PART FOUR - THE PLAN FOR MANAGEMENT 1. D ETERMINING P RIORITIES Declared Rare Flora Based on assessment of DRF against IUCN Criteria and CALM’s Ranking Policy 50 (now
incorporated in Policy 9), taxa that receive the highest priority for recovery are those that are ranked
as Critically Endangered (CR) followed by Endangered (EN) and Vulnerable (VU). Within each of
these categories Table 1 can be used as a guide to priorities for research and management.
Part Two of the Management Program assesses the abundance and conservation status of each DRF
taxon within the Warren Region and makes recommendations for research and management. On the
basis of these recommendations, each taxon, under the headings Critically Endangered, Endangered
and Vulnerable, is ranked on a scale of 0 to 3 in nineteen categories based on potential threats or
management and research requirements within the region (Table 1). Taxa with no threat or urgency
for a particular management and research action were given a score of 0. Those with a high degree of
threat or urgency for management and research were allocated a score of 3. Those where the threat or
urgency is unknown were represented by a dash (-). Where ranking differs slightly, it is further
described under each category. The scores were summed across all threat/management categories for
each of the eighteen Declared Rare Flora.
Table 2 lists the eighteen Declared Rare Flora according to the priority and number of protection and
management actions, within each IUCN category (Critically Endangered, Endangered and
Vulnerable). Taxa with a higher score have higher priority and/or a larger number of required actions.
It is intended that all requirements for each taxon will be implemented, as outlined in the previous
species treatments. Work will be conducted, programmed or deferred according to IUCN Rank, with
priority based on the scoring of Table 1, available funds and existing resources and workloads. This
will enable resources and staff within the Warren Region to be allocated where most urgently
required. Table 3 displays the same process for Priority 1, 2 and 3 taxa without ranking under IUCN
Priority Flora Where Priority flora is being considered for nomination as DRF and is thought to be Critically
Endangered and in need of urgent recovery action due to major threatening processes, low population
size or other limiting factor, recovery actions may be given higher priority for action.
During the development of this Program,
thirty seven taxa (i.e. three Priority 1, twelve Priority 2 and
twenty two Priority 3)
were not included as they are new additions to the priority flora list based on
current population data and little is known about them. These taxa urgently require assessment and, if
found to be threatened, written into the Management Program for the Region (see Table 4).
Note: the system used is not meant to be absolute or determinant. Many of the categories rated are
closely correlated and may bias the overall picture if considered in isolation. A lack of knowledge of
threats to some taxa meant that rating was not possible. Field work is urgently needed to find
populations of these taxa and assess their conservation status.
2. DRF - M ANAGEMENT AND R ESEARCH A CTIONS Overall scores for threatened taxa based on the nineteen categories of threat, management and
research requirements are shown in Table 1 with taxa in alphabetical order under the CR, EN and VU
categories. The scoring suggests that the following taxa warrant immediate management and research
Verticordia apecta Verticordia fimbrilepis subsp. australis Both species had extremely high ranking scores (34 and 41 respectively).
Specific requirements for each of the nineteen threat, management or research categories are outlined
2.1 Phytophthora dieback Phytophthora cinnamomi is a major fungal pathogen of the soils of the south-west forests and allied
communities. There are a number of other Phytophthora species also active, and a couple of airborne
canker fungi that are proving significant with some groups, particularly the Proteaceae.
The ranking of risk to Phytophthora species was based on a number of premises: rating of 3 assumed
proven susceptibility or member of a genus usually found to be at risk; rating of 2 was based on other
members of the genus having proved susceptible but not universally so, and rating of 1 was based on
other members of the family known to be susceptible but no record for the genus. Other taxa were
rated as not susceptible (-), but cannot be ruled out. Taxa occurring in low numbers and in few
populations should be tested for susceptibility.
Also included as susceptible to the impacts of Phytophthora were taxa not directly killed but whose
communities are subject to change through the actions of Phytophthora on other members, placing the
taxon at risk (e.g. Caladenia winfieldii).
Declared rare taxa which may be at risk from Phytophthora are:
Banksia verticillata Caladenia winfieldii Conostylis misera Kennedia glabrata Sphenotoma drummondii Verticordia apecta Verticordia densiflora var. pedunculata Verticordia fimbrilepis subsp. australis
2.2 Need for Survey The need for survey is assessed in relation to several matters: the need to assess populations not
relocated despite search effort; new species added to the threatened flora list subsequent to completion
of most field work for the review; and species with few known populations (mainly those DRF, P1
and P2 with few populations known post review and with revised individual classification). Ranking
was also weighted to reflect perceived threats to the individual taxon and the need to find additional
populations to be confident that the taxon is secure.
Additional and up to date survey work needs to be conducted on most threatened species within the
Warren Region, mainly priority species. The last major survey of the Region was conducted as part of
the RFA (Regional Forest Agreement) process in the 1990s with few species re-surveyed since.
Additionally, although most DRF populations are regularly monitored, some of this information may
not be recorded on rare flora report forms.
Those DRF that need survey work are:
Asplenium obtusatum subsp.
northlandicum Banksia verticillata Caladenia dorrienii Caladenia harringtoniae Caladenia winfieldii Conostylis misera Diuris drummondii Drakaea micrantha Kennedia glabrata Laxmannia jamesii Meziella trifida Microtis globula Sphenotoma drummondii Verticordia apecta Verticordia densiflora var. pedunculata Verticordia fimbrilepis subsp. australis
2.3 Population Size and Few Populations A number of DRF are known from few populations or have very small population sizes, making them
particularly vulnerable to localised disturbance. This ranking does not address breeding systems
and/or if the taxon has undergone a period of genetic isolation. It is used in assisting decisions on the
allocation of resources for survey and recovery action.
Taxa at risk through low numbers and/ or known from only a few populations are:
Asplenium obtusatum subsp.
northlandicum Banksia verticillata Caladenia winfieldii Conostylis misera Drakaea micrantha ms Kennedia glabrata Meziella trifida Microtis globula Rhacocarpus rehmannianus var. webbianus Sphenotoma drummondii Verticordia apecta Verticordia densiflora var. pedunculata Verticordia fimbrilepis subsp. australis 2.4 Roadside Populations located near roads, firebreaks and railways are vulnerable to damage or destruction
through maintenance operations. This category principally targets populations restricted to road verges
in a cleared landscape on land not under direct management of CALM. It also includes populations on
CALM management tracks.
The majority of road reserves are under the management of either Main Roads WA, or a local
government authority. Managers and field personnel need to know where the populations of DRF
occur to avoid accidental destruction or damage. Liaison with these authorities is essential.
Those species at threat are:
Caladenia christineae Caladenia dorrienii Caladenia harringtoniae Diuris drummondii Drakaea micrantha ms Laxmannia jamesii Meziella trifida Verticordia fimbrilepis subsp. australis 2.5 Private Land Negotiations Many DRF and priority taxa occur on or adjacent to private land. This section is weighted on the
location of the populations, i.e. how many of the total number of populations occur on private
property, or if access needs to be negotiated with private property owners.
Those DRF that require negotiations with private individuals are:
Caladenia christineae Drakaea micrantha ms Diuris drummondii 2.6 Land Acquisition Acquisition of land by the Department, either by donation, exchange or purchase, is required for those
taxa not well represented on conservation reserves. This would enable as much as possible,
appropriate management and protection practices to be implemented on land maintained in a natural
state. Plants occurring on land reserved for nature conservation are generally considered to be less
threatened than those on land designated for other purposes. It should be noted, however, that
presence on a reserve contributes to, but does not guarantee, population survival. Reserves are subject
to threats such as weed invasion, disease infection, drought, altered drainage and water tables,
uncontrolled fires, maintenance of management access tracks and where approved, mining activities.
In addition, several populations of DRF are under threat from the excision of CALM land earmarked
for a water dam and negotiations over this are continuing.
The following taxa are priority for land acquisition:
Diuris drummondii Laxmannia jamesii
Verticordia fimbrilepis subsp. australis 2.7 Fencing Fencing is needed to protect Declared Rare Flora from damage caused by feral animals, such as pigs,
and damage caused by recreational users such as rock climbers and walkers. In addition, Declared
Rare Flora that occur on private land may require protection from grazing by domestic stock.
The following taxa either require fencing or are in need of additional fencing:
Caladenia winfieldii (majority of CLM 1 population already fenced)
Rhacocarpus rehmannianus var. webbianus Verticordia apecta 2.8 Mining Mining is a minor threat to populations within the Warren Region, mainly through indirect effects,
such as road construction and infrastructure that are associated with mining. Mines within the region
include limestone quarries, gravel mines for road construction and peat mines. It is recommended that
several Priority 4 and other ex Priority taxa that are likely to be affected by current and future mining
are reviewed. Close liaison between companies, CALM, the Department of Minerals and Energy and
the Department of Environmental Protection is essential.
Taxa at risk from mining are:
Caladenia christineae 2.9 Recreation A number of taxa in the region are located at sites where they are currently or potentially at risk from
recreational activities. Activities may include camping, bushwalking and off-road vehicle use. There
are also issues with track and site construction and maintenance. Risk may be from trampling, rock
climbing, picking or the spread of Phytophthora. Recreation should be controlled or excluded from
sensitive sites depending on the degree of threat. Provision of fencing may also be necessary.
Taxa at threat from recreational activities are:
Asplenium obtusatum subsp.
northlandicum Banksia verticillata Kennedia glabrata Rhacocarpus rehmannianus var. webbianus Sphenotoma drummondii Verticordia fimbrilepis subsp. australis 2.10 Drought, Flooding, Groundwater Salinity Increase and Changing Weather Patterns Many Declared Rare Flora taxa within the Warren region are restricted to winter-wet habitats,
swamps, edges of lakes and rivers. As a consequence of their habitat requirement and the recent
recognition of climate change within the region, this category has the greatest weighting in terms of
priority for management.
Decreased annual rainfall and the increase in land clearing may affect hydrology at the regional and
local scale. This can lead to drying out of "wet" habitats for some taxa. Conversely, some
communities and associated taxa are at risk of flooding and/or salinisation.
Drought, or even a relatively small reduction of rainfall, is most significant for granite species and
relictual Gondwanan taxa that are reliant on high annual rainfall. Research on the reproductive and
conservation biology of these taxa is recommended. In addition, a drying regime through the
Denbarker/Rocky Gully area may add a significant fire risk to peat and swamp communities.
Taxa at threat from drought, climate change and/or salinity are:
Caladenia christineae Caladenia dorrienii Caladenia harringtoniae Caladenia winfieldii Conostylis misera Diuris drummondii Kennedia glabrata Laxmannia jamesii Meziella trifida Microtis globula Rhacocarpus rehmannianus var. webbianus Verticordia apecta Verticordia fimbrilepis subsp. australis 2.11 Ex situ Germ Plasm Conservation Collection and long term storage of germ plasm (seed or tissues) from wild populations of Declared
Rare Flora provides a source of propagation material for future translocations, in addition to ensuring
the long-term protection of populations from extinction.
The rating is based on:
few known or small populations and plant numbers;
disease risks; fire ecology and possible threats;
salinity issues; and,
physical threats such as recreational walkers, four wheel drivers, feral animals and weeds.
Collections should be carried out according to protocols provided by CALM’s Threatened Flora Seed
Centre. Priority for collection of this material will depend upon the degree of threat to the taxon. Note:
Currently, the majority of species in the District are not represented in ex situ germ plasm collections.
Seed or tissue material collection should be made for the following taxa:
Banksia verticillata Caladenia christineae Caladenia dorrienii Caladenia harringtoniae Caladenia winfieldii Conostylis misera Diuris drummondii Drakaea micrantha ms Kennedia glabrata Meziella trifida Microtis globula Sphenotoma drummondii Verticordia apecta Verticordia densiflora var. pedunculata Verticordia fimbrilepis subsp. australis 2.12 Re-establishment Taxa poorly represented on conservation reserves may need to be considered for translocation into
suitable, less vulnerable habitats on land designated for nature conservation.
Taxa that require translocation by CALM staff under an approved Recovery Plan or Interim Recovery
Caladenia winfieldii Verticordia apecta 2.13 Road and Track Management, Relocation, Closure Many Declared Rare Flora that occur near recreational pathways, firebreaks, off-road vehicle tracks
and other service and utility tracks (such as service tracks associated with Telstra lines, power lines
etc.) may benefit from the closing or removal of these roads.
These taxa are:
Caladenia christineae Caladenia harringtoniae Diuris drummondii Drakaea micrantha ms Laxmannia jamesii Meziella trifida
Verticordia apecta Verticordia densiflora var. pedunculata Verticordia fimbrilepis subsp. australis 2.14 Liaison Many Declared Rare Flora populations occur on or adjacent to land that is not managed by CALM.
This requires close association and cooperation with private landowners, local authorities, land
managers and government agencies (e.g. Western Power, Westrail and Main Roads W.A.) to ensure
that these populations are not damaged or inadvertently destroyed. Departmental staff provides advice
and assistance on conservation and management issues to landholders and other agencies with
Declared Rare Flora populations on land under their control. Landowners are requested to arrange
their operations so that areas containing populations of DRF are not destroyed or damaged in any way.
Liaison is necessary with neighbours, other management agencies and landowners for the continued
survival of populations. Liaison is required for the following species:
Caladenia christineae Caladenia harringtoniae Diuris drummondii Drakaea micrantha ms Laxmannia jamesii Meziella trifida Microtis globula Verticordia apecta Verticordia densiflora var. pedunculata Verticordia fimbrilepis subsp. australis 2.15 Monitoring Within the limit of available resources, all populations of Declared Rare Flora in the Warren Region
should be inspected annually to observe any decline in population numbers and to monitor threatening
processes. Where detrimental changes are seen, this should be followed by appropriate management
actions. Species that require most frequent monitoring are those likely to be affected by factors such
as fungal disease, drought, weed invasion and accidental damage, and those disturbance opportunists
that decline rapidly two or three years after an initial disturbance event has triggered a mass
germination of plants.
A network of permanent monitoring quadrats should be established on populations of threatened flora
within the Region. Through detailed mapping of individual plants in small populations, and permanent
monitoring plots in larger populations, subsequent visits can provide information on population
dynamics, plant longevity and regeneration. Monitoring quadrats require annual inspection.
The majority of the DRF within the Warren Region need ongoing monitoring. They are:
Asplenium obtusatum subsp.
northlandicum Banksia verticillata Caladenia christineae Caladenia dorrienii Caladenia harringtoniae Caladenia winfieldii Conostylis misera Diuris drummondii Drakaea micrantha ms Kennedia glabrata Laxmannia jamesii Meziella trifida Microtis globula Rhacocarpus rehmannianus var. webbianus Sphenotoma drummondii Verticordia apecta Verticordia densiflora var. pedunculata Verticordia fimbrilepis subsp. australis
2.16 Research Very few DRF within the Warren Region have been subject to detailed studies. Research into the
taxonomy, genetic systems, population biology and ecology of most taxa is needed to determine the
best means of protecting and managing populations, particularly if translocation is considered
Response to fire, susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. and other introduced pathogens, climate change
and salinisation require special attention.
Those DRF in need of research are:
Banksia verticillata Caladenia christineae Caladenia dorrienii Caladenia winfieldii Conostylis misera Diuris drummondii Drakaea micrantha ms Kennedia glabrata Laxmannia jamesii Meziella trifida Microtis globula Rhacocarpus rehmannianus var. webbianus Verticordia apecta Verticordia densiflora var. pedunculata Verticordia fimbrilepis subsp. australis
2.17 Linear Marking Populations located along linear reserves (road and rail) and firebreaks that are often associated with
utilities such as powerlines, water pipelines and Telstra lines are vulnerable to damage or destruction
by maintenance operations. Main Roads WA has developed a field marking system for demarcating
environmentally significant areas on road reserves and CALM uses this system to mark DRF and
Priority Flora populations along linear routes both on CALM land and on other areas. Local Shires
have been encouraged to adopt such a system.
Linear marking is required for the following taxa:
Caladenia christineae Caladenia harringtoniae Diuris drummondii Drakaea micrantha ms Laxmannia jamesii Meziella trifida Verticordia apecta Verticordia densiflora var. pedunculata Verticordia fimbrilepis subsp. australis