Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Warren Region



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Part Lake Muir- 
Byenup wetland system 
CLM 24 
Neeranup Rd 1 
DON 
NR 
20 
8/12/1997 
As above 
CLM 25 
Neeranup Rd 2 
DON 
NR 
150 
8/12/1997 
As above 

 
 
33
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
 
Last survey 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 26 
Byenup Lagoon 
DON 
NR 
200 
17/12/1997 
As above 
CLM 27 
Yarnup NR 
DON 
NR 
50 
28/11/1997 
 
 
 Response to Disturbance 
Plants are likely to be killed by fire when in active growth (May-November). However, they are not 
affected by fire once their new tubers are fully formed and flowering appears to be stimulated by 
summer wildfires, with most populations “disappearing” between fire events. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
As the occurrence of the species is linked to wet sites, with plants often found with their base in 
standing water, changes to water tables over time may impact on their long-term viability. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown but the species is probably vulnerable to weedy annuals that 
are able to occupy sites following fire or soil disturbance. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown. 
Management Requirements 
Monitor populations prior to proposed burns and for two years following, or every second year in 
intervening periods. 
Exclude late autumn, winter and spring fuel reduction burns from all populations and if possible all 
fire from populations growing in peat that has the potential to ignite and kill tubers. 
Search areas of suitable habitat for further populations. 
Research Requirements 
Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
References 
Brown et al (1998); Hoffman and Brown (1992, 1998) 
Diuris drummondii  
 
 
 

 
 
34
Drakaea micrantha Hopper & A.P. Br. ms 
ORCHIDACEAE 
Dwarf Hammer Orchid
 
WAR F4/9 
Drakaea micrantha was first collected from the Porongurups area by Goadby in 1930 and, although 
noted as being unusual by the taxonomist Richard Rogers, was placed in Drakaea elastica. It was not 
collected again until the 1970s, when Alex George found it in the southern suburbs of Perth and 
Andrew Brown collected it at Yarloop, both these collections being placed in D. thynniphila. In the 
1980’s, further collections and work on specificity of pollinators by Stephen Hopper and Andrew 
Brown resulted in the recognition of D. micrantha as a distinct species. 
Description 
Growing to 30 cm tall, Dwarf Hammer Orchid has a diminutive flower 12-25 mm long and a small 
heart shaped, ground hugging leaf to 15 mm wide. The leaf is distinctive in that it has prominent white 
and pale green veins.  
The species often grows with, and can be mistaken for, other hammer orchids, in particular the similar 
D. glyptodon which has a more robust labellum and lacks a prominent erect terminal spike-like 
appendage on the column  and  D. thynniphila which has a less tapered labellum and a larger, less 
prominently veined, often hairy leaf. 
Flowering period: September-October 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species has a wide distribution from Perth to the Porongurups, in the south being recorded in 
areas near Nannup, Mount Barker, Denmark, Walpole and Granite Peak. Plants occur on depauperate 
grey leached sands in stunted Allocasuarina fraseriana, Eucalyptus marginata woodland and forest, 
usually on old firebreaks and open disturbed areas where competition has been removed. 
Conservation Status 
Current: DRF-Endangered 
 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
 
Last survey 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 3 
Thompson Rd. 1 
FRA 
SF 

13/10/1998 
 
CLM 6 
Thompson Rd 2 
FRA 
SF 

27/10/2001 
 
CLM 9 
Mount Lindsey 
FRA 
NP 
100 
15/11/1998 
 
CLM 10 
Dingo Flat Rd 
FRA 
PP 
117 
26/10/1999 
 
CLM 12 
Granite Rd 
FRA 
SF 
14 
27/8/1997 
 
CLM 13 
Stan Road 
FRA 
NP 

8/10/2002 
Two sub-populations 
CLM 19 
Weld Rd 
FRA 
NP 

29/9/2001 
 
CLM 23 
Vermullen Rd 
FRA 
SHRes? 

3/10/1997 
 
 
Response to Disturbance 
Plants are killed by fire when in active growth (May-October). However, they are not affected by fire 
once their new tubers are fully formed and dormant (November-April). 
Response to mechanical disturbance is unknown but is probably the same as the response to fire if the 
above ground parts are removed before the new tuber is fully formed in early summer. Observation of 
known populations indicates that plants are able to quickly recolonise areas that have been disturbed. 
Susceptibility to weeds is unknown, but plants are probably vulnerable to displacement by weed 
species. 
Response to changes in soil moisture is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown. 
Management Requirements 

Monitor populations annually. 
All populations need to be reassessed to review their conservation status.  
Conduct further surveys for new population in the region. 
Install rare flora markers on all populations found along road reserves. 
Research Requirements 
Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
References 
Brown et al (1998); Hoffman and Brown (1992, 1998); Robinson and Coates (1995); Hopper, et al
(1990) 
 
Drakaea micrantha  
   
 
 
 
 
35

 
 
36
Kennedia glabrata Lindley 
PAPILIONACEAE 
Northcliffe Kennedia 
 
WAR F4/12 
Kennedia glabrata is a rarely seen species that was described by Lindley in 1836 as Kennedya 
glabrata from material grown in a greenhouse, the material’s origins described as ‘...a New Holland 
plant, probably from the South coast....’, this species was shuffled taxonomically out of and back into 
Kennedia by Bentham, and later into Caulinia by Mueller. Until recently, it was known only from 
populations near Northcliffe, hence its common name. However, it has now been collected from the 
Albany area (housed at the Albany Herbarium) with one collection made from the Youngs Siding area 
between Denmark and Albany and the other from about 30 km North of Albany immediately east of 
the Porongurups. This extension of the known distribution would be consistent with material being 
grown in horticulture in England in 1835, material probably originating from King George Sound. 
More recently it has also been found in the Esperance area. 
Recruitment and persistence of individuals in populations is not known, complicating ranking 
assessment of the taxon’s conservation status. Observations by Brenda Hammersley on William Bay 
populations indicate seedling mortality is high where plants have not reached sufficient maturity to 
survive short dry periods in spring. Plants in one of the Weld populations lost above ground parts 
when drought conditions were experienced, followed by signs of resprouting following more 
favourable conditions.  
Description 
Kennedia glabrata is a prostrate perennial creeper to 3 m diameter with hairy stems and divided
trifoliate, leaves with each leaflet obovate to very broadly obovate, cuneate or emarginate, 10-25 mm 
long, 7-27 mm wide, the margins undulate, sparsely hairy. Flowers are in simple umbel like racemes 
of 3-7 on erect peduncles to 15 cm. The bracts shed early. The calyx is 4-6 mm long, with white hairs, 
lobes 1.5-2.5 mm long. The standard is scarlet red and the eye yellow. The pod is 15-25 mm long and 
narrowly cylindric. 
Kennedia glabrata is identifiably different from Kennedia prostrata with K. prostrata having an 
inflorescence consisting of a solitary flower or pair of flowers and usually larger leaflets. K. coccinea 
differs from K. glabrata in having smaller stipules 1-4 mm long and usually larger leaves, an 
inflorescence of 5-20 flowers, a calyx 5-8 mm long with lobes 2-4 mm long with brown silky hairs 
and a compressed pod 40-60 mm long. 
Flowering period: September-November 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species is recorded from thirteen populations between Northcliffe and Albany with an outlier east 
of Esperance. It is known from granite outcrops (including islands) where it grows in shallow skeletal 
soils in swales and cracks on the rock surface with a suite of other species similarly adapted to these 
extreme sites, and one atypical occurrence in a peaty swamp area on an old fence line / firebreak. 
Conservation Status 
Current: DRF-Vulnerable 
 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
 
Last survey 
 
Comments /condition 
CLM 1 
Chudalup 
DON 
NP 
10 
14/9/1994 
 
CLM 2 
Muirillup 
DON 
SF 
250 
12/10/1998 
 
CLM 3 
Weld 1 
FRA 
SF 

29/8/1997 
 
CLM 4a 
Woolbale Hills 1 
FRA 
NP 
150+ 
14/3/1989 
Area not usually 
accessible in spring. 
CLM 4b 
Woolbales Hills 2 FRA 
NP 
 

26/8/1997 
 
CLM 5 
Broke Inlet 1 
FRA 
VCL 
12 
29/11/1991 
 
CLM 6 
Broke Inlet 2 
FRA 
VCL 

29/11/1991 
 
CLM 7a 
William Bay 
FRA 
NP 
10 
11/11/2000 
 
CLM 7b 
William Bay 
FRA 
NP 

13/11/1997 
 
CLM 8 
Maringup 
DON 
NP 
30 
29/8/1997 
 
CLM 9 
Burnett SF 
FRA 
SF 
12 
21/9/1997 
 

 
 
37
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
 
Last survey 
 
Comments /condition 
CLM 10 
Pingerup Rd 
FRA 
NP 

12/12/1997 
 
CLM 11 
Moores Track 
DON 
NP 

21/9/1997 
 
CLM 12 
Break Rd 
FRA 
SF 

22/10/1998 
 
CLM 13 
Railway Parade 
FRA 
SF 

10/10/1998 
 
 
Response to Disturbance 
Although some resprouting has been observed, most plants are presumed to be killed by fire. 
However, recruitment from seed is likely to be stimulated by fire. 
The long-term response to change in soil moisture is unknown, but seedling mortality is high during 
dry periods and some plants appear able to resprout when conditions are more favourable. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown for most populations, but an atypical population in William 
Bay is probably sustained by disturbance and fire. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown. 
Management Requirements 
Monitor populations annually if possible. 
Search areas of suitable habitat for additional populations. 
Collect seed from a range of populations. 
Research Requirements 
For selected populations, monitor individual plants over multiple years in order to gather data on the 
species regenerative, reproductive and conservation biology. 
Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
References 
Bentham (1864); Brown et al (1998); Hopper et al. (1990); Robinson and Coates (1995); Rye and 
Hopper(1981); Wheeler et al. (2001) 
 

 
Kennedia glabrata  
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
38

 
 
39
Laxmannia jamesii Keighery 
ANTHERICACEAE 
James’s Paper-lily 
WAR F4/14 
Laxmannia jamesii was first collected near Albany in 1972 by Greg Keighery who, following 
cytological studies and revision of the genus in 1987, described the species in honour of the late Dr. 
Sid James. The species was considered for deletion from the declared rare flora list in 1996, but was 
not removed due to some doubts over the accuracy of identification of plants in some populations and 
lack of recent data on others, particularly responses to recent disturbance such as fires. 
Description 
James’s Paper-lily is a tufted, stilted, rambling herb with slender wiry stems to 20 cm long. Leaves are 
narrow linear, 9-20 mm long and scattered singly along the stem with leaves clustered at the end. The 
sheath is translucent 4-7 mm and coarsely fimbriate. Flowering inflorescences are both sessile and 
axillary, 3-4 flowered along the stems and 4-8 flowered terminally. Terminal flowers are on a 
peduncle 12-30 mm long. The five red-brown outer inflorescence bracts are 3-4 mm long. The 
translucent, fimbriate inner bracts are one per flower and 2-3 mm long. Sepals are red-brown and 
petals are white, both about 4 mm long. 
Laxmannia jamesii is distinct from L. minor which has short crowded stems and only terminal 
pedunculate inflorescences and L. sessiflora subsp. australis which has sessile inflorescences. 
Flowering period: May-July 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species is known from Two Peoples Bay to Busselton, growing in seasonally damp grey sandy 
soils in low closed heath over sedges or seasonally moist grey sandy laterite in jarrah woodland. 
Conservation Status 
Current: DRF -Vulnerable 
 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
Last 
survey 
 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 4 
South Coast Hwy 
FRA 
RR 
50+ 
26/5/2004 
Consists of several sub-
populations that require 
reassessment as they 
appear to have diminished 
in size 
CLM 8 
Sheepwash SF 1 
FRA 
SF 
1000 
25/4/1998 Many 
sub-populations 
that 
require reassessment 
CLM 12 
Sheepwash SF 2 
FRA 
SF 
50 
2/7/1994 
 
CLM 13 
Gumlink Rd 
FRA 
NR 

21/10/1998 Possible 
misidentification. 
Not relocated 
CLM 19 
Pratt Road 
FRA 
UCL 
100 
26/5/2004 
 
CLM 20 
Mitchell River Rd 1 
FRA 
SF 
1000 
27/5/1998 
 
CLM 21 
Mitchell River Rd 2 
FRA SF  1000  29/4/1998 
Two 
sub-populations 
CLM 22 
Sand Track 1 
FRA 
SF 
200 
15/8/1999 
 
CLM 24 
Sheepwash SF 3 
FRA 
SF 
1000 
27/4/1999 
 
WAR 100 
Sand Track 2 
FRA 
SF 
na 
27/7/1995 
 
 
Response to Disturbance 
Fire appears to kill adult plants, with, populations re-establishing from seed. Flowering has been 
recorded within two years of Autumn and Spring burning. 
The occurrence of the species in disturbed areas in ‘Sheepwash’, on Gum Link Road and the South 
Coast Highway indicates it is able to re-establish following soil disturbance. However, the ideal 
frequency of disturbance is unknown. 
Response to change in soil moisture is unknown. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 

Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown. 
Management Requirements 
Monitor populations annually. 
Search for additional populations in areas of suitable habitat. 
With South Coast Region staff, arrange for all populations to be visited over a one year period to 
confirm identifications and status with a view of nominating the species for removal from the 
Declared Rare Flora list. 
Research Requirements 
Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
References 
Brown et al (1998); Keighery (1987); Robinson and Coates (1995) 
 
 
Laxmannia jamesii  
 
 
40

 
 
41
Meziella trifida (Nees) Schindl. 
HALORAGACEAE 
  
WAR 
F4/204 
Meziella trifida was collected by Preiss in 1840 and described by Nees in 1844 under the name 
Gonocarpus trifidus (as ‘Goniocarpus’). It was moved to Haloragis trifida by Walpers in 1846 and 
then to Meziella trifida by Schindler in 1905. The species was then not seen again and was presumed 
to be extinct until a population was located by Greg Keighery on the edge of the Scott Plains east of 
Augusta in 1992. This population consisted of mature plants, enabling confirmation of its generic 
status. The species is currently known from three populations, one of which was found in the Warren 
Region by Ray Cranfield during the summer of 1997. 
Description 
Meziella trifida is a decumbent, glabrous, annual or perennial semi-aquatic herb with mainly reddish 
stems and leaves. The main stems are prostrate, freely branching, rooting at nodes. The lateral stems 
ascending, fertile. Leaves are alternate, entire, linear after water recedes and 3.5-5 mm long, sessile, 
acute, or, when immersed or submerged, trifid with two linear lobes at or above the middle and no 
longer than it. The inflorescence is an indeterminate spike of single flowers, each subtended by a leaf 
like bract and two short red bracteoles. Individual flowers are four-merous, bisexual, sessile with four 
red, subulate sepals 1.7 mm long, which are entire, smooth, erect, persistent and increasing in size as a 
corona on the fruit. The four petals are red, narrowly hooded, 1.7 mm long and shed immediately after 
anthesis. Each flower has four stamens and four styles. The ovary is small, four-locular, expanding 
rapidly in fruit. Fruit is about 2.7 mm long, 2.7 mm wide, red, indehiscent with one seeded pyrenes 
contained within a dry exocarp, (not splitting into separate mericarps at maturity as in Myriophyllum), 
and with clusters of 6-7 soft spreading spines to 1.3 mm long on the lower half of the torus below each 
sepal. 
Flowering period: November-February 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species is found between Albany and Scott River, growing in winter wet depressions and 
watercourses. 
Conservation Status 
Current: DRF -Vulnerable 
 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
Last 
survey 
 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 2 
South West Hwy 
FRA 
NP 
na 
25/2/1998 
 
CLM 4 
South West Hwy – 
Beardmore Rd 
FRA NP/SF
/RR 
na 5/5/2000 
Three 
sub-populations 
CLM 5 
Woolbale Rd 
FRA 
NP 
100 
15/4/1998 
 
CLM 6 
Dixie Rd 
FRA/ 
DON 
SF na  15/4/1998 
 
CLM 7 
South Western Hwy 
– Inlet River Bridge 
FRA RR 100 
22/1/1999 
 
CLM 8 
Bandicoot Rd 
FRA 
SF 
100+ 
18/1/2004 
 
CLM 9 
Chesapeake Rd 1 
DON 
NP 
1000 
18/1/2001 
 
CLM 10 
Circus Beach Walk 
Trail 
FRA NP 1000 
17/3/2001 
 
CLM 11 
Boggy Lake 
FRA 
NP 
100 
26/2/2001 
 
WAR 100 
Cheasapeake Rd 2 
DON 
NP 
na 
18/2/2004 
 
WAR 101 
Gardner Rd 
DON 
NP 
na 
3/3/2004 
 
WAR 102 
Chesapeake Rd 3 
DON 
NP 
na 
3/3/2004 
 
WAR 103 
Gardner Rd 2 
DON 
NP 
na 
3/3/2004 
 
WAR 104 
Gardner Rd 3 
DON 
NP 
na 
3/3/2004 
 
WAR 105 
Windy Harbour 
DON 
NP 
na 
12/220/04 
 
 
Response to Disturbance 

As Meziella trifida is an aquatic plant, fire is presumed to have little impact unless the areas in which 
it grows dry out. It is possible that seeds may then be killed. This may affect recruitment as the species 
is an annual seed obligate. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
Being an aquatic, the species will be affected by any changes to in soil moisture through drainage and 
climate change.  
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown. 
Management Requirements 
Locate populations in the Frankland district and assess their conservation status. 
Search areas of suitable habitat for further populations. 
Monitor populations to determine the impact of disturbance. 
Liaise with Main Roads WA to protect a population on their land. 
Research Requirements 
Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
Determine response to disturbance. 
References 
Brown et al (1998); Orchard (1990); Orchard and Keighery (1993); Robinson and Coates (1995) 
 
Meziella trifida  
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
 
 
42

 
 
43
Microtis globula R. Bates 
ORCHIDACEAE
 
Globular Mignonette Orchid 
 
WAR F4/15 
This elusive orchid was described in 1984 by Robert Bates from material he collected near Walpole. It 
flowers following summer fire. Three known locations have been burnt in the Warren Region in 
recent years but the species has not been relocated.  
Field observation indicates that the species is restricted to organic soil communities and may be 
vulnerable to regimes that impact on the substrate. The failure of each of the known populations to 
respond to recent fire may be related to the nature of fire events to which they have been subject. One 
population that was burnt in very early summer may have been burnt too early and the fire may have 
been too cool. Two other populations were burnt in a hot fire in late autumn. This fire may have been 
too late in the season or, alternatively, being such a hot fire, underground tubers may have been 
destroyed as the peat substrate burnt. Urgent work is required to locate populations of this taxon and 
resolve issues related to the species conservation biology. 
Description 
An herbaceous perennial with a single terete leaf, 2-4 mm wide by 8-25 cm long and flowering stems 
up to 35 cm with up to forty pale yellow-green flowers to 2 mm wide and long that are crowded along 
its upper part. The lateral sepals are prominently incurved. 
Although superficially simular to other Microtis spp., M. globula is readily distinguished by its 
prominently incurved lateral sepals, a feature that gives the flowers their globular appearance and 
leads to both the scientific and common names. It is one of the last Microtis spp. to flower each year. 
Flowering period: December-January 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species has been recorded from Albany to west of Walpole, growing in seasonally wet peat 
swamps some nine to twelve months following summer fire.  
Conservation Status 
Current: DRF-Vulnerable 
 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
 
Last survey 
 
Comments / 
condition 
CLM 1 
Railway Parade 
FRA 
NP 

Spring 2003 
 
CLM 2 
Keystone 2 Rd 
FRA 
NP 

Spring 2003 
 
CLM 3 
Cemetery Rd 
FRA 
SHRes 

Spring 2003 
Burnt 2002 (Golf 
Course) 
CLM 5 
William Bay 
FRA 
NP 
200 
1/1/1975 
 
Need to relocate 
 Response to Disturbance 
The occurrence of this species in peat makes it vulnerable to fires that burn into and remove the 
substrate. However, as it has only been recorded following hot summer fires this is likely to be a 
minor threat. In order to promote flowering, a fire regime is required that is restricted to periods when 
actively growing above ground parts are not present but the organic soil substrate is sufficiently wet to 
remain unburnt. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
Response to changes in soil moisture through drainage and changing climate is unknown. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown. 
Management Requirements 

Monitor known populations annually. 
Search areas of suitable habitat for further populations. 
Amend fire management practices in the area of previously known populations to favour a summer 
regime. 
Research Requirements 
If populations are found, urgent studies into the species’ biology are needed.  
If populations are located, liaise with Botanic Garden and Parks Authority staff to initiate seed and 
mycelium collection for storage and possible propagation of plants for future translocations. 
Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
References 
Bates (1984); Brown et al (1998); Robinson and Coates (1995); Hoffman and Brown (1992, 1998); 
Hopper et al. (1990) 
 
Microtis globula  
 
 
 
44

 
 
45
Rhacocarpus rehmannianus (Muell. Hall.) Wijk & Margad. var. webbianus 
(Muell. Hall.) J.-P. Frahm 
HEDWIGIACEAE 
  
WAR 
F4/99 
Rhacocarpus rehmannianus var. webbianus is one of only four Western Australian mosses presumed 
to be endemic. The taxon was described in 1897 under the name Harrisonia webbiana and moved into 
Rhacocarpus  in 1900. More recently, Frahm (1996) reduced it to a variety of rehmannianus. For 
many years the taxon was known from one population near Northcliffe (type locality Mount 
Lindesay). However, following extensive searches a second small population was located by B. 
Jackson and T. Middleton in a namma hole on a granite outcrop North of Walpole. 
Description 
Rhacocarpus rehmannianus var. webbianus has a fine textured appearance and irregularly branched, 
decumbent red stems, which are matted into strands to 10 cm long. Older parts of stems (lower parts) 
are bare of leaves. Leaves are deep green, glossy, spirally arranged, scattered along the stems, 
procumbent, overlapping but not stem clasping, obovate, 1-1.5 mm long by 0.5 mm wide. Margins are 
concave, entire and inrolled below the apex which is narrowly acute with a short (0.25 mm) hairpoint. 
Costa are absent. The alar cells are bronzed orange.  
Distribution and Habitat 
The variety is currently known from two populations, growing in flowing water and a waterhole, on 
granite outcrops. No other populations have been found, despite extensive searches in similar habitat 
across the Region.  
Conservation Status 
Current: DRF – Critically Endangered 
 
A major threat to this taxon is the use of its habitat by tourists and recreationists as a footpath. A 
population near Northcliffe is under immediate threat as it is growing in a gully that tourists and 
recreationists use as a shortcut to the base of the granite dome. Urgent work is required to modify 
pathways and barriers in the area to provide protection to the taxon.  
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
Last 
survey 
 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM1 Mt. 
Chudalup Donnelly NP  * 
23/3/2004 
* Area of 20 square metres 
recovering after fencing 
CLM 2 
Mitchell Road 
Frankland SF 
na 
7/11/1998 
 
Assess recreational impact 
Response to Disturbance 
Response to fire is unknown. 
The taxon may be susceptible to walkers who could damage the sods that fix it to the substrate. 
It is unlikely to be affected by small short-term changes in soil moisture as it grows in seasonally 
wet/dry areas and can withstand limited summer drought. However, there is a potential threat of it 
being replaced with other mosses if sites dry out for long periods. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. Mechanical removal of weeds may cause physical damage to 
the substrate and should be avoided. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown, possibly irrelevant. 
Management Requirements 
Protect known population from disturbance by using barriers and redesigned boardwalks. Additional 
fencing is required. 
Continue searches in areas of suitable habitat for additional populations. 

Research Requirements 
None 
References 
Brian Best (personal communication); Frahm (1996); Stoneburner and Wyatt (1996) 
 
 
Rhacocarpus rehmannianus var. 
webbianus  
 
 
 
 
46

 
 
47
Sphenotoma drummondii (Benth.) F. Muell. 
EPACRIDACEAE 
Mountain Paper Heath 
 
WAR F4/134 
This taxon was gazetted as DRF in 1996 as a result of work being done by Sarah Barrett of CALM’s 
South Coast Region who found that it was under immediate threat in the Stirling Ranges from 
Phytophthora.  Despite searches over three years, a population on Mt. Frankland had not been 
relocated. More recently, verbal advice from botanist Arthur Weston indicated the taxon was in fact 
still present in the latter area and a recent survey confirmed the presence of at least eight living plants 
and two dead plants. 
Description 
Sphenotoma drummondii is an erect robust shrub to 0.5 m high with densely crowded, erect to 
spreading, long-acute, pungent leaves 40-80 mm long by 8-10 mm wide. Leaves are ciliate in the 
lower half and appressed to the stem below the inflorescence which is a compact, cylindrical to ovoid 
spike of up to 40 flowers. Flowers are white, each subtended by a broadly acuminate, pungent brown 
leaf-like bract 8-15 mm long with ciliate margins. Sepals are elliptic, acute, about 10 mm long. The 
corolla, which is 14-17 mm long, has a constricted throat and lobes 5-7 mm long. 
Flowering period: October-December 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species grows in rock crevices on high granite peaks, principally in the Stirling Range 
(five populations) in the South Coast Region. A single population is recorded at Mt. Frankland within 
the Warren Region with another possible population on a granite outcrop in the Denbarker area (not 
relocated despite searches in 1997).  
Conservation Status 
Current: DRF-Endangered 
 
The Mt. Frankland population that was recently relocated may be at risk if a proposal to put the area 
on the Rock Climbers atlas of places to climb succeeds. 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
 
Last 
survey 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 12 
Mt. Frankland 
Frankland NP 

5/3/1998 
 
 
Response to Disturbance 
Response to fire is unknown. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
The location of plants in fissures, cracks and on ledges would indicate plants are vulnerable to damage 
from rock climbers. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Research conducted on Stirling Range populations indicates that the species is highly susceptible. 
Management Requirements 
Search for new populations in areas of suitable habitat. 
Resurvey Mt. Frankland and possibly also the Denbarker area when the species is in flower. 
Monitor the known population annually, specifically for possible impacts of Phytophthora spp. and 
treat with phosphite if required. 
If suitable material is available, liaise with the Threatened Flora Seed Centre regarding seed collection 
and storage. 

Research Requirements 
None. 
References 
Brown  et al (1998); Bentham (1869); Robinson and Coates (1995); Sarah Barrett (personal 
communication) 
 
Sphenotoma drummondii  
 
 
 
48

 
 
49
Verticordia apecta E.A. George & A.S. George 
MYRTACEAE 
 
 
    WAR F4/127 
Verticordia apecta was first collected by Elizabeth George and Tony Annels while visiting a 
V. endlicheriana  var.  angustifolia  population in 1993 and was described by Elizabeth and Alex 
George the following year. Despite searches of the known location and other similar sites in and 
adjacent to the area, the species was not seen again until 1999. After not being seen for six years 
fourteen flowering plants and a possible twenty non flowering plants were located at the type locality 
in 1999. All were growing within a small area of about 10 square meters. A fire in 2004 completely 
burnt this site and no extant plants are currently known. 
Description 
A lignotuberous slender shrub to 45 cm tall with linear lower stem leaves 3-9 mm long and upper 
narrow elliptic stem leaves about 7 mm long. Floral leaves are elliptic to obovate. Flowers are scarce 
in the upper axils and have peduncles 9-19 mm long. Sepals and petals are deep pink with white fine 
fringe segments. 
Its general appearance the species is superficially like that of Verticordia habrantha which occurs at 
the same location, however it is readily distinguished from that species by its generally scruffy flower, 
its fimbriate pink petals and its shortly bearded style. 
Flowering period: November 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species is known only from the type locality on the Hay River where it grows on shallow sandy 
clay/loam soils surrounding a granite outcrop. Surrounding habitat is low open Wandoo 
woodland/scrubland. 
Conservation Status 
Current: DRF – Critically Endangered 
 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
 
Last survey 
 
Comments/condition 
WAR 1 
The Pass 
FRA 
SF 
14 
17/11/1999 
Fire mid May 2004, 
completely burnt the site 
 
Response to Disturbance 
The type collection was made two years after a fire indicating that it has the ability to resprout. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
Response to change in soil moisture is unknown. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Response to changes in canopy cover is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown, but, given susceptibility of other species in the genus, it should be assumed to be 
susceptible until shown otherwise. 
Management Requirements 
The population urgently needs post-fire assessment for regeneration, either from rootstock or seed. 
Continue to monitor the population annually. 
Search areas of suitable habitat for further populations. 
Protect the known site from the introduction of Phytophthora spp. 

If plants regenerate from fire, conduct seed collection or germ plasm collection for storage and 
possible future translocation. 
Research Requirements 
If the population does not recover within 3 years, investigate use of disturbance or smoked water to 
stimulate germination. 
Determine response to disturbance. 
Liaise with Botanic Garden and Parks Authority staff with respect to clonal propagation. 
References 
George and George (1994) 
 
 
Verticordia apecta  
 
 
 
 
50

 
 
51
Verticordia densiflora Lindl. var. pedunculata A.S. George 
MYRTACEAE 
 
 
    SFR F4/159 
Verticordia densiflora was described by Lindley in 1839 with the variety pedunculata described by 
Alex George in 1991. Its distribution is centred on Ruabon and Tutunup (south and east of Busselton) 
with an outlier at Perup that, although morphologically distinct, has been tentatively included. While 
this population has not been relocated, a collection from the Muir Highway, west of Lake Muir 
matches it in morphology. Other populations have been located in the Lake Muir area that match the 
Perup collection and all appear to represent a new taxon distinct from var. pedunculata and var. 
caespitosa. 
Description 
A shrub to 60 cm tall (Perup). Leaves are often crowded, opposite and decussate, linear to semi-terete, 
3-10 mm long by 1.0-2.5 mm wide. Flowers are pink or white in dense corymbs at ends of branchlets. 
Floral leaves are lanceolate, 3-4 mm long by (0.8) 1.0-1.5 mm wide. Peduncles are 5-9 mm long. The 
calyx is hemispherical, not ribbed, with a ring of long hairs at base, free above the floral tube and 2-4 
mm long, divided below the middle into 2-5 ciliate, digitate lobes. Petals are free above the floral 
tube, 0.8-2 mm long, orbicular, fringed with numerous cilia. Each flower has ten stamens alternating 
with ten staminodes, joined towards base. Staminodes are linear and glandular. The style is curved, 
exserted, 5-6 mm long and bearded towards the end. 
Perup/Lake Muir populations tend to be at the shortest end of all dimensions noted above, or just 
outside. These populations are disjunct from other Verticordia densiflora populations and are 
sufficiently different (though consistent within themselves) to possibly represent a new taxon at the 
varietal level.  
Flowering period: December-January (for Perup) 
Distribution and Habitat 
Known mainly from Busselton area with a outlier in the Perup-Lake Muir area, growing on shallow 
sandy soils over exposed outcrops of gneissic rock or in winter wet swamps. 
Conservation Status 
Current: DRF – Endangered     
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
 
Last survey 
 
Comments / condition 
CLM 6 
Lake View Road 
DON 
NR 
na 
6/11/1995 
Unable to relocate 
WAR 100 
Swamp Road 
DON 
NR 
na 
 
Location to be checked 
 
Response to Disturbance 
Response to fire is unknown. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
Response to change in soil moisture is unknown. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown, but given susceptibility of other members of the genus, should be presumed susceptible. 
Management Requirements 
Relocate historically known populations and asses their conservation status. 
Monitor populations and asses their response to disturbance. 
Survey areas of suitable habitat for further populations. 
Research Requirements 

Determine taxonomic and conservation status. 
Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
Determine response to disturbance. 
References 
Bentham (1866); Brown et al (1998); George (1991) 
 
 
 
Verticordia densiflora var
pedunculata  
 
 
 
 
52

 
 
53
Verticordia fimbrilepis Turcz. subsp. australis A.S. George 
MYRTACEAE 
Shy Feather flower 
 
    WAR F4/18 
Verticordia fimbrilepis subsp. australis is a poorly known taxon that was described by Turczaninow in 
1847 from a Drummond collection made in 1840. No further collections were made until it was 
rediscovered in 1983 near Woodanilling. It was also collected from the Kent River by Tony Annels in 
1983 but at that time was thought to be an undescribed taxon. A second population was located on 
Willyung Hill but only a single plant was found. The subspecies is not known from reserved land or 
proposed reserved land. The Willyung population (single plant) is in a quarry and has not been 
relocated, the Kent River population is on land targeted for damming. 
Description 
Shy Feather flower is a small erect shrub to 40 cm with slender branches, the upper stems red. Leaves 
are linear terete to 18 mm long, murcronulate, mostly opposite or in small clusters, though generally 
sparse on the stem. Flowers are bright pink. Peduncles are 5-15 mm long. The calyx tube is almost 
hemispherical, ten ribbed, glabrous, with five spreading primary lobes to about 5 mm, each digitally 
divided into 5-7 linear lobes. Petals are 0.9-1.0 mm wide, ovate, deeply fringed, nearly as long as the 
calyx lobes. Stamens are free, incurved, filaments pink, anthers deep red. 
Near the Kent River the taxon is growing in association with Verticordia plumosa which has purple-
pink flowers and denser foliage that extends up to the flowers. 
Flowering period: October-November 
Distribution and Habitat 
This subspecies is known from two populations, one near Woodanilling, the other on the Kent River 
where it grows in low heath in brown sandy loam around outcropping granite. The typical subspecies 
(subsp. fimbrilepis) occurs near Pingelly. 
Despite extensive survey of suitable habitat no further populations have been located in the Warren 
Region. 
Conservation Status 
Current: DRF-Endangered 
 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. 
No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
Last 
survey 
 
 
Comments/condition 
 Kent 
River 
Frankland 
VCL* 
2 000+ 
31/10/1998 
* In 1987 and 1992 the area was 
recommended for inclusion as a 
reserve. In 1994 the proposed 
reservation was dropped at request of 
the then WA Water Authority and the 
area recommended for a future dam 
site. There is ongoing discussion with 
Walpole Wilderness Advisory 
Committee 
Response to Disturbance 
Regenerates from lignotuber and seed after fire. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
Response to change in soil moisture is unknown. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Presumed susceptible (low to moderate). 
Management Requirements 

Conduct detailed searches for additional populations upstream and downstream from the known 
population. 
Conduct further searches for the species in areas of suitable habitat. 
With Threatened Flora Seed Centre staff, arrange to collect and store seed against possible loss of this 
taxon from the wild. 
Liaise with the WA Water Authority in developing long term protective measures for this taxon. 
Research Requirements 
Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
References 
Bentham (1866); Brown et al (1998); George (1991) 
 
 
Verticordia fimbrilepis subsp. 
australis  
 
 
 
 
 
 
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