Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Warren Region


PART THREE - PRIORITY FLORA IN THE WARREN REGION



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PART THREE - PRIORITY FLORA IN THE WARREN REGION 
 
PRIORITY FLORA LISTS 
Possibly threatened flora species that do not meet survey criteria are added to the Priority Flora Lists 
under Priorities 1, 2 or 3. These three categories are ranked in order of priority for survey and 
evaluation of conservation status so that consideration can be given to their declaration as threatened 
flora. Species that are adequately known, are rare but not threatened, or meet criteria for Near 
Threatened, or that have been recently removed from the threatened list for other than taxonomic 
reasons, are placed in Priority 4. These species require regular monitoring. Conservation Dependent 
species are placed in Priority 5.  
1. P
RIORITY 
O
NE 
S
PECIES
 
Species which are known from one or a few (generally less than five) populations or collections which 
are under threat, either due to small population size, or being on lands under immediate threat, e.g. 
road verges, urban areas, farmland, active mineral leases, etc., or the plants are under threat, e.g. from 
disease, grazing by feral animals, etc.  May include taxa with threatened populations on protected 
lands.  Such taxa are under consideration for declaration as 'rare flora', but are in urgent need of 
further survey 
 
 
 
Photograph of Priority one species, Synaphea decumbens by Erica Shedley 
55 

Andersonia redolens K. Lemson ms 
EPACRIDACEAE 
  
 
WAR 
F4/173 
Andersonia redolens, previously known by the phrase name Andersonia sp. Collis, was first collected 
during a floristic study of the Tingle mosaic conducted by Grant Wardell-Johnson in the 1990s but, at 
that time, was thought to be a form of Andersonia lehmanniana. It is currently known from four 
populations, though a possible fifth population may be present in Crossing Block. Dr Christina 
Lemson (ECU Joondalup) will formally name the species in a forthcoming revision of the Genus. 
Description 
Andersonia redolens is a clump forming shrub to 20 cm high by 50 cm in diameter with leaves 6-15 
mm long by 1-3 mm wide, that are spirally arranged, imbricate, sessile with an adnate sheathing base 
and often twisted, ciliate margins and fine layer of hairs on their surfaces. Flowers are white or 
sometimes tinged pink, in terminal heads or clusters subtended by a bract and pair of leaf-like, ciliate 
bracteoles. Sepals are five in number, free, ciliate, 8-10 mm long. The corolla is tubular, densely 
tomentose inside, 6-8 mm long and five-lobed with lobes to half length of corolla. Stamens are five in 
number, free, hairy below anthers, not exerted from corolla. The style is glabrous. Fruit consist of a 
five-celled capsule. 
Flowering Period: September-December 
Distribution and Habitat 
This species is known from five populations north of Walpole, growing under Eucalyptus marginata-
Corymbia calophylla forest with Bossiaea linophylla,  Lomandra spp. and Agonis  spp. in lateritic 
gravel on upper slopes and rises. 
Conservation Status 
Current: Priority 1 
Recommended: Priority 2 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
 Last 
survey 
 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 1 
Collis Forest Block 1 
FRA 
SF 
2000 
14/9/1994 
 
WAR 100 
Collis Forest Block 
2. 
FRA 
SF 
10 
6/2/2004 
Collect specimen for 
identification 
WAR 101 
Northumberland 
Forest Block 
FRA 
NP 
200 
3/3/2003 
Recollect to confirm 
identification 
WAR 102 
Deep River 
FRA 
SF 
1000+ 
28/8/1999 
Found over an area of 
about 25 ha 
 
Response to Disturbance 
Plants are killed outright by fire and regenerate from seed. Time to first flowering is not known 
though part of one population was burnt in autumn 1994 and will be monitored. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
Response to change in soil moisture is unknown. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Response to change in canopy is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Susceptible-Deep River populations that were treated with Phosphite were able to tolerate it at normal 
concentrations and appear healthy.  
Management Requirements 
Search suitable habitat in Crossing Block for a population that is recorded from there. 
56 

Monitor known populations annually, specifically for possible introduction of Phytophthora and time 
to first flowering following germination. 
Treat the Phytophthora affected population with Phosphite to ensure that plants reach seed producing 
age (2-3 years). 
Search suitable habitat in areas between and adjacent to known and reputed populations. 
Research Requirements 
Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
Seed bank longevity needs to be investigated, due to reliance on seed bank for regeneration post fire.  
Liaise with Kristina Lemson in relation to her revision of Andersonia
References 
Kristina Lemson (personal communication) 
Andersonia redolens ms  
 
57 

Andersonia sp. Mitchell River (BGH 925)  
EPACRIDACEAE
 
 WAR 
F4/174 
First collected by Brenda Hammersley in 1993, this taxon is known from a very limited area to the 
North and East of Mt. Lindesay and South of Narrikup in the Hay River catchment. Dr Christina 
Lemson (ECU Joondalup) will formally name it in a forthcoming revision of the Genus. 
Description 
Andersonia  sp. Mitchell River is a small spreading shrub to 40 cm tall by 40 cm wide with soft, 
glabrous, erect to spreading, flat to spirally twisted leaves 6-12 mm long by 0.5-1.5 mm wide that 
taper to a fine apical point. Recently dead leaves are retained on the stem. Flowers are solitary, 
terminal on short branches, subtended by a series of leaf-like bracteoles. Sepals are pale greenish 
white to pale pink, 8-15 mm long, glabrous with smooth surfaces and ciliate margins. The corolla is 
blue, 7-15 mm long with dark coloured, spreading lobes that are shorter than the tube and densely 
bearded inside. Staminal filaments are hairy towards the anthers, slightly flattened but never 
auriculate. The style and ovary are sparsely hairy. 
Andersonia  sp. Mitchell River differs from Andersonia  hammersleyana in its less hairy character. 
Both species differ from members of the A. auriculata complex in having corolla lobes that are shorter 
than the tubes. 
Flowering period: June-September 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species is known from a narrow geographic range from North of Denmark to South of Narrikup 
in the Hay River catchment, growing on the edges of watercourses and scattered along the edge of a 
firebreak. Habitat is generally sand over laterite or granite in open heath in Jarrah woodland and low 
forest. 
Conservation Status 
Current: Priority 1 
Recommended: Priority 2 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
  
Last survey 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 1 
Hell River Rd 
FRA 
SF 
100 
7/8/1997 
 
CLM 2 
Mitchell River 
FRA 
SF 
20 7/8/1997 Two 
sub-populations 
CLM 3 
Mitchell River 
Rd. 
FRA SF  300 15/10/1998 
 
CLM 4 
Mt. Lindesay 1 
FRA 
SF (NP) 

19/8/2001 
 
CLM 6 
Sunny Glenn Rd 
FRA 
SF 
30 
29/8/1996 
 
CLM 7 
Sheepwash SF 
FRA 
SF 
200 
31/7/1998 
 
CLM 8 
Centre Break Rd 
FRA 
SF 
500 
25/4/1998 
 
CLM 9 
Romance R 
FRA 
SF 
1000+ 
23/10/2000 
Possibly misidentified 
Andersonia sp. 
Frankland 
WAR 100 
Sheepwash 1 
FRA 
SF 
300 
22/8/2002 
 
WAR 101 
Sheepwash 2  
FRA 
SF 
1000 
22/8/2002 
 
WAR 102 
Mt. Lindesay 2 
 
FRA SF 
(NP) 
500 23/8/2002  
Response to Disturbance 
Plants are killed by fire and regenerate from seed. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown but, as plants have been located on fire break, it is thought 
that the species is able to colonise disturbed areas. 
Response to change in soil moisture is unknown but, given the plants proximity to water on lower 
slopes and in broad wet areas, it is possibly dependent on seasonal periods of high soil moisture.  
58 

Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown, but given susceptibility of other species in the genus should be managed as if highly 
susceptible. Some plants in the Sheepwash Forest Block have shown symptoms of dieback death. 
Management Requirements 
Monitor known populations annually, specifically for the possible introduction of Phytophthora
Search for new populations in areas of suitable habitat between and adjacent to known populations.  
Liaise with Rivers and Waters over protection of gauging weir population. 
Research Requirements 
Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
Liaise with Kristina Lemson in relation to her revision of Andersonia
References 
Kristina Lemson (personal communication) 
 
Andersonia sp. Mitchell River  
 

 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
59 

Austrofestuca littoralis (Labill.) E.B. Alexeev 
POACEAE 
 
           WAR F4/181 
Joyce Vickery, in her 1952 revision of Australian Festuca spp., sank Schedonorus  into  Festuca  and 
raised the Western Australian subspecies of F. littoralis to full species status, naming it F. pubinervis). 
At that time she also alluded to the possible separation of Australian Festuca spp. from their northern 
counterparts. Tzvelev separated them at a subgeneric level in 1971 and Alexeev raised the subgenus 
Austrofestuca to full generic status in 1976 and 
suu
nk 
A
pubinervis back into A. littoralis. 
Until quite recently, only three collections of this species had been made in the last 30 years, the most 
recent from Middleton Beach, Albany in 1988. Prior to this, most collections were made in the early 
1900’s with an earlier collection made by Drummond from King George Sound in the 1800s. Les 
Watson has recently reported that it occurs at Middleton Beach and a beach near Frenchmans Bay 
where he observes it ‘...looks at hazard of being pushed off by Ammophila’ (the introduced Marram 
Grass, Ammophila arenaria). Searches at the Warren failed to locate it in 1996. Greg Keighery reports 
a similar situation for the populations he has seen. 
Description 
A perennial tufted grass to 0.7 m high with a long vertical branching rhizome. Leaves are up to 500 
mm long and 1.5-2 mm wide, with the blade inrolled. The outer surface is glabrous, inner surface 
hairy, apex pungent, often exceeding the panicle. The ligule is membranous, firm, 1-2 mm long. The 
inflorescence is a dense yellowish, straw coloured, flattened spike-like panicle to 150 mm long, 
usually exerted, occasionally half enclosed in uppermost leaf sheath. Spikelets are compressed, 12-16 
mm long, with 3 or 4 bisexual florets. Glumes are in pairs, slightly unequal, broad, 10-15 mm long, 
acute, 5-7 ribbed with very scabrous keels. Lemmas are 12-15 mm long, obtuse, 7-9 ribbed, with long 
white hairs on the lower part of the ribs and one margin. The callus has long hairs. The paleas are 
almost as long as the lemma and hairy on the keel and sides. 
Austrofestuca littoralis has been confused in the field with Poa poiformis which occurs in adjacent 
near coastal heaths. However, the latter, taxon is readily differentiated by its ligule which is firm with 
a short ciliolate rim 0.2-1.3 mm long, its spikelets compressed, 6-10 mm long, glumes three ribbed 
and usually with a small tuber. Marrum grass, Ammophila arenaria, occupying the same habitat as the 
Austrofestuca, has lateral rhizomes, ligules firm, narrow, 10-30 mm long, and glumes with one to 
three ribs. 
Flowering Period: September-January 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species is found only on coastal sand dunes with a recorded distribution from Esperance (Rossiter 
Bay) to the mouth of the Warren River. Collections have recently been made from Albany (Middleton 
and Cheynes Beaches and near Frenchmans Bay), and the mouth of Fitzgerald River. Greg Keighery 
reports he has seen the species at Denmark (Ocean Beach) and West Cape Howe. 
Conservation Status 
Current: Priority 1 
Recommended: Priority 2 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
  
Last 
survey 
 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 3 
Warren Beach 
Donnelly 
NP 

28/1/1996 
Unable to relocate original 
population 
WAR 100 
Quarram NR 
Frankland 
NR 
<50 
29/11/2003 
Scattered over 50ha 
WAR 101 
 
Denmark Frankland 
Other 
na 
na  Unable to relocate original 
population 
 
60 

Response to Disturbance 
Response to fire is unknown. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown, but the species appears to be an ocean edge sand binder. 
Response to change in soil moisture is unknown. 
Response to weed invasion is largely unknown but sites at Warren are now occupied by the aggressive 
exotic Marrum grass (Ammophila arenaria) which is probably responsible for displacing 
Austrofestuca.  See above for observations by Les Watson and Greg Keighery. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown, but probably not at issue. 
Management Requirements 
Search the Warren and Ocean Beach areas in Spring to relocate populations of Austrofestuca littoralis
Prior to establishing new populations of Ammophila arenaria to stabilise sand dune blowouts, search 
for possible populations of Austrofestuca. Populations should be monitored if found and protected if 
necessary during restoration work. 
Establish seed bank from known population near Albany. 
Search suitable habitat between Black Point and Albany for new populations of Austrofestuca 
littoralis
Research Requirements 
Confirm or otherwise the susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
Investigate use of Austrofestuca as an alternative to Ammophila for dune stabilisation work. 
References 
Gardner (1952); Vickery (1939); Wheeler et al. (2002); Les Watson (personal communication) 
 
Austrofestuca littoralis 
61 

Caladenia evanescens Hopper & A.P. Br.  
ORCHIDACEAE 
Semaphore Spider Orchid
  
 
WAR 
F4/103 
The first collection of this species was made by Rob Oliver in 1962 from somewhere in the vicinity of 
Albany and some years later (1984) it was collected by Robert Bates following a summer fire near 
Peaceful Bay. It was also photographed near William Bay but, as specimens were not taken, this 
population needs to be verified. Despite extensive searches by a number of people over many seasons, 
including the Peaceful Bay site following summer fire in 1989, it has not been seen in any of these 
areas since. 
Description 
A member of the Caladenia filamentosa species complex. C. evanescens is a relatively small plant 15-
20 cm in height with a leaf to 13 cm long and 5 mm wide. The leaf is often withered when flowering 
at which time the plant produces a single pale green/creamy yellow flower about 5 cm long and 4 cm 
wide. The petals and sepals are pale yellow to white near the base, the lateral sepals to 4 cm long and 
4 mm wide and petals erect, to 3.5 cm long by 3 mm wide. The distinctive labellum, which is white 
with red/maroon markings is 14 mm long by 7 mm wide and, unlike those of most species, projects 
forwards rather than curving downwards. Its calli are white, in two pairs extending at least half the 
length of the labellum. 
The species is closely related to Caladenia abbreviata and has an overlapping range. However, the 
latter species is readily distinguished by its down curved labellum, multiple flowers, darker 
colouration and longer petals and sepals (to 5 cm). 
Flowering period: October-November 
Distribution and Habitat 
Semaphore Spider Orchid is known from a single population near Peaceful Bay where it grows 
amongst coastal heath at the base of consolidated dunes. Possibly extends to William Bay and into the 
Albany area. 
Conservation Status 
Current: Priority 1 
Recommended: Priority 2 
A poorly known, apparently rare species considered to be in urgent need of further survey to establish 
its conservation status. 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
  
Last 
survey 
 
 
Comments/condition 
WAR 100 
Peaceful Bay 
 
Frankland NP 

10/1995  Relocate 
population 
Response to Disturbance 
Plants are killed by fire when above ground parts are present (May-November). However, as the 
Peaceful Bay population was located following a summer fire, flowering is thought to be stimulated 
fire that occurs when plants are dormant. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown, but comments below probably apply. 
Response to change in soil moisture is unknown. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown, but the species is probably vulnerable to annuals that are able 
to rapidly occupy a site following fire or other soil disturbance. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown. 
Management Requirements 
62 

Relocate the Peaceful Bay population. 
Search suitable habitat for new populations. 
If a population is located, secure seed and mycelium for conservation work at the Botanic Gardens 
and Parks Authority. 
Research Requirements 
Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora infection. 
Liaise with Botanic Garden and Parks Authority staff as required above. 
References 
Hoffman and Brown (1992, 1998); Hopper and Brown (2001)  
 
Caladenia evanescens  
 
63 

Carex tereticaulis  F. Muell. 
CYPERACEAE 
 
   
    WAR F4/182 
Carex tereticaulis is a widespread species that is found in all southern Australian States of Australia. 
In Western Australia it is only known from four collections. However, three of these are recent - one 
by Greg Keighery from Dardanup and the other two by Jenny Dewing from Bridgetown. 
Description 
Carex tereticaulis is a perennial rhizomatous sedge to about 1 m tall that often forms large dense 
clumps. Culms are 2-4 mm in diameter, terete or slightly compressed and glabrous in the lower parts
obtusely 3 angled and scabrous just below the inflorescence. The leaves, which grow to 20 cm long by 
2-5 mm wide, are striate and have fairly smooth margins. The basal bract has a long fine awn that is 
much shorter than the inflorescence. The often dense inflorescence, 15-100 mm long, is a narrow erect 
spike like panicle of numerous spikelets. Spikelets are sessile, about 5 mm long and contain both male 
and female flowers. The glumes are brown on each side of the midrib which is produced into a 
serrulate awn with broad translucent margins and is lacerate towards the apex. Anthers are about 2 
mm long with a hairy apex. The utricle is ellipsoid and 2-4 mm long by 1-2 mm dimeter. The style has 
two branches. 
Flowering period: September-January 
Distribution and Habitat 
There are early records of this species from Guildford and Harvey, the latter not being relocated. 
There have been two more recent collections at Dardanup and Bridgetown, both populations growing 
in seasonally inundated areas.  
Conservation Status 
Current: Priority 1 
 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. 
No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
  
Last 
survey 
 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM2 Bridgetown 
Donnelly 
PP 
na 20/2/1996 
Relocate 
population 
CLM3 Winnejup 
Reserve 
 
Donnelly SHRes 
na 
25/11/1996  
Response to Disturbance 
Response to fire is unknown. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
Response to change in soil moisture is unknown. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 

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