Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Warren Region



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Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in 
the Warren Region 
 
Roger W. Hearn, Rachel Meissner, Andrew P. Brown,  
Terry D. Macfarlane and Tony R. Annels 
 
 
 
 
2006 
 
 
 
WESTERN AUSTRALIAN WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM NO. 40 
 
 

Published jointly by 
 
Australian Government Department of Environment and Heritage, 
GPO Box 636, Canberra, ACT 2601 
Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management, 
Locked Bag 104, Bentley Delivery Centre, WA 6983 
 
 
This study (EA ESP Project 440) was funded by the Australian Government’s Natural Heritage Trust. 
 
 
Property and copyright of this document is vested jointly in the Assistant Secretary, 
Natural Resource Management Policy Branch, Australian Government Department of Environment 
and Heritage, and the Executive Director, WA Department of Conservation and Land Management. 
 
 
The Commonwealth disclaims responsibility for the views expressed. 
 
 
©Department of Conservation and Land Management, 
Western Australia 2006 
 
 
ISSN 
0816-9713 
 
 
Cover Photograph by Erica Shedley – the declared rare flora species Caladenia winfieldii which is 
known from a single population in the Warren Region. Other photographs by Roger Hearn. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Editor......................................................... E. Shedley 
Maps.......................................................... R. Meissner 
Production and distribution....................... CALM Strategic Development and Corporate 
Affairs Division 
 
ii

FOREWORD 
 
Western Australian Wildlife Management Programs are a series of publications produced by the 
Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM). The programs are prepared in addition 
to Regional Management Plans, and species Recovery and Interim Recovery Plans to provide 
information and guidance for the management and protection of certain exploited or threatened 
species. 
 
This program provides a brief description of the appearance, distribution, habitat and conservation 
status of flora declared as rare under the Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (Threatened 
Flora) and possibly threatened poorly known flora (Priority Flora) in CALM's Warren Region and 
makes recommendations for research and management actions that are necessary to ensure their 
continued survival. By ranking Threatened Flora in priority order for recovery action, Departmental 
staff and resources can be allocated to taxa most urgently in need of attention. 
 
Priority Flora that are under consideration for declaration are dealt with to a lesser extent than 
Declared Rare Flora, however, the information provided here should assist in the ongoing work of 
assessing the conservation status of these taxa. 
 
 
 
 
iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 
 
There are many people to be thanked for their assistance in this review of the declared rare and poorly 
known flora of the Warren Region. 
 
We are indebted to community members of the Warren Region Threatened Flora Recovery Team and 
CALM volunteers, Betty Carpenter, Ted Middleton, Gloria Jackson and the late Brenda Hammersley 
and Bill Jackson, for their enthusiastic contributions to team meetings, their knowledgeable field 
observations and taxonomic contributions, and for their years of assistance with the field work that 
has gone into the review; to volunteers, Cynthia Annels for assistance with field work, George 
Gardner, and Steve and Ryan Phillips for their contribution to locating populations of taxa of interest 
and to Brian Best (WA Herbarium volunteer) for his assistance with mosses and liverworts. 
 
Neville Marchant facilitated access to the WA Herbarium and its staff and provided discussion on 
Chamelaucium; Barbara Rye assisted with a range of taxa, as did Sue Patrick, Brendan Lepschi, 
Diana Papenfus, Alex Chapman, Ray Cranfield, Suzanne Curry and Nicki Robinson. Judy Wheeler 
made available her extensive species descriptions for the Flora of the South West and suggested a 
number of taxa needing review (many now included in the report). Beng Siew Mahon assisted with 
finding many original species descriptions and Chang Sha Fang, Sue Carroll, Meriel Falconer, Kaye 
Veryard, Phil Spencer and a number of herbarium volunteers assisted in processing the many voucher 
specimens originating from fieldwork associated with the review. 
 
Our thanks to Kath Meney (Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority) for her assistance with many 
unpublished restiads and likewise Barbara Briggs (Sydney), to Kristina Lemson for extensive 
assistance with Andersonia, Kelly Shephard for assistance with Thomasia and Lasiopetalum
Malcolm Trudgen with Astartea and Baeckea, Karen Wilson (Sydney) for her assistance in 
identifying various species in the Cyperaceae, Barry Conn (Sydney) for assistance with Hemiandra 
and  Mitreola, Jenny Hart (Sydney) for assistance with several species in the Apiaceae and Arthur 
Weston for locations and observations on a number of taxa. 
 
To Greg Keighery, Neil Gibson and Grant Wardell-Johnson for assistance with new taxa and 
population locations arising from their biogeographical and floristic work. 
 
To CALM staff from the two Warren districts and staff from Katanning (Wheatbelt region) and 
Albany (South Coast region) who have contributed to field surveys. In particular we would like to 
thank Ian Wilson, Erica Shedley, Simon Watkin (also as a consultant), Murray Carter, Mal Graham, 
Brian Whitred, Rod Annear, Carl Beck, Greg Freebury and Lawrie Anderson. 
 
Finally thanks to Verna Tunsell for her assistance with databasing and preparation of voucher 
specimens for lodging at the herbarium and editing of the first draft of this document. 
 
 
iv

ABBREVIATIONS 
 
 
Non standard abbreviations used through the document: 
 
5g 
CALM Act Section 5 g Reserve 
CLM CALM 
DoE 
Department of Environment 
DON Donnelly 
District 
FRA Frankland 
District 
MRWA 
Main Roads Western Australia 
ms 
manuscript (unpublished name) 
na not 
assessed 
NP National 
Park 
NR Nature 
Reserve 
PP Private 
Property 
River R 
River Reserve 
RR Road 
Reserve 
SHRes Shire 
Reserve 
SCR 
South Coast Region 
SF State 
Forest 
TR Timber 
Reserve 
UCL 
Unallocated Crown Land 
WR Water 
Reserve 
VCL 
Vacant Crown Land 
 
Other abbreviations retain their standard usage. 
 
In population tables, items appearing under the Land Status column in brackets indicate the intended 
land status under the 1994 Forest Management Plan; all others are current tenure. 
 
 
v

TABLE OF CONTENTS 
 
PART ONE – INTRODUCTION 

 
 
1. 
The Need for Management 

 
2. 
Objective of the Program 

 
3. 
Rare Flora Legislation and Guidelines for Gazettal 

 
4. 
CALM's Priority Flora List 

5. 
Responsibilities within the Department 

6. 
The Warren Region 

 6.1 
Climate 
7  
 6.2 
Geology 

 
6.3 Landforms and Soils 

 6.4 
Vegetation 
10 
7.   Botanical History of the Warren Region 
11 
 
 
PART TWO - DECLARED RARE FLORA IN THE WARREN REGION 
15 
 
Asplenium obtusatum G. Forster subsp. northlandicum Brownsey 
17 
Banksia verticillata R. Br. 
19 
Caladenia christineae Hopper & A.P. Br. 
21 
Caladenia dorrienii Domin 
23 
Caladenia harringtoniae Hopper & A.P. Br. 
25 
Caladenia winfieldii Hopper & A.P. Br. 
28 
Conostylis misera Endl. 
30 
Diuris drummondii Lindley 
32 
Drakaea micrantha Hopper & A.P. Br. 
34 
Kennedia glabrata Lindley 
36 
Laxmannia jamesii Keighery 
39 
Meziella trifida (Nees) Schindl. 
41 
Microtis globula R. Bates 
43 
Rhacocarpus rehmannianus (Müll. Hall.) Wijk & Margad.  
 var. 
webbianus (Müll. Hall.) J.-P. Frahm 
45 
Sphenotoma drummondii (Benth.) F. Muell. 
47 
Verticordia apecta E.A. George & A.S. George 
49 
Verticordia densiflora Lindl. var. pedunculata A.S. George 
51 
Verticordia fimbrilepis Turcz. subsp. australis A.S. George 
53 
 
PART THREE – PRIORITY FLORA IN THE WARREN REGION 
55 
 
1. Priority One Species 
55 
Andersonia redolens K. Lemson ms 
56 
Andersonia sp. Mitchell River (BGH 925) 
58 
Austrofestuca littoralis (Labill.) E.B. Alexeev 
60 
Caladenia evanescens Hopper & A.P. Br. 
62 
Carex tereticaulis F.Muell. 
64 
Cryptandra arbutiflora Fenzl var. pygmaea Rye 
66 
Deyeuxia inaequalis Vickery 
69 
Eriochilus scaber Lindley subsp. orbifolia Hopper & A.P. Br. ms 
70 
Eryngium sp. Lake Muir (E. Wittwer 2293) 
72 
Hydatella australis Diels 
74 
Pentapogon quadrifidus (Labill.) Baill. var. quadrifidus 76 
Sphaerolobium benetectum R. Butcher 
78 
Synaphea decumbens A.S. George 
80 
Tetratheca sp. Kent River B.G. (Hammersley 1791) 
82 
 
 
2. Priority Two Species 
84 
Andersonia annelsii K. Lemson ms 
85 
 
 
vi

Andersonia auriculata L. Watson 
87 
Andersonia hammersleyana K. Lemson ms 
90 
Andersonia virolens K. Lemson ms 
91 
Anthocercis sylvicola T. Macfarlane & Wardell-Johnson 
94 
Apodasmia ceramophila L.A.S. Johnson & B.G. Briggs ms 
96 
Borya longiscapa Churchill 
98 
Caladenia abbreviata Hopper & A.P Br. 
99 
Caladenia erythrochila Hopper & A.P. Br. 
101 
Caladenia luteola Hopper & A.P. Br. 
104 
Caladenia starteorum Hopper & A.P. Br. 
105 
Calothamnus sp. Mt. Lindesay (BGH 439) 
107 
Calymperastrum latifolium (Hampe) Stone 
109 
Chamaexeros longicaulis T. Macfarlane 
111 
Chamelaucium floriferum N. G. Marchant & Keighery  
 subsp. 
diffusum N.G. Marchant & Keighery ms 
114 
Chamelaucium forrestii (F. Muell.) N.G. Marchant & Keighery  
 subsp. forrestii ms 
116 
Chordifex jacksonii L.A.S. Johnson & B.G. Briggs ms 
118 
Cryptandra congesta Rye 
120 
Dampiera orchardii Rajput & Carolin 
121 
Diuris heberlei D.L. Jones 
124 
Drepanocladus aduncus (Hedw.) Warnst. 
126 
Drosera binata Labill. 
128 
Dryandra sessilis (Knight) Domin var. cordata (Meisn.) A.S. George 
130 
Eucalyptus virginea Hopper & Wardell-Johnson 
132 
Euphrasia scabra R. Br. 
134 
Fabronia hampeana Sond. 136 
Grevillea acropogon Makinson 138 
 
Grevillea fuscolutea Keighery 
140 
Hemiandra australis B. Conn ms 
142 
Hybanthus volubilis E.M. Bennett 
144 
Juncus meianthus K. L. Wilson 
146 
Laxmannia grandiflora subsp. brendae Keighery 
148 
Leptinella drummondii (Benth.) D.G. Lloyd & C.J. Webb 
150 
Lilaeopsis polyantha (Gand.) H. Eichler 
152 
Melaleuca pritzelii Domin (Barlow) 
154 
Mitreola minima B. Conn 
156 
Rorippa dictyosperma (Hook.) L. Johnson 
158 
Schizaea rupestris R. Br. 
160 
Schoenus fluitans Hook. F. 
162 
Selliera radicans Cav. 
164 
Sphagnum nova-zealandicum Mitt. 
166 
Spyridium riparium Rye 
168 
 
Thomasia quercifolia (Andrews) Gay 
170 
Verticordia endlicheriana Schauer var angustifolia A.S. George 
172 
Wurmbea sp. Cranbrook (A.R. Annels 3819)  
174 
 
 
3. Priority Three Species 
176 
Actinotus sp. Walpole (J.R. Wheeler 3786) 
177 
Alexgeorgea ganopoda B.G. Briggs & L.A.S. Johnson 
179 
Amperea protensa Nees 
181 
Andersonia amabile K. Lemson ms 
183 
Astartea sp. Mt. Johnston (ARA 4577) 
185 
Boronia anceps Paul G. Wilson 
187 
Boronia virgata Paul G. Wilson 
189 
Calytrix pulchella (Turcz.) B.D. Jackson 
191 
Chamelaucium floriferum N.G. Marchant & Keighery subsp. floriferum ms 
193 
Chorizema reticulatum Meissner 
195 
Cyathochaeta stipoides K.L. Wilson. 
197 
 
vii

Cyathochaeta teretifolia W. Fitzg. 
199 
Dicrastylis glauca Munir 
201 
Eucalyptus brevistylis Brooker 
203 
Gastrolobium formosum (Lindl.) G. Chandler & Crisp  
205 
Gonocarpus pusillus (Benth.) Orch. 
207 
Gonocarpus simplex (Britten) Orch. 
209 
Gonocarpus trichostachyus (Benth.) Orch. 
211 
Grevillea papillosa (McGillivray) P. Olde & N. Marriott 
213 
Lambertia rariflora Meisn. in Lelm. subsp. lutea Hnatiuk 
215 
Lasiopetalum cordifolium Endl.  
 subsp. 
acuminatum E. Bennett. &  K. Shepherd ms 
217 
Lomandra ordii (F.Muell.) Schltr. 
219 
Marianthus sylvaticus L. Cayzer & Crisp 
221 
Meeboldina crassipes (Pate & Meney) B.G. Briggs & L.A.S. Johnson 
223 
 
Meeboldina thysanantha L.A.S. Johnson & B.G. Briggs ms 
225 
Melaleuca diosmifolia Andrews 
227 
Melaleuca micromera Schau. 
228 
Melaleuca ringens Barlow 
231 
Pultenaea pinifolia Meissner 
233 
Sphenotoma parviflorum (Benth.) F. Muell. 
235 
Stirlingia divaricatissima A.S. George 
237 
Stylidium rhipidium F.L. Erickson & J.H. Willis 
239 
Synaphea intricata A.S. George 
241 
Synaphea preissii Meissner 
243 
Thelymitra jacksonii Hopper et A.P. Br. ex Jeanes ms 
245 
 
4. Priority Four – Rare, Near Threatened and other species in need of monitoring 
247 
 
 
PART FOUR – THE PLAN FOR MANAGEMENT 
248 
 
1.   Determining Priorities 
248 
2.   DRF – Management and Research Actions 
248 
 
2.1 Phytophthora dieback 
249 
 
2.2 Need for survey 
249 
 
2.3 Population size and few populations 
249 
 2.4 
Roadside 
250 
 
2.5 Private land negotiations 
250 
 
2.6 Land acquisition 
250 
 2.7 
Fencing 
251 
 2.8 
Mining 
251 
 2.9 
Recreation 
251 
 
2.10 Drought, flooding, groundwater, salinity increase and changing  
251 
 
   weather patterns 
 
 
2.11 Ex situ germ plasm conservation 
252 
 2.12 
Re-establishment 
252 
 
2.13 Road and track management, relocation and closure 
252 
 2.14 
Liaison 
253 
 2.15 
Monitoring 
253 
 2.16 
Research 
253 
 
2.17 Linear marking 
254 
 
2.18 Environmental weeds and feral animals 
254 
 
2.19 Fire management issues 
254 
3.  Priority Flora – management and Research Actions 
257 
 
3.1 Phytophthora dieback 
258 
 
 
3.2 Further surveys 
258 
 
3.3 Population size and few populations 
259 
 3.4 
Roadside 
259 
 
3.5 Private land negotiations 
259 
 
3.6 Land acquisition 
259 
 
viii

 3.7 
Fencing 
260 
 3.8 
Mining 
260 
 3.9 
Recreation 
260 
 
3.10 Drought, flooding, groundwater, salinity increase and changing  
260 
  
 
 weather patterns 
 
3.11 Ex situ germ plasm conservation 
260 
 3.12 
Re-establishment 
260 
 
3.13 Road and track management, relocation and closure 
261 
 3.14 
Liaison 
261 
 3.15 
Monitoring 
261 
 3.16 
Research 
261 
 
3.17 Linear marking 
262 
 
3.18 Environmental weeds and feral animals 
262 
 
3.19 Fire management issues 
262 
4.  Implementation and term of the Management Program 
271 
 
REFERENCES 
272 
 
GLOSSARY 
279 
 
APPENDICES 
292 
 
I  
Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 
292 
II   Wildlife Conservation (Rare Flora) Notice 2005 
294 
III   Department of CALM Policy statement No. 9  
300 
IV   Guidelines for surveys of plants proposed for DRF Schedule 
304 
 
TABLES 
 
1. 
Warren Region Declared Rare Flora scored (0-3) according to the degree 
  
of threat or urgency for management and research actions 
256 
2. 
The 19 Declared Rare Flora within the Warren region, ordered according 
 
 to the urgency of their requirement for protection and management 
257 
3. 
Warren Region priority flora scored within priority categories 0-3 according 
 
 to the degree of threat or urgency for management and research action 
263 
4. 
Priority flora that are known to occur in the Warren Region but are not  
 
included in the current management plan due to a lack of location and threat  
 
information. These taxa urgently require study and inclusion into the 
 
 regional strategy 
268 
5. 
The recommended conservation status of Priority Flora (Priority 1, 2 & 3) 
 
 in the Warren Region based upon surveys, number of populations and health 
 
 of the populations.  
269 
  
FIGURES 
 
1. 
Location of the Warren Region in relation to other CALM Regions in 
  
Western Australia 

2. 
The Warren Region contains two districts, Frankland and Donnelly.  
 
The major towns, roads and rivers are also shown 
13 
 
 
 
 
ix

 
 
x

PART ONE - INTRODUCTION
 
 
1. T
HE 
N
EED 
F
OR 
M
ANAGEMENT
 
Western Australia (WA) has a unique flora world renowned for its diversity and high level of 
endemism. As at June 2004 the WA herbarium lists 12,672 vascular plant taxa (including alien taxa) 
with the total likely to exceed 14,000 once botanists have completed surveying, searching and 
describing the flora. A significant proportion of the WA total is concentrated in the south-west of the 
state which has a high level of endemism due to a long history of effective genetic isolation, combined 
with climatic and geologic stability through the Tertiary, followed by climatic fluctuation and active 
landscape evolution in the Quaternary (Hopper, 1979). According to Briggs and Leigh (1995), the 
state has 46% of the Australian total of threatened, rare or poorly known plant species with 82% 
restricted to the south-west.  
Rareness of a species in any community or locality is a natural phenomenon and an integral part of 
evolutionary processes in the landscape. Rareness may be exhibited in any one or combination of low 
total numbers, low numbers of populations, confinement to restricted habitats, or simply through 
having a restricted distribution (narrow endemics). Many plant species in WA are naturally rare and 
some of these are being threatened by natural processes.  
Many of WA’s rare species, and some others that would not have been considered rare prior to 
European colonisation in 1750, are now threatened due to the activities of European colonisation. 
Extensive land clearing and modification of the environment have resulted in the extinction of some 
species and threatens the survival of many others. Continued land clearing, the presence of disease 
(particularly Phytophthora species), exotic weeds and pests, road works, domestic grazing and salinity 
continue to threaten many flora species. 
The Wildlife Conservation Act 1950, Conservation and Land Management Act 1984, and Department 
of Conservation and Land Management (CALM) policies relevant to flora and fauna provide the 
legislative basis and guidelines for the conservation of the State's indigenous plant and animal species. 
Under the Wildlife Conservation Act, CALM is responsible for the protection of flora and fauna on all 
lands and waters throughout the State. Section 23F of the Act (Appendix I) gives the Minister 
responsible for the Act (currently Minister for the Environment) statutory responsibility for the 
protection of those plant taxa declared to be rare (defined as “threatened taxa” under IUCN criteria). 
In 2004, 357 extant taxa were listed as Declared Rare Flora (DRF) and a further 15 taxa were listed on 
the schedule as presumed extinct (Appendix II). Brown et al. (1998) provide illustrations of all DRF 
known at that time, discuss the conservation of WA’s threatened species and review the relevant 
legislation, policy, research and management activities of CALM

In addition to those with legislative 
protection, 2,124 taxa were listed on CALM's priority flora list (Atkins 2004) as requiring further 
detailed survey to accurately assess their conservation status.  
This Wildlife Management Program collates the available biological, Ecological and management 
information for the majority of DRF and Priority One, Two and Three flora in CALM's Warren 
Region, as at the 30
th
 September 2004. Several taxa were collected for the first time during fieldwork 
associated with this review.  
In the time that has elapsed since the first draft of this Wildlife Management Program, several new 
taxa have been added to the regions priority flora list. However, these taxa have not been added to this 
final document due to time limitations (see Table 4). As the program is a working document that will 
be available in loose leaf and bound format it is intended that the additional priority taxa, and any 
newly identified declared rare taxa, will be added as a Supplement in the same format as the present 
version of the plan. 
 
 
1

Figure 1. Location of the Warren Region in relation to other CALM Regions in Western Australia 
 
 
         
 
 
 
 
2

 The Warren Region (also referred to as the Region, Figure 1) covers about 14,230 km
2
 of which 
about 66% is managed by CALM. Much of this is made up of contiguous tracts of land of varying 
tenure and management purpose, but significant ‘island’ reserves within the cleared agricultural 
landscape also exist to the north-east, east and south-east, many of these under threat from salination 
and weed invasion. Phytophthora dieback is also a serious threat to many important plant communities 
in the Region. Climate change, resulting from global warming associated with the greenhouse effect, 
is a further significant threat to the Region’s flora. 
2. O
BJECTIVE OF THE 
P
ROGRAM
 
The objective of this Wildlife Management Program (flora) is: 
To ensure and enhance, by appropriate management, the continued survival in the wild of populations 
of Declared Rare Flora and other flora species that are potentially at risk, or otherwise of conservation 
interest. 
It aims to achieve this by: 
•  providing a useful reference for CALM staff and other land managers for the day to day 
management and protection of Declared Rare Flora populations and populations of other flora 
that are poorly known and may be at risk; 
•  directing Departmental resources within the Region to those flora species that are most urgently 
in need of attention; 
•  assisting in the identification of Declared Rare Flora and other flora species that are potentially at 
risk, and their likely habitats; and 
•  fostering an appreciation and increased awareness of the importance of protecting and conserving 
Declared Rare Flora and other flora species potentially at risk, or otherwise of conservation 
interest. 
3. R
ARE 
F
LORA 
L
EGISLATION AND 
G
UIDELINES FOR 
G
AZETTAL
 
Wildlife Conservation Act  
The  Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 protects all classes of indigenous flora throughout the State. 
Protected flora includes: 
Spermatophyta - flowering plants, conifers and cycads 
Pteridophyta - ferns and fern allies 
Bryophyta - mosses and liverworts 
Thallophyta - algae, fungi and lichens 
Section 23F of the Act (Appendix I) provides special protection to those taxa (species, subspecies, 
varieties, hybrids) considered by the Minister to be: 
•  likely to become extinct; 
•  is rare; or 
•  is otherwise in need of special protection.;  
Protection under section 23F is achieved by declaring taxa to be 'rare' by notice published in the 
Government Gazette (Appendix II). CALM's Policy Statement No. 9 (Appendix III) discusses the 
legislation relating to declared rare flora (DRF) and outlines the criteria for gazettal. 
Under the provisions of Section 23F, the 'taking', by any person, of DRF is prohibited by any person 
on any category of land throughout the State without the written consent of the Minister. A breach of 
the Act is liable to a penalty of up to $10,000. The legislation refers only to wild growing populations 
and applies equally to Government officers and private citizens on Crown and private land. 
To 'take' in relation to any flora includes 'to gather, pluck, cut, pull up, destroy, dig up, remove or 
injure the flora or to cause or permit the same to be done by any means'. This includes not only direct 
destruction or injury by human hand or machine but also such activities as allowing grazing by stock, 
introducing pathogens, altering water tables so as to inundate or deprive the flora of adequate soil 
moisture, allowing air pollutants to harm foliage, and burning. 
 
 
3

Policy 9 
The schedule published in the Government Gazette is revised annually to accommodate additions and 
deletions to the DRF list. To qualify for gazettal, plants must satisfy the following criteria as defined 
in Policy Statement No. 9 (Appendix III): 
•  The species occurs naturally in Western Australia, is well defined and represented by a voucher 
specimen in a State or National Herbarium. While it need not necessarily be formally described 
under conventions in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, such a description is 
preferred and should be undertaken as soon as possible after listing on the schedule. 
•  It has been established that the species in the wild: 
a)  is extinct, i.e., there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died, or 
b)  meets criteria for listing as threatened in the current version of IUCN Red List Categories  
Prepared by the IUCN Species Survival Commission. 
In addition hybrids, or suspected hybrids, which satisfy the above criteria also must be: 
•  a distinct entity, that is, the progeny are consistent with the agreed taxonomic limits for that taxon 
group; 
•  capable of being self perpetuating, that is, not reliant on the parental taxa for replacement; and 
•  the product of a natural event, that is, both parents are naturally occurring and cross fertilisation 
was by natural means.  
The list of rare flora is gazetted in two sections: taxa that are still extant (Threatened – Schedule 1); 
and those which are presumed to be extinct (Schedule 2).The status of a threatened plant species in 
cultivation has no bearing on this matter. The status of translocated populations will be considered 
five years after establishment.  
Plants may be deleted from the Rare Flora schedule where: 
•  Recent botanical survey has shown that the taxon is no longer rare, endangered or in need of 
special protection; 
•  The taxon is no longer in danger of extinction because it has been adequately protected by 
reservation of land on which it occurs or because population numbers have increased beyond the 
danger point. 
Western Australian Threatened Species Scientific Committee  
Recommendations for adding or removing flora to or from the list of Declared Rare Flora are made to 
the Western Australia Threatened Species Scientific Committee (WATSSC). 
WATSSC has the responsibility for:  
•  Reviewing and making recommendations at least annually to the Minister, via the Executive 
Director of the Department of Conservation and Land Management and the Conservation 
Commission of Western Australia and/or the Marine Parks and Reserves Authority, on listings of 
threatened flora and of threatened and specially protected fauna under the Wildlife Conservation 
Act 1950
•  Allocating threatened flora and fauna to IUCN categories of threat or to ‘Conservation 
Dependent’ at least annually, for endorsement by the Minister;  
•  Recommending to the Executive Director species of fauna and flora for addition to or deletion 
from the priority fauna and flora lists; and 
•  providing advice and recommendations to the Executive Director in respect of research and 
management needs arising from its reviews of threatened species lists, threat categories and 
priority species lists. 
In carrying out the above, WATSSC will consider the status of Western Australian species throughout 
their total natural range in Australia, and where appropriate their range and status outside Australia. 
 
 
4

4. CALM'

P
RIORITY 
F
LORA 
L
IST
 
CALM maintains a priority flora list to determine priorities for survey of plants of uncertain 
conservation status. In 2004 the list comprised 2,124 taxa that are poorly known and in need of high 
priority survey, or are adequately surveyed but in need of monitoring. Poorly known taxa are possibly 
at risk but do not meet the survey requirements for gazettal as DRF, as outlined in Policy Statement 
No. 9. Only those plants considered on the basis of thorough survey to be rare, threatened, or 
presumed extinct, can be included on the DRF schedule. 
Possibly threatened flora species that do not meet survey criteria are added to the Priority Flora lists 
under Priorities 1, 2 or 3. These three categories are ranked in order of priority for survey and 
evaluation of conservation status so that consideration can be given to their declaration as threatened 
flora. Species that are adequately known, are rare but not threatened, or meet criteria for Near 
Threatened, or that have been recently removed from the threatened list for other than taxonomic 
reasons, are placed in Priority 4. These species require regular monitoring. Conservation Dependent 
species are placed in Priority 5.  
Priority One - Poorly known Species 
Species which are known from one or a few (generally less than five) populations or collections which 
are under threat, either due to small population size, or being on lands under immediate threat, e.g. 
road verges, urban areas, farmland, active mineral leases, etc., or the plants are under threat, e.g. from 
disease, grazing by feral animals, etc.  May include taxa with threatened populations on protected 
lands.  Such taxa are under consideration for declaration as 'rare flora', but are in urgent need of 
further survey.  
Priority Two - Poorly Known Species 
Species which are known from one or a few (generally less than five) populations or collections, at 
least some of which are not believed to be under immediate threat (i.e. not currently endangered).  
Such taxa are under consideration for declaration as 'rare flora', but are in urgent need of further 
survey.  
Priority Three - Poorly Known Species  
Species which are known from several populations or collections, and the taxa are not believed to be 
under immediate threat (i.e. not currently endangered), either due to the number of known populations 
(generally greater than five), or known populations being large, and either widespread or protected.  
Such taxa are under consideration for declaration as 'rare flora' but are in need of further survey.  
Priority Four - Rare Species 
Species that have been adequately surveyed and while being rare (in Australia), are not currently 
threatened by any identifiable factors. These taxa require monitoring every 5-10 years. Priority four 
species are: 
•  Rare. Species that are considered to have been adequately surveyed, or for which sufficient 
knowledge is available, and that are considered not currently threatened or in need of special 
protection, but could be if present circumstances change.  These species are usually represented 
on conservation lands.  
•  Near Threatened. Species that are considered to have been adequately surveyed and that do not 
qualify for Conservation Dependent, but that are close to qualifying for Vulnerable. 
•  Species that have been removed from the list of threatened species during the past five years for 
reasons other than taxonomy. 
Priority Five: Conservation Dependent species 
Species that are not threatened but are subject to a specific conservation program, the cessation of 
which would result in the species becoming threatened within five years. 
5.     R
ESPONSIBILITIES WITHIN THE 
D
EPARTMENT
 
•  Reviewing Departmental policy on Declared Rare Flora is the responsibility of the CALM 
Corporate Executive; 
 
 
5

•  Nomination of  flora for Declaration as Threatened Flora is the responsibility of the Warren 
Region, including the Frankland and Donnelly Districts, and Species and Communities Branch 
(SCB); 
•  Identification of Declared Rare Flora is the initial responsibility of the WA Herbarium and other 
specialist CALM staff, but should, with appropriate training, also become a Regional 
responsibility; 
•  Overall coordination of, and general assistance with, recovery of threatened species and 
ecological communities is provided by SCB; 
•  Locating Declared Rare Flora is the responsibility of the CALM’s Science, Nature Conservation 
and Regional Services Divisions; 
•  Determination of land status and preparation of material for notification to landowners is the 
responsibility of SCB; 
•  Hand-delivered notification to landowners of Declared Rare Flora populations is the 
responsibility of Regional staff and SCB; 
•  Maintenance of Declared Rare Flora information and database, and dissemination of these data 
are the responsibility of SCB; 
•  Advice on management prescriptions is the responsibility of CALM’s Science Division staff, 
Program leaders (Regional Services Division), and specialist staff in SCB (Nature Conservation 
Division); 
•  Coordination of Recovery Plans and Interim Recovery Plans for threatened taxa is the 
responsibility of SCB; 
•  Management, protection and regular inspection of Declared Rare Flora populations are the 
responsibility of staff of the Warren Region, and the Frankland and Donnelly Districts; 
•  Enforcement matters relating to the provisions of the Wildlife Conservation Act are the 
responsibility of Wildlife and Regional Services staff in the Warren Region; 
•  Convening Regional or District Threatened Flora Recovery Teams, reporting on their activities 
and the implementation of Regional recovery plans are the responsibility of Warren Region. 
•  Implementation and revision of the management program are the responsibility of the Warren 
Region and the Frankland and Donnelly Districts through the Warren Region Threatened Flora 
Recovery Team. 
6. T
HE 
W
ARREN 
R
EGION
 
CALM’s Warren Region lies on the western south coast of Western Australia, extending 240 km from 
the Wilson Inlet (Denmark) west to Black Point (45 km west of Pemberton), inland to just south of 
Nannup, to Bridgetown, Frankland, Rocky Gully, Cranbrook, Mount Barker, and south to Denmark 
along the Hay River. It is bounded by CALM's South Coast Region (Albany District) to the east, the 
Wheatbelt Region (Katanning District) to the north-east, and the South West Region (Blackwood 
District) to the north and west. 
The Warren Region includes parts of the Shires of Plantagenet, Cranbrook, Boyup Brook, 
Bridgetown-Greenbushes and Nannup, and the entire area of the Manjimup and Denmark Shires. 
Manjimup is the largest town of the Region, with Pemberton, Walpole, Denmark, Mount Barker, 
Bridgetown, Northcliffe, Nornalup and Rocky Gully making up the other significant population 
centres in or surrounding the Region. 
The Region covers an area of about 14,230 km
2
 (1,423,000 ha.), and is managed as two Districts, 
Frankland and Donnelly. When the Forest Management Plan (1994), the WA Regional Forest 
Agreement (1999) and the “Protecting our Old Growth Forests Policy” (2001) have been fully 
implemented, CALM will manage 66% of the Region (18% State Forest, 46% National Park, 
Conservation Park and Nature Reserve, and 2% as 5g CALM Act Reserve, Forest Conservation Area 
and Unallocated Crown Land). Private landowners, Shires and other Agencies will manage the 
remaining 34% of the Region. 
The Region contains a relatively high proportion of the State’s relictual and Gondwanan flora (Hopper 
et al. 1996). There is also a high incidence of narrow endemism associated with wetlands and with 
 
 
6

granitic and gneissic outcrops and peaks, Mount Lindesay being an outstanding example. Many of 
these narrow endemics are rare, potentially at risk or otherwise of conservation interest. Many families 
and genera in the lower relief wetland complexes also show evidence of recent speciation that are 
proving difficult to resolve taxonomically. These include taxa which are already known to be, or may 
prove to be rare. 
6.1 Climate 
The Warren Region has a Mediterranean climate with relatively mild, wet winters and warm, dry 
summers. Rainfall varies from over 1400 mm in a belt from Northcliffe to Walpole, to about 1100 mm 
between Manjimup and Denmark, tapering off in the north-east to about 650 mm in the Rocky Gully, 
Tonebridge and Perup area. Occasional summer rainfall is a feature of coastal areas in the Region. 
The climate is also characterised by short summer droughts and relatively low evapo-transpiration 
rates, ranging from less than 400mm around Walpole, to 450mm between Mt. Barker and Pemberton
500mm from Rocky Gully to Manjimup, and 500 - 550mm in the Manjimup, Bridgetown and Nannup 
area. Gentilli (1989) has demonstrated that the interaction between total annual rainfall and summer 
evapo-transpiration rates largely accounts for the distribution of forest types (based on overstorey 
species and structure) in the south-west. 
Climate change across the Region has significant implications for rare flora, particularly the relictual 
and Gondwana flora. There has been a strong reducing trend in annual rainfall over the last century in 
the Walpole and Denbarker area, with a milder trend for the remainder of the Region (Tapp 1997). 
The changes in moisture regimes act directly on some plant communities, and indirectly on others 
through changes in fire intensity and frequency associated with drier regimes. These changes provide 
a challenge to managers to develop methods to conserve sensitive taxa, and in some cases whole plant 
communities. 
6.2 Geology 
The four tectonic units recognised in Warren Region are the Yilgarn Craton, the Albany-Fraser 
Orogen, the Stirling Range Formation, and the Perth Basin. The Tamala Limestone Formation, which 
overlays the southern margin of the latter three, has also had significant impact on the present 
landforms and soils of the Region. (Johnstone et al. 1973). 
Geological events, such as upward flexure and downward warping, began shaping the landscape 
during and after the separation and northward drift from Antartica. In addition, erosion, weathering 
and laterisation, ocean incursions and the changing climate have all acted on the four basic tectonic 
units to form the landscape seen today. 
Yilgarn Craton 
The ancient rocks from the Archaean (2,600-3,100 million years ago) are largely composed of gneiss 
and granite with enclaves of highly metamorphosed and deformed sedimentary deposits. The 
underlying granite is covered by the products of weathering, but may occasionally surface as rounded 
hills. 
The Yilgarn Craton lies north of the Albany-Fraser Orogen and east of the Perth Basin. It includes the 
Warrup, Kingston and north Perup areas in the north of the Region, and the Donnelly and Fly Brook 
areas in the west. 
Albany-Fraser Orogen 
The majority of the Warren Region is situated on the western portion of the Albany-Fraser Orogen. 
This unit is composed of Proterozoic gneisses and granites that are 1,100-1,400 million years old, and 
is generally overlain with the products of weathering, erosion and laterisation. The underlying bedrock 
material occasionally appears as low outcropping surfaces of gneiss or granite, or on the more 
southerly and recently incised slopes, as granite hills, ridges and monadnocks of the Burnside 
Batholith.  
Recent hydrogeological investigations near Lake Muir have encountered highly metamorphosed and 
deformed sediments, similar to those of the Stirling Range Formation, embedded within this unit. 
The Albany-Fraser Orogen abuts the Stirling Range Formation to the east, and the Yilgarn Craton to 
the north and west. 
Stirling Range Formation 
 
 
7

Slightly younger than the Albany-Fraser Orogen, the Stirling Range Formation is presumed to be 
Middle Proterozoic (1,100 million year old), with sequences of highly metamorphosed and deformed 
sediments (sandstones and shale) forming schist, phyllite and quartzite. The Stirling Range Formation 
occurs in the south-east corner of the Region, taking in Denmark, William Bay, Mount Lindesay and 
Mount Barker. 
Perth Basin 
The Perth Basin is of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary origin (65 - 300 million years old), and 
includes intrusions of Bunbury Basalt dated at about 115 million years old. The Donnybrook 
Sunklands and the Blackwood Plateau in the adjoining South West CALM Region form part of the 
Perth Basin. 
In the Warren region, the Perth Basin includes the area of the Donnelly Valley west of the Darling 
Scarp, and the Lake Jasper to Black Point area. 
Tamala Limestone Formation 
The Tamala Limestone Formation fringes much of the coastline. This was laid down relatively 
recently during a period of ocean incursion during the Pleistocene, and is only a few hundred thousand 
years old. 
6.3 Landforms 
and 
Soils 
The landforms and soils have been mapped for most of the Warren Region by Churchward et al. 
(1988) and Churchward (1992). The area east of the Perup River and north of Lake Muir was 
completed during 1997 as part of the RFA, and further refined in 1999, including the Tonebridge area 
(Smolinski, 1999). About 110 landform units and sub-units are now recognised in the Region. The 
high correlation between these landform units, habitat type and vegetation community provides a 
useful planning tool for flora surveys and other work with rare flora. 
A number of major geomorphic units are recognised and are based on the four geological units above 
and include a wide range of landforms and soils. 
One of the major geomorphic units in the Region is the Darling Plateau, which prior to the time of 
separation from Antarctica, was an old highly weathered landscape of low relief. There was a general 
uplifting of the plateau to an elevation of about 300 meters when it rifted along its southern margin. 
This uplifted Darling Plateau is seen both east and north of Manjimup.  
Thin marine sediments (late Tertiary) of the Plantagenet Group, dominated by Pallinup Siltstone, but 
including some sandstone and limestone, were later deposited up to 200 m thick following marine 
transgressions of the Bremer Basin (Hocking 1990). Erosion of the Plantagenet Siltstone covering the 
Stirling Range Formation has resulted in the formation of a low plateau in the south east of the region. 
Down warping of the southern parts of this plateau resulted in development of the Ravensthorpe 
Ramp, which gradually falls to sea level, and led to partial dissection by new, relatively short, south-
flowing drainages. Activation of drainage and erosion processes on this Ramp has resulted in the 
development of complex belts of hills and sandy, swampy corridors across its southern parts, while 
much of its northern parts retain the character of the old plateau. 
Coastal limestone lain down during the Pleistocene, and dune systems of more recent age, have acted 
as barriers to south flowing drainage systems, leading to the development of low swampy plains 
between the coastline and the Ravensthorpe Ramp. 
Drainage lines make up the last major geomorphic unit, and these vary in age and form across the 
Region.  
Landform units on the Darling Plateau 
The Darling Plateau is characterised by broad shallow drainage floors and broad flat interfluves, with 
some local relief being provided by low hills with varying amounts of duricrust present. Two major 
groups of units exist, those that have developed on crystalline rock basements and those on quartzite 
and unconsolidated sediments. 
In the lower rainfall zone, internally drained excavation basins of low relief, and with a fill of aeolian 
and fluvial sediments become significant, such as Lake Muir and Unicup basins. These basins are 
commonly complex fresh and salt lake systems. 
 
 
8

Drainage from these swampy tracts is by shallow creek valleys feeding ‘old’ rivers of the Darling 
Drainage System, such as the Blackwood River, and by ‘young’ rivers that arise in and dissect this 
area, and which drain generally southward. 
Soils range from duplex to gradational soils, loamy sands, gravelly sands, gravels, podzols, humic 
podzols, red and yellow earths, cracking and non cracking clays, and solonetzic soils. 
Landform units on the hill and swamp corridor complex 
This complex is characterised by a pattern of prominent ridges and hills, often with exposed granite 
peaks and surfaces, and swampy corridors. While the complex’s origins are in the deep erosion of the 
older deeply weathered mantle, the corridors have low gradient and as a consequence are waterlogged 
for long periods. Marine sediments from the Eocene have been found in the corridors. 
Soils on the ridges and hills vary through a range of duplex soils of different origin and composition 
and degree of laterisation, to granite outcrops, areas of duricrust, and occasional deep sands and 
podzols. 
Soils in the swampy corridors include podzols, humic and peaty podzols, deep sands, and solonetzic 
soils, with red earths and duplex soils on slight rises with improved drainage. 
Landform units on Plantagenet siltstones 
This area is characterised by a gently sloping sandy plain of generally poor drainage, often internally 
drained to circular swamps, with a number of prominent granite ridges and monadnocks (for example 
the Bennett Range and Mount Lindesay) rising from its surface. 
Soils include duplex soils with laterite, solonetzic soils, sands, lateritic and gravely sands, and 
podzols. 
Landform units on coastal aeolian and fluviatile sediments and Tamala Limestone 
The coastal strip is generally characterised by a seaward barrier of outcropping limestone overlaid 
with shallow soils, and broken with blocks of granite, estuary outfalls, sand dunes, and at Black Point, 
by Bunbury Basalt. A complex of parabolic dunes, variously consolidated or of unstable sand, and 
interdune plains lie inland from this barrier. Between these dunes and the exposed parts of the 
Ravensthorpe Ramp are a complex series of low relief sandy, swampy plains, lakes and estuaries. 
Soils range from shallow brown sand on the limestone, to calcareous and siliceous sands and podzols 
on the dune formations, to peat, humic podzols, podzols, deep sands, gley duplex and solonetzic soils 
on the low plains. 
Landform units on the Darling Scarp 
The Darling Scarp in the Region lacks the steep irregular slopes and exposed rock as seen to the north; 
it is characterised by smooth gentle valley slopes and dissections mantled by lateritic gravels and 
duricrust on ridges, with sands in the valleys. As a result of the down warping, the Darling Scarp 
disappears under the swampy plains in the vicinity of the confluence of the Donnelly River and the 
Carey Brook. 
Soils vary from gradational loamy sands, duplex soils and gravelly sands. 
Landform units on the Blackwood Plateau 
Due to the lower elevation, Blackwood Plateau elements have graded into the Scott Plains in the lake 
Jasper area, and only intrude into the Warren Region as pockets along the plateau’s eastern margins at 
the base of the Darling Scarp. These pockets have similar characteristics as the Donnybrook Sunkland. 
While landforms are similar to the low relief areas of the Darling Plateau, their Mesozoic origins have 
produced slightly different landforms and soils. Soils range from duplex soils with sandy A horizons 
to humic podzols, gravelly earths, clayey loams, and grey sands. 
Landform units associated with drainage lines 
As noted above, drainage from the swampy tracts of the Darling Plateau is by shallow creek valleys 
feeding the ‘old’ rivers of the Darling Drainage system, generally draining west and sharply truncated 
at the Darling Scarp, and by a number of the ‘young’ rivers which also arise in and dissect this area, 
but drain generally southward. 
 
 
9

The ‘young’ rivers are the major drainage lines cutting across the general west-north-west grain of the 
country. With shallow valleys in their headwaters, they become more incised in their middle reaches, 
becoming narrow defiles, often rocky, as they pass through the ridges associated with this grain. 
Broad perched swampy tracts are typically left on the interfluves adjacent to these young rivers. Most 
of these rivers terminate in coastal lakes and inlets. 
There are a large number of landforms and soils within this group which differ significantly between 
river systems and these are described in Churchward et al. (1988) and Churchward (1992). The 
landform units and soils associated with drainage lines are important, as a number of rare taxa are 
restricted to them. 
6.4 Vegetation 
The majority of the Region lies within the Menzies and Warren subdistricts of the Darling botanical 
district. 
Different systems of classification have been developed by various authors to describe the vegetation 
systems and associations across the region (Smith, 1972; Beard, 1980; Christensen et al. 1985; 
Christensen, 1992), and at a community level based on floristics (Strelein 1988; Wardell-Johnson et 
al., 1989; Inions et al., 1990; Wardell-Johnson and Williams, 1996; Lyons et al., 2000). Extensive 
mapping has also been conducted in the Byenup-Muir reserve system (Gibson and Keighery, 2000). 
Gentilli (1989) has demonstrated that the interaction between total annual rainfall and summer evapo-
transpiration rates largely accounts for the distribution of forest types in the south-west. Landform and 
soils then define vegetation pattern at a more local level. Field observations, and patterns in the 
distribution of threatened flora in the Region, indicate this model can be generalised and extended to 
non forest types (J. Havel, personal communication). 
Work to integrate these separate studies and fill in gaps in data and knowledge was undertaken by 
Mattiske and Havel. (1998) for the Regional Forest Agreement (RFA) in Western Australia. The 
result was the production of a series of maps of Vegetation Complexes of the RFA Region 
(1:250,000), with most of the CALM Warren Region being covered. The approach used a broad scale 
environmental framework, based upon climate and landform, within which the finer scale vegetation 
patterns were then mapped. Ecological vegetation systems were subsequently mapped by Mattiske 
and Havel (1999) at a scale of 1:500,000. 
Structurally, the vegetation of the Warren Region can be classified into nine major groups (after 
Christensen, 1992):  
1.  High open forests generally occupy suitable landforms within a high rainfall zone defined by the 
1100 mm rainfall limit and summer evapo-transpiration rates below about 500 mm. Typically 
karri (Eucalyptus diversifolia), jarrah (E. marginata) and marri (Corymbia calophylla) occur in 
various combinations across the range. Tingle (Eucalyptus guilfoylei,  E. jacksonii and E. 
brevistylis) become significant where summer evapo-transpiration is below 420 mm. High open 
forest occurs principally as a belt from south of Nannup, through the area between Northcliffe 
and Manjimup to Walpole and east to Denmark.  
2.  Open forests, predominantly jarrah, marri and yarri (Eucalyptus patens) in various mixtures 
occupy most of the remainder of the Region where soils are suitable. Usually the limits of this 
vegetation group can be defined by rainfall, but extensive tracts also occur within the high open 
forest belt where soils will only support forests of lower stature.  
3.  Woodlands, predominantly composed of wandoo (Eucalyptus wandoo), jarrah, marri and yate (E. 
cornuta) occur to a limited extent in the north east of the region, with significant occurrences of 
Albany blackbutt (E. staeri) and red flowering gum (E. ficifolia) woodlands in the south. Again, 
the pattern of distribution of this group appears to be controlled by the combination of rainfall and 
summer evapo-transpiration.  
4.  Low woodlands occur throughout the Region, these varying greatly in species composition and 
site type. They grade into low forest at times and generally occupy sites unable to sustain forest, 
such as dry sandy, or wetter sandy sites, coastal dunes or shallow soils over rock. Coastal banksia 
woodlands may need assessment and consideration for listing as a threatened ecological 
community.  
5.  Closed heaths are common on permanently moist sites and are typified by occurrences of 
MelaleucaKunzeaAgonis, Taxandria and Homalospermum. A number of community types can 
 
 
10

be distinguished within the group. Indications are that they are important communities for rare 
and threatened flora.  
6.  Open heath occurs in limited areas in the east, usually with scattered occurrences of flat-topped 
yate (Eucalyptus occidentalis) and redheart (E. decipiens). Again a number of community types 
can be distinguished within the group.  
7.  Sedgelands make up a major part of the vegetation of the Region, usually on sites low in the 
landscape and typically inundated for extended periods during the year. Wardell-Johnson  and 
Williams  (1996) and unpublished work by Gibson suggest a large number of community types 
exist within this group, and indications are that they will demonstrate a high degree of association 
between geology, rainfall and summer evapo-transpiration rates. Furthermore, they are also 
important communities for rare and threatened flora as endemism in this group of community 
types is high. 
8.  Granitic monadnocks, and to a lesser extent gneissic and basaltic outcrops, are important but 
variable communities within the Region. Most occur across the south and are associated with the 
Albany - Fraser Orogen and are very significant for rare and threatened flora. Mt. Lindesay is the 
largest single complex and possibly the most significant granitic monadnock for threatened flora. 
Endemism within this group is high at a very local scale.  
9.  Rivers and wetlands also form an important vegetation group, and include inland and coastal 
lakes and wetlands, rivers, estuaries and inlets. They contain a diverse group of important 
communities that are significant for rare and threatened flora.  
Observations during field work and review of habitat of the Region’s rare and priority flora indicate 
the greatest number of taxa investigated occur in communities at the extremes in the landscape, the 
swamps and wet margins of rivers and ocean, and in association with exposed granitic and gneissic 
features, including isolated inselbergs. Mount Lindesay is particularly rich in rare and priority flora 
taxa. 
Evidence is also strong that most rare taxa are either Gondwanan relicts or are recently evolved, and 
are closely associated with rare and threatened communities in the Region, such as the Sphagnum bog 
community. Further work is needed to identify these threatened communities for protection, not at the 
community level as in the recent floristic studies, but as sub-units within vegetation groups at the 
extremes noted above. 
7. B
OTANICAL 
H
ISTORY OF THE 
W
ARREN 
R
EGION
 
The botanical history of the Warren Region is relatively recent and poorly documented. Areas near 
Albany, Busselton and Augusta were visited by the French and English long before European 
settlement in Western Australia. However, the coast and hinterland between Augusta and Albany were 
largely inaccessible to these early European visitors, due to lack of any significant natural harbours or 
safe moorings. 
Even after settlement, visitors such as Drummond (1840-1851) and Preiss (1838-1844) explored the 
edges of the region but did not proceed further within it. 
One of the first significant collectors to visit the area was Oldfield during the late 1850’s. While his 
locality data are poor (and a problem in relation to a number of taxa addressed in this study), it is 
apparent he traversed the northern and eastern parts of the region. Among his collections was the type 
collection of karri, Eucalyptus diversicolor, a dominant forest tree in the Region. 
The second significant collector to venture into the Region in the 1870’s was Maxwell, an associate of 
Drummond, who ventured west from Albany to the vicinity of the Frankland River. 
Mueller visited the area in late 1877 (Broke, Shannon, Upper Blackwood, Burrabunup and Mt. 
Lindesay are mentioned) accompanied by Muir, a local settler who subsequently became a major 
collector in the region for Mueller. Another local, Mrs McHard, likewise became a significant 
collector for Mueller across the Blackwood and the northern parts of the Region in the 1880’s. 
In 1901 Diels ventured west into the Denmark and eastern parts of the Region, as did Dorrien-Smith 
during 1905. In the spring and summer of 1912-13, S.W. Jackson (and F. Thompson) visited the Bow 
River - Walpole/Nornalup area, primarily to collect birds, but made major botanical collections at the 
same time. A number of Jackson’s collections have been at the centre of this study, including the 
previously presumed extinct taxa, Tetratheca elliptica and Chordifex jacksonii
 
 
11

In 1916 and 1917, F.M.C. Schock visited the region making significant collections. In 1920, Charles 
Gardner made the first of many collections. 
There were a number of other collectors in addition to Gardner during the 1920’s. These included 
Miss Knox-Peden, Max Koch and W.M. Carne, who were all active in the Manjimup - Pemberton 
area, usually sending material on to Melbourne. In 1928 Meebold visited the Denmark area, his 
collections being significant when sent back to Europe. 
The depression and war years were lean botanically, though a couple of notable collectors, W.E. 
Blackall and Erickson (both of whom had a significant impact on botany in the State), were active in 
the area. 
While there was a slight increase post-war in botanical collecting in the Region, activity was generally 
low until the 1960’s. A number of collectors and botanists destined to have a major impact on 
Australian botany began visiting the Region during this period, notably Royce, Powell, George, 
Green, Erickson and G.G. Smith. 
During the post-war period there was limited activity in the Region other than two exceptions. A burst 
of activity occurred in 1947-48, the years immediately following the sealed road reaching Manjimup. 
In addition, Churchill collected plants in association with his palynological studies in the Walpole 
area. The debate over his work is ongoing and work flowing from these studies has been significant in 
the botanical history of the area, and in this current review. 
Since the 1950’s the region has been on the travel route for many ‘itinerant’ botanists, local, interstate 
and from overseas, all of whom have contributed through their collections. 
Notable individual contributions have been made by a number of residents of the region. From the 
mid 1970’s, Albany Wildflower Society members, Eileen Croxford and her sister, Mary Sherwood, 
made substantial collections in the eastern parts of the region over the years. Mary McCallum-
Webster, a recurrent visitor from the United Kingdom, collected in the Denmark area and played a 
pivotal role in setting up the Albany Herbarium. Much of their work has now come to fruition with 
incorporation of their collection label data into the WA Herbarium database. More recently, collecting 
carried out by the late Brenda Hammersley across the Denmark Shire has led to expansion of the 
botanical knowledge of that part of the region, including the first collections of a number of taxa, 
several of which are dealt with in this study. Her contribution to our knowledge of the Bryophyte flora 
of the region is inestimable. 
A number of other people have made significant contributions through their extensive knowledge of 
and interest in the flora. For over 40 years, the late George Gardner made collections, and together 
with Hazel Mason, published a booklet on the flora of the Northcliffe area in 1984. Hazel Dempster 
(daughter of Eileen Croxford of the Albany Wildflower Society) collected across the region through 
the 1970’s and 1980’s and published a booklet on the flora of the Manjimup area. 
The Native Orchid Study and Conservation Group members have made major contributions to 
collections and to expanding knowledge of this family in the Region, but many taxa remain 
unresolved. Walpole residents, Gloria and the late Bill Jackson, have been notable in this regard, 
identifying problems and forwarding material to taxonomists around Australia. Ted Middleton, as 
CALM volunteer, has made a considerable contribution to our knowledge of rare and threatened taxa 
both around Walpole and across the Region. 
Over the years, the research group of the Forests Department and CALM, based in Manjimup, made 
significant contributions through collections by Hart, Loneragan, Christensen, Skinner, Annels, 
McCutcheon, Wardell-Johnson, Macfarlane, Cranfield and many others, mostly related to floristic and 
fauna studies and more recently to threatened flora. 
The most recent additions to botanical knowledge were made during surveys of the Region for the 
Regional Forest Agreement process. In addition, comprehensive surveys of the vascular flora have 
been undertaken by Gibson, Keighery and Lyons of the coastal and near coastal communities of the 
Warren bioregion and the Lake Muir – Unicup –Byenup area. The Byenup-Muir is a complex wetland 
system, and surveys found the only records for Euphrasia (aff.) scabra and Lilaeopsis polyantha, both 
priority species.  
Despite the substantial progress made to date, much work needs to be done. Large tracts of the Region 
remain virtually unrepresented in herbarium collections, and the regularity of first collections of new 
taxa in the Region during the last 10 years indicates much work is still required. 
 
 
12

Taxonomic problems still exist in major groups, notably in areas addressed during work for this 
report, including Hemigenia and Hemiandra spp. in the Lamiaceae; Leucopogon spp. and Astroloma 
spp. in the Epacridaceae; Astartea spp. and Agonis spp. in the Myrtaceae; Lambertia and Synaphea in 
the Proteaceae and a number of taxa in the Cyperaceae. It is expected that the current review will not 
be the last word on rare species in the Region. 
Figure 2. The Warren Region contains two districts, Frankland and Donnelly. The major towns, roads 
and rivers are also shown. 
 
 
 
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