translocated populations is habitat critical to its survival, 

and that all wild and translocated populations are important populations. 

 

Benefits to other species or ecological communities: The habitat supporting Eucalyptus dolorosa is highly species rich, 

and contains a number of threatened and Priority flora species. The following threatened species occur on the same lateritic 

hill as E. dolorosa:  Acacia  forrestiana (DRF, Vulnerable under Wildlife Conservation Act and EPBC Act); Grevillea 



synapheae  subsp. A Flora of Australia, Lasiopetalum miseryense and Melaleuca clavifolia (Priority 1); Boronia  scabra 

subsp.  condensata,  Eucalyptus abdita and Stylidium aeonioides (Priority 2); Beaufortia eriocephala and Gastrolobium 



axillare (Priority 3); and Asterolasia  drummondii (Priority 4). Recovery actions such as protecting the E. dolorosa 

population from frequent fire will protect the ecological community in which the populations are located.

 

 

 



International obligations: This plan is fully consistent with the aims and recommendations of the Convention on 

Biological Diversity, ratified by Australia in June 1993, and will assist in implementing Australia’s responsibilities under 

that Convention. However, as Eucalyptus dolorosa  is not specifically listed under any international agreement, the 

implementation of other international environmental responsibilities is not affected by this plan. 

 

Role and interests of indigenous people: Indigenous communities interested or involved in the area affected by this plan 

have not yet been identified. The Aboriginal Sites Register maintained by the Department of Indigenous Affairs does not 

list any significant sites in the vicinity of this population. However, not all significant sites are listed on the Register. Input 

and involvement will be sought from any indigenous groups that have an active interest in the areas that are habitat for 



Eucalyptus dolorosa, and this is discussed in the recovery actions. 

 

3



 

 

Interim Recovery Plan for Eucalyptus dolorosa 

 

Social and economic impact: The only known population of Eucalyptus dolorosa occurs on private land and negotiations 

will continue with regard to the future management of this population. The landholders are very supportive of managing 

this area of remnant vegetation for conservation.   

 

Evaluation of the plan’s performance: The Department of Conservation and Land Management in conjunction with the 

Moora District Threatened Flora and Communities Recovery Team will evaluate the performance of this IRP. In addition 

to annual reporting on progress with listed actions and comparison against the criteria for success and failure, the plan is to 

be reviewed within five years of its implementation.  

 

Existing Recovery Actions: The following recovery actions have been or are currently being implemented: 

1.

 

Relevant land managers have been made aware of the location and threatened status of the species. A cooperative 



relationship has been established between CALM and the land managers.  

2.

 



Some seed was collected from the population in 2003, and is stored in CALM’s Threatened Flora Seed Centre. The 

viability of this seed is not yet known. 

3.

 

The Botanic Garden and Parks Authority currently hold 0.7g seed, 12 plants in the nursery, and 2 plants in the Botanic 



Gardens. Initial propagation attempts from seed and cuttings have been unsuccessful, but a number of plants have been 

successfully produced from tissue culture.  

4.

 

DNA research has been conducted, and established that E. dolorosa is not a hybrid. 



5.

 

An information sheet that describes and illustrates the species has been prepared and will be printed in the near future.  



6.

 

Staff from CALM’s Moora District regularly monitor this species. 



7.

 

The Moora District Threatened Flora Recovery Team is overseeing the implementation of this IRP and will include 



information on progress in an annual report to CALM's Corporate Executive and funding bodies. 

 

IRP objective: The objective of this Interim Recovery Plan is to abate identified threats and maintain or enhance the viable 



in situ population to ensure the long-term preservation of the species in the wild. 

 

Recovery criteria 

Criteria for success: The number of individuals within populations and/or the number of populations have increased by 

ten percent or more over the period of the plan’s adoption under the EPBC Act. 



Criteria for failure: The number of individuals within populations and/or the number of populations have decreased by 

ten percent or more over the period of the plan’s adoption under the EPBC Act. 

 

Recovery actions 

1.

 



Coordinate recovery actions 

7.

 



Conduct further surveys 

2.

 



Map critical habitat 

8.

 



Propagate translocates from tissue culture 

3.

 



Liaise with land managers  

9.

 



Undertake and monitor translocation 

4.

 



Develop and implement a fire management strategy 

10.


 

Promote awareness 

5.

 

Monitor population 



11.

 

Obtain biological and ecological information 



6.

 

Collect seed 



12.

 

Review the need for a full Recovery Plan 



 

 

  

 

4

 



 

Interim Recovery Plan for Eucalyptus dolorosa 

 

1.  

BACKGROUND 

 

History 

The first collection of Eucalyptus dolorosa was made in 1987 by M.I.H. Brooker. It has only ever been known 

from the slopes and summit of a single lateritic hill in the Dandaragan area. This area was burnt in 1978, and 

although the population flowered every year after its discovery in 1987, it didn’t produce fruit until 1991. The 

area was fenced from stock in the late 1980s, protecting this species and a number of other threatened and 

Priority species that also occur in this area of remnant mallee heath. Plants occur in eight clumps, all of which 

are in good health. Brooker and Hopper (1993) noted that this species persists in a refugial site, and suggested 

that E. dolorosa is probably a relict species, barely surviving extinction as a consequence of a drying climate in 

the late Pleistocene period.   

 

Description 

Eucalyptus dolorosa is a low mallee to 2.5 m tall with stout stems and rough grey bark on the older stems. The 

juvenile leaves are broadly falcate, and light bluish-grey in colour. The adult leaves are slightly glossy, green in 

colour, lanceolate to falcate, measuring 10 x 2 cm. They have a moderately dense vein network and numerous 

oil glands. The inflorescences are axillary, but are clustered at the leafless ends of branchlets, appearing to be 

terminal. There are 7 flowers in each. The buds have pedicels up to 1 cm long and are rhomboid in shape, 9 x 6 

mm with a slightly beaked operculum. The stamens are very numerous. The fruits have stalks to 7 mm long, and 

are cup-shaped to globose, measure 1 x 1.4 cm, and have four valves. The seeds are brown, pyramidal and 

winged (Patrick and Brown 2001) 

 

This species is distantly related to Eucalyptus lateritica and E. todtiana, differing in its small falcate leaves, 



apparently terminal inflorescences, long pedicels, and glaucous juvenile leaves. The winged seed places this 

species in a group which includes E. buprestiumE. erectifolia and E. johnsoniana.  

 

Distribution and habitat 

Eucalyptus dolorosa is known from a single population west of Dandaragan. It is confined to lateritic 

breakaway slopes and a summit in mallee heath over low scrub, amongst massive ironstone blocks. Associated 

species include Eucalyptus arachnaeaEgittinsiiE. pluricaulisE. abdita, Hakea lissocarphaH. obliquaH. 

undulata,  Calothamnus quadrifidus,  Melaleuca radula,  Acacia  pulchella,  Scholtzia  sp. and Eremaea 

asterocarpa (Patrick and Brown 2001).  

 

Biology and ecology 



Eucalyptus species are typically highly adapted to surviving fires, which are a regular occurrence in many 

Australian habitats. Seedlings tend to be slow-growing, as much energy is channeled into the production of a 

lignotuber. After fire has removed or damaged above-ground parts of an established plant, a number of 

replacement stems are initiated from the lignotuber, producing the mallee form. Fire often also stimulates 

germination of Eucalyptus seed.  

 

The only known population of E.  dolorosa was burnt in 1978. It regenerated and was flowering in 1987, the 



year of its discovery. Flowers may also have been produced prior to this time. However, no fruit was produced 

until 1991, some twelve years after fire. It doesn’t tend to produce a lot of flowers or fruit at once, producing 

small quantities somewhat sporadically. Some seed has been collected, but the viability of that seed has not yet 

been assessed.  

 

Threats 

Eucalyptus dolorosa was declared as Rare Flora under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 in July 1989. It 

currently meets Critically Endangered (CR) under World Conservation Union (IUCN) Red List criterion D 

(IUCN 2000), as there is only one population that contains very few plants. E. dolorosa is listed as Endangered 

under the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation  Act  1999 (EPBC Act). The 

main threats are inappropriate fire regimes, lack of recruitment and restricted distribution.  

 

 



 

Inappropriate fire regimes may affect the viability of the population, as E. dolorosa is thought to resprout 

following fire. If this is the case, the lignotubers may be depleted if fires recur before they can build up 

resources again. Frequent fire is also likely to degrade the supporting ecological community, altering species 

5

 


 

Interim Recovery Plan for Eucalyptus dolorosa 

 

composition as well as fostering weed invasion and erosion. This species is likely to need fire for recruitment 



of new individuals, but the long lifespan of Eucalyptus species suggests that there is no urgent need for fire 

in the short to mid-term (C. Yates

1

, pers. comm.).   



 

Lack of recruitment is apparent with no juvenile plants observed. Only small quantities of seed tend to be 

produced at any one time. The lack of recruitment may be due to poor seed viability, an absence of 

germination triggers or possibly poor seedling survival.  

 

Highly restricted distribution means that all individuals of the species are likely to be affected by any 



single catastrophe that occurs, such as disease or a severe weather or fire event.  

 



Weed invasion could become a threat to the population only under specific post-fire conditions. Although it 

remains almost entirely weed-free at present, it is possible that weed invasion may increase after fires and 

this will need to be monitored.  

 

Summary of population information and threats 



Pop. No. & Location 

Land Status 

Year/No. plants 

Condition 

Threats 

1. WSW of Dandaragan 

Private property 

1988 8 clumps 

1991 ca. 20 

1992 ca. 25 

2000 ca 8 clumps 

2003 ca 8 clumps 

Healthy 

Too frequent fire, lack of recruitment  

 

Guide for decision-makers 

Section 1 provides details of current and possible future threats. Any on-ground works (clearing, firebreaks, 

roadworks etc) in the immediate vicinity of E. dolorosa will require assessment. On-ground works should not be 

approved unless the proponents can demonstrate that they will not have an impact on the species, or on its 

habitat or potential habitat.  

 

Critical habitat 

Critical habitat is habitat identified as being critical to the survival of a listed threatened species or listed 

threatened ecological community. Habitat is defined as the biophysical medium or media occupied 

(continuously, periodically or occasionally) by an organism or group of organisms or once occupied 

(continuously, periodically or occasionally) by an organism, or group of organisms, and into which organisms 

of that kind have the potential to be reintroduced (Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 

1999 (EPBC Act)).  

 

Eucalyptus dolorosa is listed as Critically Endangered, and as such it is considered that all known habitat for 

wild and translocated populations is critical habitat. This includes:  

 



                                                     

the area of occupancy of known (wild and translocated) populations;  

 

areas of similar habitat within 200 metres of populations, i.e. mallee heath over low scrub on lateritic 



breakaway slopes and summits with massive ironstone (these provide potential habitat for natural range 

extension);  

 

additional occurrences of similar habitat that do not currently contain the species but may have done so in 



the past (these represent possible translocation sites).  

 

Benefits to other species or ecological communities 

The habitat supporting Eucalyptus dolorosa is highly species rich, and contains a number of threatened and 

Priority flora species. The following species occur on the same lateritic hill as E. dolorosaAcacia forrestiana 

(DRF, ranked Vulnerable under the Wildlife Conservation Act and the EPBC Act); Grevillea synapheae subsp. 

A Flora of Australia, Lasiopetalum miseryense and Melaleuca clavifolia (Priority 1); Boronia  scabra subsp. 



condensataE. abdita and Stylidium aeonioides (Priority 2); Beaufortia eriocephala and Gastrolobium axillare 

(Priority 3); and Asterolasia  drummondii (Priority 4). Recovery actions such as protecting E. dolorosa 

populations from frequent fire will also help to conserve the ecological community in which the populations are 

located.  

 

International obligations 

This plan is fully consistent with the aims and recommendations of the Convention on Biological Diversity, 

ratified by Australia in June 1993, and will assist in implementing Australia’s responsibilities under that 

 

1



 Dr Colin Yates, Senior Research Scientist (Ecology), CALM’s Science Division 

6

 



 

Interim Recovery Plan for Eucalyptus dolorosa 

 

                                                     



Convention. However, as E. dolorosa is not specifically listed under any international agreement, the 

implementation of other international environmental responsibilities is not affected by this plan. 

 

Role and interests of indigenous people 

Indigenous communities interested or involved in the regions affected by this plan have not yet been identified. 

The Aboriginal Sites Register maintained by the Department of Indigenous Affairs does not list any significant 

sites in the vicinity of these populations. However, not all significant sites are listed on the Register. Input and 

involvement will be sought from any indigenous groups that have an active interest in the areas that are habitat 

for Eucalyptus dolorosa, and this is discussed in the recovery actions. 

 

Social and economic impacts 

The only population of Eucalyptus dolorosa occurs on private land and negotiations will continue with regard to 

the future management of this population. The landholders are very supportive of managing this area of remnant 

vegetation for conservation.   

 

Evaluation of the plan’s performance 

CALM will evaluate the performance of this IRP in conjunction with the Moora District Threatened Flora and 

Communities Recovery Team. In addition to annual reporting on progress with listed actions and comparison 

against the criteria for success and failure, the plan is to be reviewed within five years of its implementation. 

 

2. 

RECOVERY OBJECTIVE AND CRITERIA  

 

Objectives 

The objective of this Interim Recovery Plan is to abate identified threats and maintain or enhance in situ 

populations to ensure the long-term preservation of the species in the wild. 

 

Criteria for success: The number of individuals within populations and/or the number of populations have 

increased by ten percent or more over the period of the plan’s adoption under the EPBC Act. 



Criteria for failure: The number of individuals within populations and/or the number of populations have 

decreased by ten percent or more over the period of the plan’s adoption under the EPBC Act. 

 

3. RECOVERY 

ACTIONS 

 

Existing recovery actions 

All relevant land managers have been notified of the location and threatened status of Eucalyptus dolorosa. The 

notification details the Declared Rare status of  the species and associated legal obligations. A cooperative 

relationship has been established between CALM and the land managers.  

 

Some seed was collected from E. dolorosa on two occasions in 2003, but the quantity and viability of that seed 



is unknown as yet, as the collections have not yet been processed. Both collections are stored at CALM's 

Threatened Flora Seed Centre (TFSC).  

 

Initial attempts have been made to propagate this species from seed and cuttings at the Botanic Garden and 



Parks Authority (BGPA) nursery, but these have been unsuccessful. A number of plants have been propagated 

from tissue culture material by the BGPA research team. There are two Eucalyptus dolorosa plants in BGPA’s 

Botanic Garden, and 12 in the Nursery, that are destined for planting into the Garden. These plants are from two 

genetic lines (A. Shade

2

, pers. comm.). BGPA also hold 0.7 g of seed collected in 1991.  



 

DNA research has established that Eucalyptus dolorosa is not a hybrid (Rossetto et al. 1999). They found that 

the overall genetic variability within E. dolorosa was 16%, and the within-stand variability ranged from 14% to 

zero. Interestingly, the greatest genetic diversity was not found in the stand of most numerous stems, but in a 

smaller stand. A total of 12 distinct genotypes were detected from five discrete clumps. Genetic testing of a 

small number of seedlings provided evidence of outcrossing pollination.  

 

 

2



 Amanda Shade, Horticulturalist, Botanic Garden and Parks Authority 

7

 



 

Interim Recovery Plan for Eucalyptus dolorosa 

 

A double-sided information sheet has been prepared, and includes a description of Euclyptus dolorosa, its 



habitat, threats, recovery actions and photos. This will be printed, and then distributed to community members 

through local libraries, wildflower shows and other avenues. It is hoped that this may result in the discovery of 

new populations. 

 

Staff from CALM’s Moora District regularly monitor this species. 



 

The Moora District Threatened Flora and Communities Recovery Team is overseeing the implementation of this 

IRP and will include information on progress in its annual report to CALM's Corporate Executive and funding 

bodies. 


 

Future recovery actions 

Where populations occur on lands other than those managed by CALM, permission has been or will be sought 

from appropriate land managers prior to recovery actions being undertaken. The following recovery actions are 

roughly in order of descending priority; however this should not constrain addressing any of the priorities if 

funding is available for ‘lower’ priorities and other opportunities arise. 

 

1. 



Coordinate recovery actions 

The Moora District Threatened Flora and Communities Recovery Team will coordinate recovery actions for E. 



dolorosa and other Declared Rare Flora in their district. They will include information on progress in their 

annual report to CALM’s Corporate Executive and funding bodies.  



Action: 

Coordinate recovery actions 



Responsibility: 

CALM (Moora District) through the MDTFCRT  



Cost: 

$1,000 per year  

 

2.  

Map critical habitat 

It is a requirement of the EPBC Act that spatial data relating to critical habitat be determined. Although critical 

habitat is described in Section 1, the areas as described have not yet been mapped and that will be redressed 

under this action. If any additional populations are located, then critical habitat will also be determined and 

mapped for these locations.  

Action: 

Map critical habitat 



Responsibility: 

CALM (Moora District, WATSCU) through the MDTFCRT 



Cost: 

$2,000 in the first year  

 

3. 

Liaise with land managers 

Staff from CALM's Moora District will continue to liaise with relevant land managers to ensure that populations 

are not accidentally damaged or destroyed. The possibility of improving the security of the population and its 

habitat will be discussed, to provide protection in case there is a change in landholder. This may include seeking 

to set up a conservation covenant through one of a range of agencies, or registration through the Land for 

Wildlife scheme. Input and involvement will also be sought from any indigenous groups that have an active 

interest in areas that are habitat for Eucalytpus dolorosa

Action: 

Liaise with land managers 



Responsibility: 

CALM (Moora District) through the MDTFCRT 



Cost: $700 

per 


year 

 

4. 

Develop and implement a fire management strategy 

Adult mallee eucalypts typically resprout from lignotubers after fire, producing multiple stems that usually 

flower more quickly than a juvenile growing from seed. Fire also often stimulates germination of seed in 

eucalypts. Therefore, although eucalypts are well adapted to fire, frequent fires may prevent the accumulation of 

sufficient soil-stored seed for a new wave of germination, kill fire-stimulated seedlings before they can recruit 

into the population, and deplete the lignotuber of existing adults. Fire also promotes the introduction and 

proliferation of weed species. Fire should therefore be prevented from occurring in the area of populations, 

except where it is being used experimentally as a recovery tool. A fire management strategy will be developed 

in consultation with land managers to determine appropriate fire control measures, and a recommended fire 

frequency and intensity. 



Action: 

Develop and implement a fire management strategy 



Responsibility: 

CALM (Moora District) through the MDTFCRT 

8

 


 

Interim Recovery Plan for Eucalyptus dolorosa 

 

Cost: 

$2,500 in first year, and $1,700 in subsequent years  



 

5. Monitor 

population 

Annual monitoring of factors such as habitat degradation (including plant diseases such as Phytophthora 



cinnamomi and weed invasion), population stability (expansion or decline), pollination activity, seed 

production, recruitment, longevity and predation is highly desirable.  

Detailed monitoring of a selection of individual stems will be undertaken to track the health and longevity of the 

species, and record flower and fruit timing and abundance. This will be carried out twice each year, at expected 

time of flowering and expected time of seed set. This monitoring regime will be implemented in a way that 

minimises potential damage to the habitat from additional visitation and disturbance. This will include 

monitoring during dry soil conditions to prevent erosion, maintaining dieback hygiene, and selecting stems at 

the extremities of the population for more detailed data collection.  

A monitoring plot will be established around some stems, to record the occurrence of any seedlings. This 

information will help to clarify the causes of the lack of recruitment, and possible solutions. For example if 

flowers are produced but little seed is set, the possible causes such as non-viable pollen or lack of pollinators 

can be investigated. If pollinators are absent, periodic hand pollination may promote seed set. 



Action: 

Monitor population 



Responsibility: 

CALM (Moora District) through the MDTFCRT 



Cost: 

$1,300 per year   

 

 

6. 



Collect seed  

It is necessary to store germplasm as a genetic resource, ready for use in translocations and as an ex situ genetic 

‘blueprint’ of the species. The germplasm stored will include live plants in cultivation, seed and tissue culture 

material. Fourteen plants are currently in cultivation at BGPA. Some seed has been collected from the 

population but additional collections are required to maintain adequate representation of the genetic diversity of 

this taxon. The patterns of viability that emerge from standard tests on seed collected may indicate the need for 

other recovery actions such as hand pollination.  

Action: 

Collect seed  



Responsibility: 

CALM (TFSC, Moora District) through the MDTFCRT 



Cost: 

$2,200 in the first, third and fifth years 

 

7. 

Conduct further surveys 

Community volunteers will be encouraged to be involved in further surveys supervised by CALM staff to be 

conducted during the flowering period of the species (February-March). Records of areas surveyed will be sent 

to Wildlife Branch and retained at the districts, even if E. dolorosa is not found. Note will be made of any 

habitat suitable for translocation.  

Action: 

Conduct further surveys 



Responsibility: 

CALM (Moora District) through the MDTFCRT 



Cost: 

$2,500 per year in the first, third and fifth years 

 

8. 

Propagate translocates from tissue culture  

Rossetto et al. (1999) found 12 distinct genetic lines of E. dolorosa. These will be introduced to tissue culture

and plantlets suitable for translocation will eventually be produced from that material. It is essential that the 

genetic diversity of these translocates is maximised. It is envisaged that production of translocates should be 

possible over a three to four year time frame. It is possible that some economies of scale may be achieved 

during this resource-intensive recovery action if other rare eucalypt species, for example E. impensa and E. 



leprophloia are included in the propagation program.  

Action: 

Propagate translocates from tissue culture 



Responsibility: 

BGPA (through the MDTFCRT) 



Cost: 

$18,100 in second year, $15,900 in third year and $7,500 in the fourth and fifth years 

 

9. 

Undertake and monitor translocation  

Translocation is essential for the conservation of this species, as the species is highly vulnerable to localised 

threats including disease and inappropriate fire regimes. A translocation proposal will be developed and suitable 

translocation sites selected. Propagation of plants will occur from tissue culture and from seed. Plants previously 

propagated from tissue culture have been more vigorous than those grown from seed, and can ensure that all 

genotypes currently present in the population can be included in the translocation. Seedlings examined have 

9

 


 

Interim Recovery Plan for Eucalyptus dolorosa 

 

been found to be strongly outcrossed (Rossetto et al. 1999), and so will add to the genetic pool of the 



translocated population. These will be planted in accordance with CALM's Policy Statement No. 29 

Translocation of Threatened Flora and Fauna.  All Translocation Proposals require endorsement by CALM’s 

Director of Nature Conservation. 

 

Monitoring of the translocation is essential and will be undertaken according to the timetable developed for the 



Translocation Proposal.  

Action: 

Undertake and monitor translocation 



Responsibility: 

CALM (Moora District, TFSC) and BGPA through the MDTFCRT 



Cost: $14,800 in the fourth year and $12,500 in the fifth year 

 

10. Promote 



awareness 

The importance of biodiversity conservation and the need for the long-term protection of wild populations of 

this species will be promoted to the community through poster displays and the local print and electronic media. 

Formal links with local naturalist groups and interested individuals will also be encouraged. An information 

sheet has been developed, and this includes a description of the plant, its habitat, threats, recovery actions and 

photos. This will be printed and distributed to the public through CALM’s Moora District office and at the 

office and library of the Shire of Dandaragan. Such information distribution may lead to the discovery of new 

populations.  



Action: Promote 

awareness 



Responsibility: 

CALM (Moora District) through the MDTFCRT 



Cost: 

$1,700 in first year, and $1,100 per year thereafter 

 

11. 

Obtain biological and ecological information 

Improved knowledge of the biology and ecology of E. dolorosa will provide a scientific basis for its 

management in the wild. An understanding of the following is necessary for more effective management:  

1.

 



Soil seed bank dynamics, including seed bank location and viability.  

2.

 



The role of various disturbances (including fire), competition, rainfall and grazing in germination and 

recruitment. 

3.

 

The pollination biology of the species. 



4.

 

The requirements of pollinators.  



5.

 

The reproductive strategies, phenology and seasonal growth of the species. 



Action: 

Obtain biological and ecological information 



Responsibility: 

CALM (Science Division, Moora District) through the MDTFCRT 



Cost: 

$12,000 per year in the second, third and fourth years 

 

12. 

Review the need for a full Recovery Plan 

At the end of the fourth year of its five-year term this Interim Recovery Plan will be reviewed and the need for 

further recovery actions will be assessed. If the species is still ranked as Critically Endangered at that time a full 

Recovery Plan may be required.  



Action: 

Review the need for further recovery actions and/or a full Recovery Plan 



Responsibility: 

CALM (WATSCU, Moora District) through the MDTFCRT 



Cost: 

$20,300 in the fifth year (if full Recovery Plan required)  



 

4. TERM 

OF 

PLAN 

 

This Interim Recovery Plan will operate from June 2004 to May 2009 but will remain in force until withdrawn 



or replaced. If the taxon is still ranked Critically Endangered after five years, the need to review this IRP or to 

replace it with a full Recovery Plan will be determined. 

 

5. REFERENCES 

 

Brooker, M.I.H. and Hopper, S.D. (1993) New series, subseries, species and subspecies of Eucalyptus 



(Myrtaceae) from Western Australia and from South Australia. Nuytsia 9(1), 1-68.  

Brown, A., Thomson-Dans, C. and Marchant, N. (Eds). (1998) Western Australia’s Threatened Flora

Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia. 

10

 



 

Interim Recovery Plan for Eucalyptus dolorosa 

 

CALM (2003 onwards) Western Australian Herbarium FloraBase 2 – Information on the Western Australian 



Flora. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia. Accessed 2003. 

http://www.calm.wa.gov.au/science/

CALM (1995) Policy Statement No. 29 Translocation of Threatened Flora and Fauna. Department of 

Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia. 

CALM (1994) Policy Statement No. 50 Setting Priorities for the Conservation of Western Australia’s 

Threatened Flora and Fauna. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia. 

CALM (1992) Policy Statement No. 44 Wildlife Management Programs. Department of Conservation and Land 

Management, Western Australia. 

CALM (1990 onwards) Threatened Flora Database (DEFL). Wildlife Branch, Department of Conservation & 

Land Management, Western Australia. Accessed 2004.  

IUCN (2000) IUCN Red List Categories prepared by the IUCN Species Survival Commission, as approved by 



the 51st Meeting of the IUCN Council. Gland, Switzerland.  

Patrick, S. and Brown, A. (2001) Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Moora District. Department of 

Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia.  

Rossetto, M., Jezierski, G., Hopper S.D. and Dixon, K.W. (1999). Conservation genetics and clonality in two 

critically endangered eucalypts from the highly endemic south-western Australian flora. Biological 

Conservation 88, 321-331.  

 

6. TAXONOMIC 



DESCRIPTION 

 

Excerpt from: Brooker, M.I.H. and Hopper, S.D. (1993) New series, subseries, species and subspecies of Eucalyptus 



(Myrtaceae) from Western Australia and from South Australia. Nuytsia 9(1), 1-68. 

 

Eucalyptus dolorosa 



Mallee  to 2.5 m tall with thin, outer grey and inner yellowish, rough bark on older stems. Juvenile leaves petiolate, 

alternating, broadly falcate, to 11 x 4.5 cm, dull, conspicuously light bluish grey. Adult leaves petiolate, alternating, 

lanceolate or rarely falcate, up to 10 x 2 cm, concolorous, slightly glossy, green; side veins seen to be linked with the 

midrib; reticulation moderately dense with finite tertiary and incomplete quaternary veining; oil glands numerous, several 

per areole, island. Inflorescences axillary and unbranched usually clustered at the leafless ends of branchlets; peduncles 

more or less terete, up to 1.5 cm long with 7 flowers. Buds on long pedicels up to 1 cm long, rhomboid, up to 0.9 x 0.6 cm, 

with a single slightly beaked operculum. Stamens very numerous (c. 300 per bud), variously flexed, all fertile; anthers 

dorsifixed, versatile, oblong, dehiscing by longitudinal slits, with a prominent terminal gland. Style glandular; stigma 

apparently lobed. Flowers white. Ovules in 2 vertical rows. Fruit on pedicels to 0.7 cm long, cupular to truncate-globose 

and slightly contracted at the rim, wider than long, to 1 x 1.4 cm; valves 4, to rim level. Seed brown, pyramidal, winged, 

with terminal hilum.  

Distribution: Mt Misery, between Cataby and Dandaragan, Western Australia, where it occurs within a hectare including 

the flat mesa top and the southern slope in 5 or 6 clumps, each consisting of several apparent individuals.  



Flowering period: March.  

Etymology:  The specific epithet simply alludes to the only known occurrence of this species, viz.  Mt Misery (Latin, 

dolorosus – sorrowful).  

Notes: E. dolorosa persists on a refugial site similar to species such as E. suberea and E. lateritica in Mt Lesueur National 

Park. It is probable that E. dolorosa is a relict species barely surviving extinction due to drying climate in the late 

Pleistocene.   

 

11



 

 

Interim Recovery Plan for Eucalyptus dolorosa 

 

 

 

 



 

ADDENDUM 

 

Dandaragan Mallee (Eucalyptus dolorosa) Interim Recovery Plan 2004-2009 

 

 

In adopting this plan under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 



(EPBC Act), the Minister for the Environment and Heritage has approved the addition of the following 

information. 

 

Critical Habitat 

 

The plan identifies critical habitat as including areas located a set distance around known populations 

which contain habitat similar to that in which the species occurs, as well as areas that do not currently 

contain the species but may have done so in the past.  These areas identified in the plan do not 

represent areas of critical habitat as defined under section 207A of the EPBC Act. 

 

 



 

 

12



 

Document Outline

  • 1 Project Officer, WA Threatened Species and Communities Unit, CALM, PO Box 51 Wanneroo, 6946. 
  •  
  •  SUMMARY 
  • Habitat critical to the survival of the species, and important populations: Given that this species is listed as Critically Endangered, it is considered that all known habitat for wild and translocated populations is habitat critical to its survival, and that all wild and translocated populations are important populations. 
  • International obligations: This plan is fully consistent with the aims and recommendations of the Convention on Biological Diversity, ratified by Australia in June 1993, and will assist in implementing Australia’s responsibilities under that Convention. However, as Eucalyptus dolorosa is not specifically listed under any international agreement, the implementation of other international environmental responsibilities is not affected by this plan. 
  • Role and interests of indigenous people: Indigenous communities interested or involved in the area affected by this plan have not yet been identified. The Aboriginal Sites Register maintained by the Department of Indigenous Affairs does not list any significant sites in the vicinity of this population. However, not all significant sites are listed on the Register. Input and involvement will be sought from any indigenous groups that have an active interest in the areas that are habitat for Eucalyptus dolorosa, and this is discussed in the recovery actions. 
  • Social and economic impact: The only known population of Eucalyptus dolorosa occurs on private land and negotiations will continue with regard to the future management of this population. The landholders are very supportive of managing this area of remnant vegetation for conservation.   
  • Evaluation of the plan’s performance: The Department of Conservation and Land Management in conjunction with the Moora District Threatened Flora and Communities Recovery Team will evaluate the performance of this IRP. In addition to annual reporting on progress with listed actions and comparison against the criteria for success and failure, the plan is to be reviewed within five years of its implementation.  
    •  
    • History 
      • Description 
        • Distribution and habitat 
          • Biology and ecology 
            • Summary of population information and threats
        • Pop. No. & Location
    • Condition
    • International obligations 
    • Role and interests of indigenous people 
    • Indigenous communities interested or involved in the regions affected by this plan have not yet been identified. The Aboriginal Sites Register maintained by the Department of Indigenous Affairs does not list any significant sites in the vicinity of these populations. However, not all significant sites are listed on the Register. Input and involvement will be sought from any indigenous groups that have an active interest in the areas that are habitat for Eucalyptus dolorosa, and this is discussed in the recovery actions. 
    •  
    • Social and economic impacts 
    • The only population of Eucalyptus dolorosa occurs on private land and negotiations will continue with regard to the future management of this population. The landholders are very supportive of managing this area of remnant vegetation for conservation.   
    • Evaluation of the plan’s performance 
      • Objectives 
      •  
      • 3. RECOVERY ACTIONS 
      • Existing recovery actions 
      • Future recovery actions 
      • 1. Coordinate recovery actions 
        • 3. Liaise with land managers 
        • 4. Develop and implement a fire management strategy 
        • 5. Monitor population 
        • 6. Collect seed  
        • 7. Conduct further surveys 
          •  
        • 8. Propagate translocates from tissue culture  
          •  
          • 9. Undertake and monitor translocation  
        • 10. Promote awareness 
          •  
        • 11. Obtain biological and ecological information 
        • 12. Review the need for a full Recovery Plan 
          •  
      •    
    • ADDENDUM 
      • Critical Habitat 
        •  


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