Roger W. Hearn, Rachel Meissner, Andrew P. Brown,
Terry D. Macfarlane and Tony R. Annels
2006 WESTERN AUSTRALIAN WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM NO. 40
Published jointly by
Australian Government Department of Environment and Heritage,
GPO Box 636, Canberra, ACT 2601
Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management,
Locked Bag 104, Bentley Delivery Centre, WA 6983
This study (EA ESP Project 440) was funded by the Australian Government’s Natural Heritage Trust.
Property and copyright of this document is vested jointly in the Assistant Secretary,
Natural Resource Management Policy Branch, Australian Government Department of Environment
and Heritage, and the Executive Director, WA Department of Conservation and Land Management.
The Commonwealth disclaims responsibility for the views expressed.
Cover Photograph by Erica Shedley – the declared rare flora species Caladenia winfieldii which is
known from a single population in the Warren Region. Other photographs by Roger Hearn.
Editor......................................................... E. Shedley
Maps.......................................................... R. Meissner
Production and distribution....................... CALM Strategic Development and Corporate
FOREWORD Western Australian Wildlife Management Programs are a series of publications produced by the
Department of Conservation and Land Management (CALM). The programs are prepared in addition
to Regional Management Plans, and species Recovery and Interim Recovery Plans to provide
information and guidance for the management and protection of certain exploited or threatened
This program provides a brief description of the appearance, distribution, habitat and conservation
status of flora declared as rare under the Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (Threatened
Flora) and possibly threatened poorly known flora (Priority Flora) in CALM's Warren Region and
makes recommendations for research and management actions that are necessary to ensure their
continued survival. By ranking Threatened Flora in priority order for recovery action, Departmental
staff and resources can be allocated to taxa most urgently in need of attention.
Priority Flora that are under consideration for declaration are dealt with to a lesser extent than
Declared Rare Flora, however, the information provided here should assist in the ongoing work of
assessing the conservation status of these taxa.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS There are many people to be thanked for their assistance in this review of the declared rare and poorly
known flora of the Warren Region.
We are indebted to community members of the Warren Region Threatened Flora Recovery Team and
CALM volunteers, Betty Carpenter, Ted Middleton, Gloria Jackson and the late Brenda Hammersley
and Bill Jackson, for their enthusiastic contributions to team meetings, their knowledgeable field
observations and taxonomic contributions, and for their years of assistance with the field work that
has gone into the review; to volunteers, Cynthia Annels for assistance with field work, George
Gardner, and Steve and Ryan Phillips for their contribution to locating populations of taxa of interest
and to Brian Best (WA Herbarium volunteer) for his assistance with mosses and liverworts.
Neville Marchant facilitated access to the WA Herbarium and its staff and provided discussion on
Chamelaucium; Barbara Rye assisted with a range of taxa, as did Sue Patrick, Brendan Lepschi,
Diana Papenfus, Alex Chapman, Ray Cranfield, Suzanne Curry and Nicki Robinson. Judy Wheeler
made available her extensive species descriptions for the Flora of the South West and suggested a
number of taxa needing review (many now included in the report). Beng Siew Mahon assisted with
finding many original species descriptions and Chang Sha Fang, Sue Carroll, Meriel Falconer, Kaye
Veryard, Phil Spencer and a number of herbarium volunteers assisted in processing the many voucher
specimens originating from fieldwork associated with the review.
Our thanks to Kath Meney (Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority) for her assistance with many
unpublished restiads and likewise Barbara Briggs (Sydney), to Kristina Lemson for extensive
assistance with Andersonia, Kelly Shephard for assistance with Thomasia and Lasiopetalum,
Malcolm Trudgen with Astartea and Baeckea, Karen Wilson (Sydney) for her assistance in
identifying various species in the Cyperaceae, Barry Conn (Sydney) for assistance with Hemiandra and Mitreola, Jenny Hart (Sydney) for assistance with several species in the Apiaceae and Arthur
Weston for locations and observations on a number of taxa.
To Greg Keighery, Neil Gibson and Grant Wardell-Johnson for assistance with new taxa and
population locations arising from their biogeographical and floristic work.
To CALM staff from the two Warren districts and staff from Katanning (Wheatbelt region) and
Albany (South Coast region) who have contributed to field surveys. In particular we would like to
thank Ian Wilson, Erica Shedley, Simon Watkin (also as a consultant), Murray Carter, Mal Graham,
Brian Whitred, Rod Annear, Carl Beck, Greg Freebury and Lawrie Anderson.
Finally thanks to Verna Tunsell for her assistance with databasing and preparation of voucher
specimens for lodging at the herbarium and editing of the first draft of this document.
Non standard abbreviations used through the document:
CALM Act Section 5 g Reserve
Department of Environment
Main Roads Western Australia
manuscript (unpublished name)
South Coast Region
Unallocated Crown Land
Vacant Crown Land
Other abbreviations retain their standard usage.
In population tables, items appearing under the Land Status column in brackets indicate the intended
land status under the 1994 Forest Management Plan; all others are current tenure.
TABLE OF CONTENTS PART ONE – INTRODUCTION 1
The Need for Management
Objective of the Program
Rare Flora Legislation and Guidelines for Gazettal
CALM's Priority Flora List
Responsibilities within the Department
The Warren Region
6.3 Landforms and Soils
7. Botanical History of the Warren Region
PART TWO - DECLARED RARE FLORA IN THE WARREN REGION 15
Asplenium obtusatum G. Forster subsp. northlandicum Brownsey
Banksia verticillata R. Br.
Caladenia christineae Hopper & A.P. Br.
Caladenia dorrienii Domin
Caladenia harringtoniae Hopper & A.P. Br.
Caladenia winfieldii Hopper & A.P. Br.
Conostylis misera Endl.
Diuris drummondii Lindley
Drakaea micrantha Hopper & A.P. Br.
Kennedia glabrata Lindley
Laxmannia jamesii Keighery
Meziella trifida (Nees) Schindl.
Microtis globula R. Bates
Rhacocarpus rehmannianus (Müll. Hall.) Wijk & Margad.
webbianus (Müll. Hall.) J.-P. Frahm
Sphenotoma drummondii (Benth.) F. Muell.
Verticordia apecta E.A. George & A.S. George
Verticordia densiflora Lindl. var. pedunculata A.S. George
Verticordia fimbrilepis Turcz. subsp. australis A.S. George
PART THREE – PRIORITY FLORA IN THE WARREN REGION 55
1. Priority One Species 55
Andersonia redolens K. Lemson ms
Andersonia sp. Mitchell River (BGH 925)
Austrofestuca littoralis (Labill.) E.B. Alexeev
Caladenia evanescens Hopper & A.P. Br.
Carex tereticaulis F.Muell.
Cryptandra arbutiflora Fenzl var. pygmaea Rye
Deyeuxia inaequalis Vickery
Eriochilus scaber Lindley subsp. orbifolia Hopper & A.P. Br. ms
Eryngium sp. Lake Muir (E. Wittwer 2293)
Hydatella australis Diels
Pentapogon quadrifidus (Labill.) Baill. var. quadrifidus 76
Sphaerolobium benetectum R. Butcher
Synaphea decumbens A.S. George
Tetratheca sp. Kent River B.G. (Hammersley 1791)
2. Priority Two Species 84
Andersonia annelsii K. Lemson ms
Andersonia auriculata L. Watson
Andersonia hammersleyana K. Lemson ms
Andersonia virolens K. Lemson ms
Anthocercis sylvicola T. Macfarlane & Wardell-Johnson
Apodasmia ceramophila L.A.S. Johnson & B.G. Briggs ms
Borya longiscapa Churchill
Caladenia abbreviata Hopper & A.P Br.
Caladenia erythrochila Hopper & A.P. Br.
Caladenia luteola Hopper & A.P. Br.
Caladenia starteorum Hopper & A.P. Br.
Calothamnus sp. Mt. Lindesay (BGH 439)
Calymperastrum latifolium (Hampe) Stone
Chamaexeros longicaulis T. Macfarlane
Chamelaucium floriferum N. G. Marchant & Keighery
diffusum N.G. Marchant & Keighery ms
Chamelaucium forrestii (F. Muell.) N.G. Marchant & Keighery
subsp. forrestii ms
Chordifex jacksonii L.A.S. Johnson & B.G. Briggs ms
Cryptandra congesta Rye
Dampiera orchardii Rajput & Carolin
Diuris heberlei D.L. Jones
Drepanocladus aduncus (Hedw.) Warnst.
Drosera binata Labill.
Dryandra sessilis (Knight) Domin var. cordata (Meisn.) A.S. George
Eucalyptus virginea Hopper & Wardell-Johnson
Euphrasiascabra R. Br.
Fabronia hampeana Sond. 136
Grevillea acropogon Makinson 138 Grevillea fuscolutea Keighery
Hemiandra australis B. Conn ms
Hybanthus volubilis E.M. Bennett
Juncus meianthus K. L. Wilson
Laxmannia grandiflora subsp. brendae Keighery
Leptinella drummondii (Benth.) D.G. Lloyd & C.J. Webb
Lilaeopsis polyantha (Gand.) H. Eichler
Melaleuca pritzelii Domin (Barlow)
Mitreola minima B. Conn
Rorippa dictyosperma (Hook.) L. Johnson
Schizaea rupestris R. Br.
Schoenus fluitans Hook. F.
Selliera radicans Cav.
Sphagnum nova-zealandicum Mitt.
Spyridium riparium Rye
Thomasia quercifolia (Andrews) Gay
Verticordia endlicheriana Schauer var angustifolia A.S. George
Wurmbea sp. Cranbrook (A.R. Annels 3819)
3. Priority Three Species 176 Actinotus sp. Walpole (J.R. Wheeler 3786)
Alexgeorgea ganopoda B.G. Briggs & L.A.S. Johnson
Amperea protensa Nees
181 Andersonia amabile K. Lemson ms
Astartea sp. Mt. Johnston (ARA 4577)
Boronia anceps Paul G. Wilson
Boronia virgata Paul G. Wilson
Calytrix pulchella (Turcz.) B.D. Jackson
Chamelaucium floriferum N.G. Marchant & Keighery subsp. floriferum ms
Chorizema reticulatum Meissner
Cyathochaeta stipoides K.L. Wilson.
Cyathochaeta teretifolia W. Fitzg.
Dicrastylis glauca Munir
Eucalyptus brevistylis Brooker
Gastrolobium formosum (Lindl.) G. Chandler & Crisp
Gonocarpus pusillus (Benth.) Orch.
Gonocarpus simplex (Britten) Orch.
Gonocarpus trichostachyus (Benth.) Orch.
Grevillea papillosa (McGillivray) P. Olde & N. Marriott
Lambertia rariflora Meisn. in Lelm. subsp. lutea Hnatiuk
Lasiopetalum cordifolium Endl.
acuminatum E. Bennett. & K. Shepherd ms
Lomandra ordii (F.Muell.) Schltr.
Marianthussylvaticus L. Cayzer & Crisp
Meeboldina crassipes (Pate & Meney) B.G. Briggs & L.A.S. Johnson
Meeboldina thysanantha L.A.S. Johnson & B.G. Briggs ms
Melaleuca diosmifolia Andrews
Melaleuca micromera Schau.
Melaleuca ringens Barlow
Pultenaea pinifolia Meissner
Sphenotoma parviflorum (Benth.) F. Muell.
Stirlingia divaricatissima A.S. George
Stylidium rhipidium F.L. Erickson & J.H. Willis
Synaphea intricata A.S. George
Synaphea preissii Meissner
Thelymitra jacksonii Hopper et A.P. Br. ex Jeanes ms
4. Priority Four – Rare, Near Threatened and other species in need of monitoring 247 PART FOUR – THE PLAN FOR MANAGEMENT 248
1. Determining Priorities
2. DRF – Management and Research Actions
2.1 Phytophthora dieback
2.2 Need for survey
2.3 Population size and few populations
2.10 Drought, flooding, groundwater, salinity increase and changing
2.11 Ex situ germ plasm conservation
2.13 Road and track management, relocation and closure
2.17 Linear marking
2.18 Environmental weeds and feral animals
2.19 Fire management issues
3. Priority Flora – management and Research Actions
3.1 Phytophthora dieback
3.2 Further surveys
3.3 Population size and few populations
3.5 Private land negotiations
3.6 Land acquisition
3.10 Drought, flooding, groundwater, salinity increase and changing
3.11 Ex situ germ plasm conservation
3.13 Road and track management, relocation and closure
3.17 Linear marking
3.18 Environmental weeds and feral animals
3.19 Fire management issues
4. Implementation and term of the Management Program
REFERENCES 272 GLOSSARY 279 APPENDICES 292
Wildlife Conservation Act 1950
II Wildlife Conservation (Rare Flora) Notice 2005
III Department of CALM Policy statement No. 9
IV Guidelines for surveys of plants proposed for DRF Schedule
Warren Region Declared Rare Flora scored (0-3) according to the degree
of threat or urgency for management and research actions
The 19 Declared Rare Flora within the Warren region, ordered according
to the urgency of their requirement for protection and management
Warren Region priority flora scored within priority categories 0-3 according
to the degree of threat or urgency for management and research action
Priority flora that are known to occur in the Warren Region but are not
included in the current management plan due to a lack of location and threat
information. These taxa urgently require study and inclusion into the
The recommended conservation status of Priority Flora (Priority 1, 2 & 3)
in the Warren Region based upon surveys, number of populations and health
of the populations.
Location of the Warren Region in relation to other CALM Regions in
The Warren Region contains two districts, Frankland and Donnelly.
The major towns, roads and rivers are also shown
PART ONE - INTRODUCTION
1. T HE N EED F OR M ANAGEMENT Western Australia (WA) has a unique flora world renowned for its diversity and high level of
endemism. As at June 2004 the WA herbarium lists 12,672 vascular plant taxa (including alien taxa)
with the total likely to exceed 14,000 once botanists have completed surveying, searching and
describing the flora. A significant proportion of the WA total is concentrated in the south-west of the
state which has a high level of endemism due to a long history of effective genetic isolation, combined
with climatic and geologic stability through the Tertiary, followed by climatic fluctuation and active
landscape evolution in the Quaternary (Hopper, 1979). According to Briggs and Leigh (1995), the
state has 46% of the Australian total of threatened, rare or poorly known plant species with 82%
restricted to the south-west.
Rareness of a species in any community or locality is a natural phenomenon and an integral part of
evolutionary processes in the landscape. Rareness may be exhibited in any one or combination of low
total numbers, low numbers of populations, confinement to restricted habitats, or simply through
having a restricted distribution (narrow endemics). Many plant species in WA are naturally rare and
some of these are being threatened by natural processes.
Many of WA’s rare species, and some others that would not have been considered rare prior to
European colonisation in 1750, are now threatened due to the activities of European colonisation.
Extensive land clearing and modification of the environment have resulted in the extinction of some
species and threatens the survival of many others. Continued land clearing, the presence of disease
(particularly Phytophthora species), exotic weeds and pests, road works, domestic grazing and salinity
continue to threaten many flora species.
The Wildlife Conservation Act 1950, Conservation and Land Management Act 1984, and Department
of Conservation and Land Management (CALM) policies relevant to flora and fauna provide the
legislative basis and guidelines for the conservation of the State's indigenous plant and animal species.
Under the Wildlife Conservation Act, CALM is responsible for the protection of flora and fauna on all
lands and waters throughout the State. Section 23F of the Act (Appendix I) gives the Minister
responsible for the Act (currently Minister for the Environment) statutory responsibility for the
protection of those plant taxa declared to be rare (defined as “threatened taxa” under IUCN criteria).
In 2004, 357 extant taxa were listed as Declared Rare Flora (DRF) and a further 15 taxa were listed on
the schedule as presumed extinct (Appendix II). Brown et al. (1998) provide illustrations of all DRF
known at that time, discuss the conservation of WA’s threatened species and review the relevant
legislation, policy, research and management activities of CALM
In addition to those with legislative
protection, 2,124 taxa were listed on CALM's priority flora list (Atkins 2004) as requiring further
detailed survey to accurately assess their conservation status.
This Wildlife Management Program collates the available biological, Ecological and management
information for the majority of DRF and Priority One, Two and Three flora in CALM's Warren
Region, as at the 30
September 2004. Several taxa were collected for the first time during fieldwork
associated with this review.
In the time that has elapsed since the first draft of this Wildlife Management Program, several new
taxa have been added to the regions priority flora list. However, these taxa have not been added to this
final document due to time limitations (see Table 4). As the program is a working document that will
be available in loose leaf and bound format it is intended that the additional priority taxa, and any
newly identified declared rare taxa, will be added as a Supplement in the same format as the present
version of the plan.
Figure 1. Location of the Warren Region in relation to other CALM Regions in Western Australia
The Warren Region (also referred to as the Region, Figure 1) covers about 14,230 km
about 66% is managed by CALM. Much of this is made up of contiguous tracts of land of varying
tenure and management purpose, but significant ‘island’ reserves within the cleared agricultural
landscape also exist to the north-east, east and south-east, many of these under threat from salination
and weed invasion. Phytophthora dieback is also a serious threat to many important plant communities
in the Region. Climate change, resulting from global warming associated with the greenhouse effect,
is a further significant threat to the Region’s flora.
2. O BJECTIVE OF THE P ROGRAM The objective of this Wildlife Management Program (flora) is:
To ensure and enhance, by appropriate management, the continued survival in the wild of populations
of Declared Rare Flora and other flora species that are potentially at risk, or otherwise of conservation
It aims to achieve this by:
• providing a useful reference for CALM staff and other land managers for the day to day
management and protection of Declared Rare Flora populations and populations of other flora
that are poorly known and may be at risk;
• directing Departmental resources within the Region to those flora species that are most urgently
in need of attention;
• assisting in the identification of Declared Rare Flora and other flora species that are potentially at
risk, and their likely habitats; and
• fostering an appreciation and increased awareness of the importance of protecting and conserving
Declared Rare Flora and other flora species potentially at risk, or otherwise of conservation
3. R ARE F LORA L EGISLATION AND G UIDELINES FOR G AZETTAL Wildlife Conservation Act The Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 protects all classes of indigenous flora throughout the State.
Protected flora includes:
Spermatophyta - flowering plants, conifers and cycads
Pteridophyta - ferns and fern allies
Bryophyta - mosses and liverworts
Thallophyta - algae, fungi and lichens
Section 23F of the Act (Appendix I) provides special protection to those taxa (species, subspecies,
varieties, hybrids) considered by the Minister to be:
• likely to become extinct;
• is rare; or
• is otherwise in need of special protection.;
Protection under section 23F is achieved by declaring taxa to be 'rare' by notice published in the
Government Gazette (Appendix II). CALM's Policy Statement No. 9 (Appendix III) discusses the
legislation relating to declared rare flora (DRF) and outlines the criteria for gazettal.
Under the provisions of Section 23F, the 'taking', by any person, of DRF is prohibited by any person
on any category of land throughout the State without the written consent of the Minister. A breach of
the Act is liable to a penalty of up to $10,000. The legislation refers only to wild growing populations
and applies equally to Government officers and private citizens on Crown and private land.
To 'take' in relation to any flora includes 'to gather, pluck, cut, pull up, destroy, dig up, remove or
injure the flora or to cause or permit the same to be done by any means'. This includes not only direct
destruction or injury by human hand or machine but also such activities as allowing grazing by stock,
introducing pathogens, altering water tables so as to inundate or deprive the flora of adequate soil
moisture, allowing air pollutants to harm foliage, and burning.
Policy 9 The schedule published in the Government Gazette is revised annually to accommodate additions and
deletions to the DRF list. To qualify for gazettal, plants must satisfy the following criteria as defined
in Policy Statement No. 9 (Appendix III):
• The species occurs naturally in Western Australia, is well defined and represented by a voucher
specimen in a State or National Herbarium. While it need not necessarily be formally described
under conventions in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, such a description is
preferred and should be undertaken as soon as possible after listing on the schedule.
• It has been established that the species in the wild:
a) is extinct, i.e., there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died, or
b) meets criteria for listing as threatened in the current version of IUCN Red List Categories Prepared by the IUCN Species Survival Commission. In addition hybrids, or suspected hybrids, which satisfy the above criteria also must be:
• a distinct entity, that is, the progeny are consistent with the agreed taxonomic limits for that taxon
• capable of being self perpetuating, that is, not reliant on the parental taxa for replacement; and
• the product of a natural event, that is, both parents are naturally occurring and cross fertilisation
was by natural means.
The list of rare flora is gazetted in two sections: taxa that are still extant (Threatened – Schedule 1);
and those which are presumed to be extinct (Schedule 2).The status of a threatened plant species in
cultivation has no bearing on this matter. The status of translocated populations will be considered
five years after establishment.
Plants may be deleted from the Rare Flora schedule where:
• Recent botanical survey has shown that the taxon is no longer rare, endangered or in need of
• The taxon is no longer in danger of extinction because it has been adequately protected by
reservation of land on which it occurs or because population numbers have increased beyond the
Western Australian Threatened Species Scientific Committee Recommendations for adding or removing flora to or from the list of Declared Rare Flora are made to
the Western Australia Threatened Species Scientific Committee (WATSSC).
WATSSC has the responsibility for:
• Reviewing and making recommendations at least annually to the Minister, via the Executive
Director of the Department of Conservation and Land Management and the Conservation
Commission of Western Australia and/or the Marine Parks and Reserves Authority, on listings of
threatened flora and of threatened and specially protected fauna under the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950;
• Allocating threatened flora and fauna to IUCN categories of threat or to ‘Conservation
Dependent’ at least annually, for endorsement by the Minister;
• Recommending to the Executive Director species of fauna and flora for addition to or deletion
from the priority fauna and flora lists; and
• providing advice and recommendations to the Executive Director in respect of research and
management needs arising from its reviews of threatened species lists, threat categories and
priority species lists.
In carrying out the above, WATSSC will consider the status of Western Australian species throughout
their total natural range in Australia, and where appropriate their range and status outside Australia.
4. CALM' S P RIORITY F LORA L IST CALM maintains a priority flora list to determine priorities for survey of plants of uncertain
conservation status. In 2004 the list comprised 2,124 taxa that are poorly known and in need of high
priority survey, or are adequately surveyed but in need of monitoring. Poorly known taxa are possibly
at risk but do not meet the survey requirements for gazettal as DRF, as outlined in Policy Statement
No. 9. Only those plants considered on the basis of thorough survey to be rare, threatened, or
presumed extinct, can be included on the DRF schedule.
Possibly threatened flora species that do not meet survey criteria are added to the Priority Flora lists
under Priorities 1, 2 or 3. These three categories are ranked in order of priority for survey and
evaluation of conservation status so that consideration can be given to their declaration as threatened
flora. Species that are adequately known, are rare but not threatened, or meet criteria for Near
Threatened, or that have been recently removed from the threatened list for other than taxonomic
reasons, are placed in Priority 4. These species require regular monitoring. Conservation Dependent
species are placed in Priority 5.
Priority One - Poorly known Species Species which are known from one or a few (generally less than five) populations or collections which
are under threat, either due to small population size, or being on lands under immediate threat, e.g.
road verges, urban areas, farmland, active mineral leases, etc., or the plants are under threat, e.g. from
disease, grazing by feral animals, etc. May include taxa with threatened populations on protected
lands. Such taxa are under consideration for declaration as 'rare flora', but are in urgent need of
Priority Two - Poorly Known Species Species which are known from one or a few (generally less than five) populations or collections, at
least some of which are not believed to be under immediate threat (i.e. not currently endangered).
Such taxa are under consideration for declaration as 'rare flora', but are in urgent need of further
Priority Three - Poorly Known Species Species which are known from several populations or collections, and the taxa are not believed to be
under immediate threat (i.e. not currently endangered), either due to the number of known populations
(generally greater than five), or known populations being large, and either widespread or protected.
Such taxa are under consideration for declaration as 'rare flora' but are in need of further survey.
Priority Four - Rare Species Species that have been adequately surveyed and while being rare (in Australia), are not currently
threatened by any identifiable factors. These taxa require monitoring every 5-10 years. Priority four
• Rare. Species that are considered to have been adequately surveyed, or for which sufficient
knowledge is available, and that are considered not currently threatened or in need of special
protection, but could be if present circumstances change. These species are usually represented
on conservation lands.
• Near Threatened. Species that are considered to have been adequately surveyed and that do not
qualify for Conservation Dependent, but that are close to qualifying for Vulnerable.
• Species that have been removed from the list of threatened species during the past five years for
reasons other than taxonomy.
Priority Five: Conservation Dependent species
Species that are not threatened but are subject to a specific conservation program, the cessation of
which would result in the species becoming threatened within five years.
5. R ESPONSIBILITIES WITHIN THE D EPARTMENT • Reviewing Departmental policy on Declared Rare Flora is the responsibility of the CALM
• Nomination of flora for Declaration as Threatened Flora is the responsibility of the Warren
Region, including the Frankland and Donnelly Districts, and Species and Communities Branch
• Identification of Declared Rare Flora is the initial responsibility of the WA Herbarium and other
specialist CALM staff, but should, with appropriate training, also become a Regional
• Overall coordination of, and general assistance with, recovery of threatened species and
ecological communities is provided by SCB;
• Locating Declared Rare Flora is the responsibility of the CALM’s Science, Nature Conservation
and Regional Services Divisions;
• Determination of land status and preparation of material for notification to landowners is the
responsibility of SCB;
• Hand-delivered notification to landowners of Declared Rare Flora populations is the
responsibility of Regional staff and SCB;
• Maintenance of Declared Rare Flora information and database, and dissemination of these data
are the responsibility of SCB;
• Advice on management prescriptions is the responsibility of CALM’s Science Division staff,
Program leaders (Regional Services Division), and specialist staff in SCB (Nature Conservation
• Coordination of Recovery Plans and Interim Recovery Plans for threatened taxa is the
responsibility of SCB;
• Management, protection and regular inspection of Declared Rare Flora populations are the
responsibility of staff of the Warren Region, and the Frankland and Donnelly Districts;
• Enforcement matters relating to the provisions of the Wildlife Conservation Act are the
responsibility of Wildlife and Regional Services staff in the Warren Region;
• Convening Regional or District Threatened Flora Recovery Teams, reporting on their activities
and the implementation of Regional recovery plans are the responsibility of Warren Region.
• Implementation and revision of the management program are the responsibility of the Warren
Region and the Frankland and Donnelly Districts through the Warren Region Threatened Flora
6. T HE W ARREN R EGION CALM’s Warren Region lies on the western south coast of Western Australia, extending 240 km from
the Wilson Inlet (Denmark) west to Black Point (45 km west of Pemberton), inland to just south of
Nannup, to Bridgetown, Frankland, Rocky Gully, Cranbrook, Mount Barker, and south to Denmark
along the Hay River. It is bounded by CALM's South Coast Region (Albany District) to the east, the
Wheatbelt Region (Katanning District) to the north-east, and the South West Region (Blackwood
District) to the north and west.
The Warren Region includes parts of the Shires of Plantagenet, Cranbrook, Boyup Brook,
Bridgetown-Greenbushes and Nannup, and the entire area of the Manjimup and Denmark Shires.
Manjimup is the largest town of the Region, with Pemberton, Walpole, Denmark, Mount Barker,
Bridgetown, Northcliffe, Nornalup and Rocky Gully making up the other significant population
centres in or surrounding the Region.
The Region covers an area of about 14,230 km
(1,423,000 ha.), and is managed as two Districts,
Frankland and Donnelly. When the Forest Management Plan (1994), the WA Regional Forest
Agreement (1999) and the “Protecting our Old Growth Forests Policy” (2001) have been fully
implemented, CALM will manage 66% of the Region (18% State Forest, 46% National Park,
Conservation Park and Nature Reserve, and 2% as 5g CALM Act Reserve, Forest Conservation Area
and Unallocated Crown Land). Private landowners, Shires and other Agencies will manage the
remaining 34% of the Region.
The Region contains a relatively high proportion of the State’s relictual and Gondwanan flora (Hopper
et al. 1996). There is also a high incidence of narrow endemism associated with wetlands and with
granitic and gneissic outcrops and peaks, Mount Lindesay being an outstanding example. Many of
these narrow endemics are rare, potentially at risk or otherwise of conservation interest. Many families
and genera in the lower relief wetland complexes also show evidence of recent speciation that are
proving difficult to resolve taxonomically. These include taxa which are already known to be, or may
prove to be rare.
6.1 Climate The Warren Region has a Mediterranean climate with relatively mild, wet winters and warm, dry
summers. Rainfall varies from over 1400 mm in a belt from Northcliffe to Walpole, to about 1100 mm
between Manjimup and Denmark, tapering off in the north-east to about 650 mm in the Rocky Gully,
Tonebridge and Perup area. Occasional summer rainfall is a feature of coastal areas in the Region.
The climate is also characterised by short summer droughts and relatively low evapo-transpiration
rates, ranging from less than 400mm around Walpole, to 450mm between Mt. Barker and Pemberton,
500mm from Rocky Gully to Manjimup, and 500 - 550mm in the Manjimup, Bridgetown and Nannup
area. Gentilli (1989) has demonstrated that the interaction between total annual rainfall and summer
evapo-transpiration rates largely accounts for the distribution of forest types (based on overstorey
species and structure) in the south-west.
Climate change across the Region has significant implications for rare flora, particularly the relictual
and Gondwana flora. There has been a strong reducing trend in annual rainfall over the last century in
the Walpole and Denbarker area, with a milder trend for the remainder of the Region (Tapp 1997).
The changes in moisture regimes act directly on some plant communities, and indirectly on others
through changes in fire intensity and frequency associated with drier regimes. These changes provide
a challenge to managers to develop methods to conserve sensitive taxa, and in some cases whole plant
6.2 Geology The four tectonic units recognised in Warren Region are the Yilgarn Craton, the Albany-Fraser
Orogen, the Stirling Range Formation, and the Perth Basin. The Tamala Limestone Formation, which
overlays the southern margin of the latter three, has also had significant impact on the present
landforms and soils of the Region. (Johnstone et al. 1973).
Geological events, such as upward flexure and downward warping, began shaping the landscape
during and after the separation and northward drift from Antartica. In addition, erosion, weathering
and laterisation, ocean incursions and the changing climate have all acted on the four basic tectonic
units to form the landscape seen today.
Yilgarn Craton The ancient rocks from the Archaean (2,600-3,100 million years ago) are largely composed of gneiss
and granite with enclaves of highly metamorphosed and deformed sedimentary deposits. The
underlying granite is covered by the products of weathering, but may occasionally surface as rounded
The Yilgarn Craton lies north of the Albany-Fraser Orogen and east of the Perth Basin. It includes the
Warrup, Kingston and north Perup areas in the north of the Region, and the Donnelly and Fly Brook
areas in the west.
Albany-Fraser Orogen The majority of the Warren Region is situated on the western portion of the Albany-Fraser Orogen.
This unit is composed of Proterozoic gneisses and granites that are 1,100-1,400 million years old, and
is generally overlain with the products of weathering, erosion and laterisation. The underlying bedrock
material occasionally appears as low outcropping surfaces of gneiss or granite, or on the more
southerly and recently incised slopes, as granite hills, ridges and monadnocks of the Burnside
Recent hydrogeological investigations near Lake Muir have encountered highly metamorphosed and
deformed sediments, similar to those of the Stirling Range Formation, embedded within this unit.
The Albany-Fraser Orogen abuts the Stirling Range Formation to the east, and the Yilgarn Craton to
the north and west.
Stirling Range Formation
Slightly younger than the Albany-Fraser Orogen, the Stirling Range Formation is presumed to be
Middle Proterozoic (1,100 million year old), with sequences of highly metamorphosed and deformed
sediments (sandstones and shale) forming schist, phyllite and quartzite. The Stirling Range Formation
occurs in the south-east corner of the Region, taking in Denmark, William Bay, Mount Lindesay and
Perth Basin The Perth Basin is of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary origin (65 - 300 million years old), and
includes intrusions of Bunbury Basalt dated at about 115 million years old. The Donnybrook
Sunklands and the Blackwood Plateau in the adjoining South West CALM Region form part of the
In the Warren region, the Perth Basin includes the area of the Donnelly Valley west of the Darling
Scarp, and the Lake Jasper to Black Point area.
Tamala Limestone Formation The Tamala Limestone Formation fringes much of the coastline. This was laid down relatively
recently during a period of ocean incursion during the Pleistocene, and is only a few hundred thousand
6.3 Landforms and Soils The landforms and soils have been mapped for most of the Warren Region by Churchward et al. (1988) and Churchward (1992). The area east of the Perup River and north of Lake Muir was
completed during 1997 as part of the RFA, and further refined in 1999, including the Tonebridge area
(Smolinski, 1999). About 110 landform units and sub-units are now recognised in the Region. The
high correlation between these landform units, habitat type and vegetation community provides a
useful planning tool for flora surveys and other work with rare flora.
A number of major geomorphic units are recognised and are based on the four geological units above
and include a wide range of landforms and soils.
One of the major geomorphic units in the Region is the Darling Plateau, which prior to the time of
separation from Antarctica, was an old highly weathered landscape of low relief. There was a general
uplifting of the plateau to an elevation of about 300 meters when it rifted along its southern margin.
This uplifted Darling Plateau is seen both east and north of Manjimup.
Thin marine sediments (late Tertiary) of the Plantagenet Group, dominated by Pallinup Siltstone, but
including some sandstone and limestone, were later deposited up to 200 m thick following marine
transgressions of the Bremer Basin (Hocking 1990). Erosion of the Plantagenet Siltstone covering the
Stirling Range Formation has resulted in the formation of a low plateau in the south east of the region.
Down warping of the southern parts of this plateau resulted in development of the Ravensthorpe
Ramp, which gradually falls to sea level, and led to partial dissection by new, relatively short, south-
flowing drainages. Activation of drainage and erosion processes on this Ramp has resulted in the
development of complex belts of hills and sandy, swampy corridors across its southern parts, while
much of its northern parts retain the character of the old plateau.
Coastal limestone lain down during the Pleistocene, and dune systems of more recent age, have acted
as barriers to south flowing drainage systems, leading to the development of low swampy plains
between the coastline and the Ravensthorpe Ramp.
Drainage lines make up the last major geomorphic unit, and these vary in age and form across the
Landform units on the Darling Plateau The Darling Plateau is characterised by broad shallow drainage floors and broad flat interfluves, with
some local relief being provided by low hills with varying amounts of duricrust present. Two major
groups of units exist, those that have developed on crystalline rock basements and those on quartzite
and unconsolidated sediments.
In the lower rainfall zone, internally drained excavation basins of low relief, and with a fill of aeolian
and fluvial sediments become significant, such as Lake Muir and Unicup basins. These basins are
commonly complex fresh and salt lake systems.
Drainage from these swampy tracts is by shallow creek valleys feeding ‘old’ rivers of the Darling
Drainage System, such as the Blackwood River, and by ‘young’ rivers that arise in and dissect this
area, and which drain generally southward.
Soils range from duplex to gradational soils, loamy sands, gravelly sands, gravels, podzols, humic
podzols, red and yellow earths, cracking and non cracking clays, and solonetzic soils.
Landform units on the hill and swamp corridor complex This complex is characterised by a pattern of prominent ridges and hills, often with exposed granite
peaks and surfaces, and swampy corridors. While the complex’s origins are in the deep erosion of the
older deeply weathered mantle, the corridors have low gradient and as a consequence are waterlogged
for long periods. Marine sediments from the Eocene have been found in the corridors.
Soils on the ridges and hills vary through a range of duplex soils of different origin and composition
and degree of laterisation, to granite outcrops, areas of duricrust, and occasional deep sands and
Soils in the swampy corridors include podzols, humic and peaty podzols, deep sands, and solonetzic
soils, with red earths and duplex soils on slight rises with improved drainage.
Landform units on Plantagenet siltstones This area is characterised by a gently sloping sandy plain of generally poor drainage, often internally
drained to circular swamps, with a number of prominent granite ridges and monadnocks (for example
the Bennett Range and Mount Lindesay) rising from its surface.
Soils include duplex soils with laterite, solonetzic soils, sands, lateritic and gravely sands, and
Landform units on coastal aeolian and fluviatile sediments and Tamala Limestone The coastal strip is generally characterised by a seaward barrier of outcropping limestone overlaid
with shallow soils, and broken with blocks of granite, estuary outfalls, sand dunes, and at Black Point,
by Bunbury Basalt. A complex of parabolic dunes, variously consolidated or of unstable sand, and
interdune plains lie inland from this barrier. Between these dunes and the exposed parts of the
Ravensthorpe Ramp are a complex series of low relief sandy, swampy plains, lakes and estuaries.
Soils range from shallow brown sand on the limestone, to calcareous and siliceous sands and podzols
on the dune formations, to peat, humic podzols, podzols, deep sands, gley duplex and solonetzic soils
on the low plains.
Landform units on the Darling Scarp The Darling Scarp in the Region lacks the steep irregular slopes and exposed rock as seen to the north;
it is characterised by smooth gentle valley slopes and dissections mantled by lateritic gravels and
duricrust on ridges, with sands in the valleys. As a result of the down warping, the Darling Scarp
disappears under the swampy plains in the vicinity of the confluence of the Donnelly River and the
Soils vary from gradational loamy sands, duplex soils and gravelly sands.
Landform units on the Blackwood Plateau Due to the lower elevation, Blackwood Plateau elements have graded into the Scott Plains in the lake
Jasper area, and only intrude into the Warren Region as pockets along the plateau’s eastern margins at
the base of the Darling Scarp. These pockets have similar characteristics as the Donnybrook Sunkland.
While landforms are similar to the low relief areas of the Darling Plateau, their Mesozoic origins have
produced slightly different landforms and soils. Soils range from duplex soils with sandy A horizons
to humic podzols, gravelly earths, clayey loams, and grey sands.
Landform units associated with drainage lines As noted above, drainage from the swampy tracts of the Darling Plateau is by shallow creek valleys
feeding the ‘old’ rivers of the Darling Drainage system, generally draining west and sharply truncated
at the Darling Scarp, and by a number of the ‘young’ rivers which also arise in and dissect this area,
but drain generally southward.
The ‘young’ rivers are the major drainage lines cutting across the general west-north-west grain of the
country. With shallow valleys in their headwaters, they become more incised in their middle reaches,
becoming narrow defiles, often rocky, as they pass through the ridges associated with this grain.
Broad perched swampy tracts are typically left on the interfluves adjacent to these young rivers. Most
of these rivers terminate in coastal lakes and inlets.
There are a large number of landforms and soils within this group which differ significantly between
river systems and these are described in Churchward et al. (1988) and Churchward (1992). The
landform units and soils associated with drainage lines are important, as a number of rare taxa are
restricted to them.
6.4 Vegetation The majority of the Region lies within the Menzies and Warren subdistricts of the Darling botanical
Different systems of classification have been developed by various authors to describe the vegetation
systems and associations across the region (Smith, 1972; Beard, 1980; Christensen et al. 1985;
Christensen, 1992), and at a community level based on floristics (Strelein 1988; Wardell-Johnson et al., 1989; Inions et al., 1990; Wardell-Johnson and Williams, 1996; Lyons et al., 2000). Extensive
mapping has also been conducted in the Byenup-Muir reserve system (Gibson and Keighery, 2000).
Gentilli (1989) has demonstrated that the interaction between total annual rainfall and summer evapo-
transpiration rates largely accounts for the distribution of forest types in the south-west. Landform and
soils then define vegetation pattern at a more local level. Field observations, and patterns in the
distribution of threatened flora in the Region, indicate this model can be generalised and extended to
non forest types (J. Havel, personal communication).
Work to integrate these separate studies and fill in gaps in data and knowledge was undertaken by
Mattiske and Havel. (1998) for the Regional Forest Agreement (RFA) in Western Australia. The
result was the production of a series of maps of Vegetation Complexes of the RFA Region
(1:250,000), with most of the CALM Warren Region being covered. The approach used a broad scale
environmental framework, based upon climate and landform, within which the finer scale vegetation
patterns were then mapped. Ecological vegetation systems were subsequently mapped by Mattiske
and Havel (1999) at a scale of 1:500,000.
Structurally, the vegetation of the Warren Region can be classified into nine major groups (after
1. High open forests generally occupy suitable landforms within a high rainfall zone defined by the
1100 mm rainfall limit and summer evapo-transpiration rates below about 500 mm. Typically
karri (Eucalyptus diversifolia), jarrah (E. marginata) and marri (Corymbia calophylla) occur in
various combinations across the range. Tingle (Eucalyptus guilfoylei, E. jacksonii and E. brevistylis) become significant where summer evapo-transpiration is below 420 mm. High open
forest occurs principally as a belt from south of Nannup, through the area between Northcliffe
and Manjimup to Walpole and east to Denmark.
2. Open forests, predominantly jarrah, marri and yarri (Eucalyptus patens) in various mixtures
occupy most of the remainder of the Region where soils are suitable. Usually the limits of this
vegetation group can be defined by rainfall, but extensive tracts also occur within the high open
forest belt where soils will only support forests of lower stature.
3. Woodlands, predominantly composed of wandoo (Eucalyptus wandoo), jarrah, marri and yate (E. cornuta) occur to a limited extent in the north east of the region, with significant occurrences of
Albany blackbutt (E. staeri)and red flowering gum (E. ficifolia)woodlands in the south. Again,
the pattern of distribution of this group appears to be controlled by the combination of rainfall and
4. Low woodlands occur throughout the Region, these varying greatly in species composition and
site type. They grade into low forest at times and generally occupy sites unable to sustain forest,
such as dry sandy, or wetter sandy sites, coastal dunes or shallow soils over rock. Coastal banksia
woodlands may need assessment and consideration for listing as a threatened ecological
5. Closed heaths are common on permanently moist sites and are typified by occurrences of
Melaleuca, Kunzea, Agonis, Taxandria and Homalospermum. A number of community types can
be distinguished within the group. Indications are that they are important communities for rare
and threatened flora.
6. Open heath occurs in limited areas in the east, usually with scattered occurrences of flat-topped
yate (Eucalyptus occidentalis)and redheart (E. decipiens). Again a number of community types
can be distinguished within the group.
7. Sedgelands make up a major part of the vegetation of the Region, usually on sites low in the
landscape and typically inundated for extended periods during the year. Wardell-Johnson and
Williams(1996) and unpublished work by Gibson suggest a large number of community types
exist within this group, and indications are that they will demonstrate a high degree of association
between geology, rainfall and summer evapo-transpiration rates. Furthermore, they are also
important communities for rare and threatened flora as endemism in this group of community
types is high.
8. Granitic monadnocks, and to a lesser extent gneissic and basaltic outcrops, are important but
variable communities within the Region. Most occur across the south and are associated with the
Albany - Fraser Orogen and are very significant for rare and threatened flora. Mt. Lindesay is the
largest single complex and possibly the most significant granitic monadnock for threatened flora.
Endemism within this group is high at a very local scale.
9. Rivers and wetlands also form an important vegetation group, and include inland and coastal
lakes and wetlands, rivers, estuaries and inlets. They contain a diverse group of important
communities that are significant for rare and threatened flora.
Observations during field work and review of habitat of the Region’s rare and priority flora indicate
the greatest number of taxa investigated occur in communities at the extremes in the landscape, the
swamps and wet margins of rivers and ocean, and in association with exposed granitic and gneissic
features, including isolated inselbergs. Mount Lindesay is particularly rich in rare and priority flora
Evidence is also strong that most rare taxa are either Gondwanan relicts or are recently evolved, and
are closely associated with rare and threatened communities in the Region, such as the Sphagnum bog
community. Further work is needed to identify these threatened communities for protection, not at the
community level as in the recent floristic studies, but as sub-units within vegetation groups at the
extremes noted above.
7. B OTANICAL H ISTORY OF THE W ARREN R EGION The botanical history of the Warren Region is relatively recent and poorly documented. Areas near
Albany, Busselton and Augusta were visited by the French and English long before European
settlement in Western Australia. However, the coast and hinterland between Augusta and Albany were
largely inaccessible to these early European visitors, due to lack of any significant natural harbours or
Even after settlement, visitors such as Drummond (1840-1851) and Preiss (1838-1844) explored the
edges of the region but did not proceed further within it.
One of the first significant collectors to visit the area was Oldfield during the late 1850’s. While his
locality data are poor (and a problem in relation to a number of taxa addressed in this study), it is
apparent he traversed the northern and eastern parts of the region. Among his collections was the type
collection of karri, Eucalyptus diversicolor, a dominant forest tree in the Region.
The second significant collector to venture into the Region in the 1870’s was Maxwell, an associate of
Drummond, who ventured west from Albany to the vicinity of the Frankland River.
Mueller visited the area in late 1877 (Broke, Shannon, Upper Blackwood, Burrabunup and Mt.
Lindesay are mentioned) accompanied by Muir, a local settler who subsequently became a major
collector in the region for Mueller. Another local, Mrs McHard, likewise became a significant
collector for Mueller across the Blackwood and the northern parts of the Region in the 1880’s.
In 1901 Diels ventured west into the Denmark and eastern parts of the Region, as did Dorrien-Smith
during 1905. In the spring and summer of 1912-13, S.W. Jackson (and F. Thompson) visited the Bow
River - Walpole/Nornalup area, primarily to collect birds, but made major botanical collections at the
same time. A number of Jackson’s collections have been at the centre of this study, including the
previously presumed extinct taxa, Tetratheca elliptica and Chordifex jacksonii.
In 1916 and 1917, F.M.C. Schock visited the region making significant collections. In 1920, Charles
Gardner made the first of many collections.
There were a number of other collectors in addition to Gardner during the 1920’s. These included
Miss Knox-Peden, Max Koch and W.M. Carne, who were all active in the Manjimup - Pemberton
area, usually sending material on to Melbourne. In 1928 Meebold visited the Denmark area, his
collections being significant when sent back to Europe.
The depression and war years were lean botanically, though a couple of notable collectors, W.E.
Blackall and Erickson (both of whom had a significant impact on botany in the State), were active in
While there was a slight increase post-war in botanical collecting in the Region, activity was generally
low until the 1960’s. A number of collectors and botanists destined to have a major impact on
Australian botany began visiting the Region during this period, notably Royce, Powell, George,
Green, Erickson and G.G. Smith.
During the post-war period there was limited activity in the Region other than two exceptions. A burst
of activity occurred in 1947-48, the years immediately following the sealed road reaching Manjimup.
In addition, Churchill collected plants in association with his palynological studies in the Walpole
area. The debate over his work is ongoing and work flowing from these studies has been significant in
the botanical history of the area, and in this current review.
Since the 1950’s the region has been on the travel route for many ‘itinerant’ botanists, local, interstate
and from overseas, all of whom have contributed through their collections.
Notable individual contributions have been made by a number of residents of the region. From the
mid 1970’s, Albany Wildflower Society members, Eileen Croxford and her sister, Mary Sherwood,
made substantial collections in the eastern parts of the region over the years. Mary McCallum-
Webster, a recurrent visitor from the United Kingdom, collected in the Denmark area and played a
pivotal role in setting up the Albany Herbarium. Much of their work has now come to fruition with
incorporation of their collection label data into the WA Herbarium database. More recently, collecting
carried out by the late Brenda Hammersley across the Denmark Shire has led to expansion of the
botanical knowledge of that part of the region, including the first collections of a number of taxa,
several of which are dealt with in this study. Her contribution to our knowledge of the Bryophyte flora
of the region is inestimable.
A number of other people have made significant contributions through their extensive knowledge of
and interest in the flora. For over 40 years, the late George Gardner made collections, and together
with Hazel Mason, published a booklet on the flora of the Northcliffe area in 1984. Hazel Dempster
(daughter of Eileen Croxford of the Albany Wildflower Society) collected across the region through
the 1970’s and 1980’s and published a booklet on the flora of the Manjimup area.
The Native Orchid Study and Conservation Group members have made major contributions to
collections and to expanding knowledge of this family in the Region, but many taxa remain
unresolved. Walpole residents, Gloria and the late Bill Jackson, have been notable in this regard,
identifying problems and forwarding material to taxonomists around Australia. Ted Middleton, as
CALM volunteer, has made a considerable contribution to our knowledge of rare and threatened taxa
both around Walpole and across the Region.
Over the years, the research group of the Forests Department and CALM, based in Manjimup, made
significant contributions through collections by Hart, Loneragan, Christensen, Skinner, Annels,
McCutcheon, Wardell-Johnson, Macfarlane, Cranfield and many others, mostly related to floristic and
fauna studies and more recently to threatened flora.
The most recent additions to botanical knowledge were made during surveys of the Region for the
Regional Forest Agreement process. In addition, comprehensive surveys of the vascular flora have
been undertaken by Gibson, Keighery and Lyons of the coastal and near coastal communities of the
Warren bioregion and the Lake Muir – Unicup –Byenup area. The Byenup-Muir is a complex wetland
system, and surveys found the only records for Euphrasia (aff.) scabra and Lilaeopsis polyantha, both
Despite the substantial progress made to date, much work needs to be done. Large tracts of the Region
remain virtually unrepresented in herbarium collections, and the regularity of first collections of new
taxa in the Region during the last 10 years indicates much work is still required.
Taxonomic problems still exist in major groups, notably in areas addressed during work for this
report, including Hemigenia and Hemiandra spp. in the Lamiaceae; Leucopogon spp.and Astroloma spp.in the Epacridaceae; Astartea spp.and Agonis spp.in the Myrtaceae; Lambertia and Synaphea in
the Proteaceae and a number of taxa in the Cyperaceae. It is expected that the current review will not
be the last word on rare species in the Region.
Figure 2. The Warren Region contains two districts, Frankland and Donnelly. The major towns, roads
and rivers are also shown.