Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Warren Region



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GLOSSARY 
abaxial 
of the side or surface of an organ, facing away from the axis. cf. adaxial 
achene 
a dry indehiscent 1-seeded fruit, from an either superior or inferior ovary of 1 
carpel, with the seed not fused to the fruit wall; eg as in Ranunculaceae (from a 
superior ovary) and Asteraceae (from an inferior ovary and usually topped by the 
pappus and sometimes called a cypsela) 
acrocarpous 
with the sporophyte produced at the end of the stem or main branch. 
acuminate 
tapering gradually to a protracted point 
acute 
terminating in a distinct but not protracted point, the converging edges separated 
by an angle less than 90 degrees 
adaxial 
of the side or surface of an organ, facing towards the axis. cf. abaxial 
adnate 
fused to an organ of a different kind, eg. applied to a stamen fused to a petal 
alar cells 
with reference to mosses, cells at the base angle of a leaf, often distinctive in 
shape, size and colour 
alternate 
of leaves or other lateral organs, borne singly at different heights on the axis; of 
floral parts, on a different radius, eg describing the position of stamens with 
respect to petals 
annual 
a plant whose life span ends within one year after germination 
anterior 
of floral organs, on the side of the flower farthest from the axis or toward the 
subtending (enclosing) bract.  cf. posterior
anthesis 
the time of opening of a flower 
appendage 
a structure arising from the surface or extending beyond the tip of another 
structure 
appressed 
pressed closely against but not united with 
ascending 
growing erect after an oblique or semi-horizontal beginning 
attenuate tapering 
gradually 
auricle 
an ear-shaped appendage at the base of a leaf, leaflet or corolla lobe. adj. 
auriculate 
auriculate see 
auricle 
awn 
a bristle-like appendage, eg on the tip or back of the lemma of a grass floret 
axil 
the angle between a leaf or bract and the axis bearing it. adj. axillary 
axillary see 
axil 
axis 
a stem, commonly used for the main stem of a whole plant or of an inflorescence 
basal 
at the base; attached or grouped at the base, eg. of leaves in a rosette; of 
placentation, with the placenta at the base of the ovary 
 
279

barbate 
bearded, having tufts of hairs 
beak 
a prominent terminal projection, especially of a carpel or fruit 
berry 
a fleshy or pulpy indehiscent fruit with the seed(s) embedded in the fleshy tissue 
of the pericarp 
bipinnatisect 
twice pinnately divided, lobes almost to base or midribs 
bisexual 
with both stamens and carpels present and functional on a flower. cf. unisexual 
bract 
a leaf-like structure, different in form from the foliage leaves and without an 
axillary bud, associated with an inflorescence or flower 
bracteole 
a small bract-like structure borne singly or in pairs on the pedicel or calyx of a 
flower 
caducous 
falling off early. cf. persistent 
calli in 
Dampiera small outgrowths in the throat of the corolla (acting as tactile guides 
for pollinators) 
callus 
a protruding mass of hardened tissue, often formed after an injury but sometimes 
a regular feature of the plant, eg. on the labellum of some orchids and the axis of 
the spikelet of some grasses 
calyx 
the sepals of one flower collectively 
calyx-tube 
a tube formed by fusion or cohesion of sepals. cf. hypanthium 
campanulate bell-shaped 
capitulum 
a racemose inflorescence with sessile flowers compacted on a flattened and 
expanded, or rounded apex of a peduncle. pl capitula 
capsule 
a dry fruit formed from two or more united carpels and dehiscing at maturity to 
release the seeds 
cheridium 
a sleeve like structure in Calytrix made up of persistent bracteoles on an 
extended peduncle and connate to it 
cilia 
in unicellular plants, gametes, spores etc, minute hair-like protoplasmic 
protrusions whose movement confers motility on the cell; in higher plants, hairs 
more or less confined to the margins of an organ. sing. cilium; adj. ciliate 
ciliate see 
cilia 
clavate club-shaped 
claw 
a narrow, stalk-like basal portion of a petal, sepal or bract 
cleistocarpus 
without an operculum and therefore not regularly dehiscent 
clonal see 
clone 
clone 
a set of organisms produced from one parent by vegetative reproduction. adj. 
clonal 
 
280

column 
a structure in Orchidaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Stylidiaceae, extending above the 
ovary of a flower and incorporating stigma, style and stamens 
compressed 
flattened in one plane, either dorsally (bringing the front and back closer 
together) or laterally (bringing the sides closer together) 
compound 
of a leaf, having the blade divided into two or more distinct leaflets; of an 
inflorescence, made up of an aggregate of smaller inflorescences 
cone 
(loosely) in Casuarina, a woody multiple fruit incorporating the bracts and 
bracteoles associated with the flowers 
conflorescence 
a compound inflorescence consisting of two or more unit inflorescences 
connate 
fused to another organ (or other organs) of the same kind 
connivent 
coming into contact; converging 
cordate 
of a leaf blade, broad and notched at the base; heart-shaped 
corolla 
the petals of a flower collectively 
corona 
a ring of tissue arising from the corolla or perianth of a flower and standing 
between the perianth lobes and the stamens 
corymb 
a racemose inflorescence in which the pedicels of the lower flowers are longer 
than those of the flowers above, bringing all flowers to about the same level 
costa 
with reference to mosses, the rib or nerve of a leaf, single or double 
crenate 
with small, rounded teeth; scalloped 
crenulate minutely 
scalloped 
crown 
the part of a tree or shrub above the level of the lowest branch 
culm 
an aerial stem, in grasses, sedges, rushes, etc., bearing the inflorescence 
cuneate wedge-shaped 
cymbiform 
concave and boat shaped 
cyme 
an inflorescence in which each flower, in turn, is formed at the tip of a growing 
axis and further flowers are formed on branches arising below it. adj. cymose 
cymose see 
cyme 
deciduous 
falling seasonally, eg of the leaves or bark of some trees 
decumbent 
spreading horizontally but then growing upwards 
decussate 
in pairs, with successive pairs borne at right angles to each other 
dehiscent 
breaking open at maturity to release the contents 
dentate toothed 
denticulate finely 
toothed 
 
281

deltoid 
triangular with the sides of about equal length 
digitate 
branching from the axis or stalk like the fingers of a hand 
dimorphic 
of two different forms 
dioecious 
having the male and female reproductive structures on separate plants. cf. 
monoecious 
disc 
a plate or rim of tissue, derived from the receptacle of a flower, occurring 
between whorls of floral parts 
discolorous 
having 2 colours, eg. upper and lower surfaces of a leaf being of different 
colours 
divaricate widely 
spreading 
dorsal 
when referring to thallous liverworts, the upper surface, facing away from the 
substrate 
dorsifixed 
attached at or by the back 
edaphic 
pertaining to the soil 
elliptic 
oval in outline, widest at the centre 
emarginate 
having a broad, shallow notch at the apex 
emergent 
rising above the surrounding plants 
endemic 
having a natural distribution confined to a particular geographical region 
endocarp 
the innermost layer of a pericarp 
entire 
having a smooth margin, not dissected or toothed 
ephemeral short-lived 
erect upright, 
perpendicular 
erose 
margin irregularly incised, appearing eroded, gnawed or irregularly toothed 
exocarp 
the outer layer of a pericarp 
exserted 
protruding, eg of stamens with respect to a corolla tube 
falcate sickle-shaped 
family 
a group of one to many genera believed to be related phylogenetically, usually 
clearly separable from other such groups 
fascicle 
a cluster, adj. fasciculate 
filament 
the stalk of a stamen; a thread one or more cells thick; in blue-green Algae, a 
trichome enclosed in a mucilaginous sheath 
filiform thread-like 
flabelliform fan 
shaped 
 
282

floral 
belonging to or associated with a flower 
floret 
a grass flower, together with the lemma and palea that enclose it (often applied to 
flowers in Cyperaceae and Asteraceae) 
fimbriate fringed 
follicle 
a dry, dehiscent fruit formed from one carpel and dehiscing along the line of 
fusion of its edges 
free 
not fused or united (with other organs) 
fruit 
the seed-bearing structure in angiosperms formed from the ovary after flowering 
gemmae 
specialised units of vegetative reproduction; morphologically distinct 
propogules, not casual fragments 
genus 
a group of species believed to be related phylogenetically and usually clearly 
separable from other such groups, or a single species without close relatives. pl. 
genera 
glabrescent becoming 
glabrous 
glabrous without 
hairs 
gland 
a structure, without or on the surface of a plant, with a secretory function 
glandular 
bearing glands; functioning as a gland 
glaucous 
blue-green in colour, with a whitish bloom (as in the juvenile leaves of many 
eucalypts) 
globular 
3 dimensional shape; spherical or orbicular; approximately circular in cross 
section 
glume 
one of the two bracts at the base of the grass spikelet; in sedges and rushes refers 
to the very small bracts of the spikelet in which each flower is subtended by a 
floral glume, and in which there are often several empty glumes in a spikelet 
habit 
the growth form of a plant, comprising its size, shape, texture and orientation 
habitat 
the environment in which a plant lives 
herb 
any vascular plant that never produces a woody stem 
herbaceous 
not woody; soft in texture 
hermaphrodite bisexual 
hirsute 
bearing coarse, rough, longish hairs 
hoary 
covered with a greyish layer of very short, closely interwoven hairs 
hyaline 
translucent, almost like clear glass 
hypanthium 
the part of the flower enveloping an ovary and formed by the fusion of the calyx 
tube, corolla tube and sometimes stamen filaments and receptacle; also referred 
to as calyx tube, floral tube or perigynium 
 
283

hypogenous 
borne below the ovary; used to describe the flower structure when the ovary is 
superior and as such the floral whorls and stamens are inserted below the ovary 
hypogenous bristle 
in Cyperaceae, petals and sepals often when present have been reduced to 
bristle like appendages 
imbricate 
of perianth parts, having the edges overlapping in the bud 
included 
enclosed, not protruding, cf. exserted 
incurved 
bent or curved inwards or upwards; of leaf margins, curved towards the adaxial 
surface 
indehiscent 
not breaking open at maturity to release the contents 
indusium 
the pollen-cup of Goodeniaceae;  tissue covering the sorus of a fern 
inferior 
of an ovary, at least partly below the level of attachment of the other floral parts. 
cf. superior 
inflexed 
bent sharply upwards or forwards 
inflorescence 
the group or arrangement in which flowers are borne on a plant 
intercalary 
not involving the stem apex; intercalary branches of liverworts are secondary 
laterals, not terminal, revealed by a tiny collar of cells where they have pushed 
through the cortex 
internode 
the portion of a stem between the level of insertion of two successive leaves or 
leaf pairs (or branches of an inflorescence) 
involucral see 
involucre 
involucre 
large bract or whorl (or several whorls) of bracts surrounding a flower or an 
inflorescence. adj. involucral 
juvenile 
of leaves, formed on a young plant and different in form from the adult leaves 
keel 
a ridge like the keel of a boat; in particular, a boat-shaped structure formed by 
fusion of the two anterior petals of a flower in Fabaceae 
keeled 
of leaves or bracts, folded and ridged along the midrib 
labellum 
a lip; in Orchidaceae, the distinctive median petal that serves as an alighting 
platform for pollinating insects 
lamina 
the blade of a leaf 
lanceolate 
of a leaf, about four times as long as it is broad, broadest in the lower half and 
tapering towards the tip 
leaflet 
one of the ultimate segments of a compound leaf 
lemma 
the lower of two bracts enclosing a grass floret; male lemma - lemma enclosing a 
male flower; sterile lemma - an empty lemma.  cf. palea 
lignotuber 
a woody swelling below or just above the ground, containing adventitious buds 
from which new shoots develop if the top of the plant is cut or burnt (common in 
the shrubby eucalypts and in many other fire-tolerant Australian shrubs) 
 
284

ligulate 
bearing a ligule; strap-shaped 
limb 
the upper free, spreading portion of a corolla or perianth that is connate at the 
base 
linear 
very narrow in relation to the length, and with the sides parallel 
lobe 
a usually rounded or pointed projecting part, usually one of two or more, each 
separated by a fissure or a sinus 
mallee 
a growth habit in which several woody stems arise separately from a lignotuber 
(usually applied to shrubby eucalypts); a plant having the above growth habit 
marginal 
occurring at or very close to the margin 
mericarp 
a one seeded portion of an initially syncarpous fruit which splits apart at maturity 
- merous 
used with a number prefix to denote the basic number of the 3 outer floral whorls 
membranous 
thin and translucent 
midrib 
the central, and usually the most prominent, vein of a leaf or leaf-like organ 
monocarpic 
flowering and fruiting only once during its life span 
monoecious 
having the male and female reproductive structures in separate flowers but on the 
same plant. cf. dioecious 
mucro 
a sharp, abrupt terminal point. adj. mucronate 
mucronate see 
mucro 
mucronulate with 
very 
small 
mucro 
nectary 
a gland that secretes nectar 
nerve a 
vein 
node 
the level (transverse plane) of a stem at which one or more leaves arise 
obcordate 
of a leaf blade, broad and notched at the tip; heart-shaped but attached at the 
pointed end 
oblanceolate 
similar in shape to lanceolate but attached at the narrower end 
oblong 
having the length greater than the width but no many times greater, and the sides 
parallel 
obovate 
similar in shape to ovate but attached at the narrower end 
obtuse 
blunt or rounded at the apex, the converging edges separated by an angle greater 
than 90 degrees 
operculum 
a lid or cover becoming detached at maturity by abscission; in Eucalyptus  (for 
example), a cap covering the bud and formed by fusion or cohesion of perianth 
parts 
opposite 
of leaves, borne at the same level but on opposite sides of the stem; of floral 
parts, on the same radius. cf. alternate 
 
285

orbicular 
circular or nearly so 
ovate 
shaped like a section through the long axis of an egg, and attached by the wider 
end 
ovoid 
3 dimensional shape ovate in cross section 
palea 
the upper of the two bracts of a grass floret. cf. lemma 
panicle 
a compound raceme; an indeterminate inflorescence in which the flowers are 
borne on branches of the main axis or on further branches of these 
paniculate 
indeterminate and much branched 
papilla 
a small, elongated protuberance on the surface of an organ, usually an extension 
of one epidermal cell. adj. papillose 
papillose see 
papilla 
pappus 
a tuft (or ring) of hairs or scales borne above the ovary and outside the corolla in 
Asteraceae and possibly representing the calyx; a tuft of hairs on a fruit 
-partite 
divided, almost to the base, into segments (commonly applied to a style) 
patent 
spreading, diverging from the axis at almost right angles 
pedicel 
the stalk of a flower. adj. pedicellate 
pedicellate see 
pedicel 
peduncle 
the stalk of an inflorescence; in ferns, the stalk of a sporocarp. adj. pedunculate 
pedunculate see 
peduncle 
pendulous 
drooping, hanging downwards 
perennial 
a plant whose life span extends over more than two growing seasons 
perianth 
the calyx and corolla of a flower, especially where the two are similar 
pericarp 
wall of a fruit developed from the ovary wall 
persistent 
remaining attached, not falling off. cf. caducous 
petal 
a member of the inner whorl of non-fertile parts surrounding the fertile organs of 
a flower, usually soft and coloured conspicuously 
petiole 
the stalk portion of a leaf 
petiolate having 

petiole 
pilose 
hairy, the hairs soft and clearly separated but not sparse 
pinnate 
divided into pinnae; once-compound. cf. bipinnate 
pinnatifid 
cut deeply into lobes that are spaced out along the axis (of the leaf). cf. 
palmatifid 
pinnatisect 
dissected down to the midrib but having the segments confluent with it 
 
286

pistil 
a free carpel or a group of fused carpels 
plicate 
having a longitudinal fold or ridge; or folded back and forth longitudinally like a 
fan 
plumose 
like a feather; with fine hairs branching from a central axis 
pod 
a leguminous fruit 
pollination 
the transfer of pollen from the male organ, where it is formed, to the receptive 
region of a female organ, eg from anther to stigma 
posterior 
toward the axis, away from the subtending bract.  cf. anterior 
procumbent 
trailing or spreading along the ground but not rooting at the nodes 
prostrate 
lying flat on the ground 
puberulous 
covered with minute, soft, erect hairs 
pubescent 
covered with short, soft, erect hairs 
pungent 
ending in a stiff, sharp point; having an acrid taste or smell 
pyrene 
the stone or pit of a drupe consisting of the hardened endocarp and seed 
raceme 
an indeterminate inflorescence in which a main axis produced a series of flowers 
on lateral stalks, the oldest at the base and the youngest at the top. adj. racemose 
rachis 
the axis of an inflorescence or a pinnate leaf; pl. rachisesSecondary rachis: the 
axis of a pinna in a bipinnate leaf 
ray 
of a compound umbel, one of the first (lower) series of branches of the 
inflorescence axis 
receptacle 
the axis of a flower (= torus); in ferns, an axis on which sporangia arise 
recurved 
curved or curled downwards or backwards 
reflexed 
bent sharply downwards or backwards 
reticulate 
forming a network 
retrorse 
directed backwards or downwards. cf. antrorse 
revolute 
rolled downwards or backwards 
rhizomatous see 
rhizome 
rhizome 
a creeping stem, usually below ground, consisting of a series of nodes and 
internodes with adventitious roots. adj. rhizomatous 
rhomboid 
quadrangular, with the lateral angles obtuse. adj. rhomboidal 
rib 
a distinct vein or linear marking often raised as a linear ridge 
rosette 
tuft of leaves or other organs resembling the arrangement of the petals in a rose 
rugose deeply 
wrinkled 
 
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