Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Warren Region


Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback



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Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown 
Management Requirements 
Relocate & resurvey population last seen in 1995. 
Search areas of suitable habitat for further populations. 
Research Requirements 
None. 
References 
Bentham (1878); Jacobs and McClay (1993); Morris (1990) 
 
Pentapogon quadrifidus var. quadrifidus  
 
77 

Sphaerolobium benetectum R. Butcher 
 
PAPILIONACEAE 
 
             WAR F4/253 
Description 
Sphaerolobium benetectum is a shrub to 0.3-1m tall with slender, terete stems and alternate leaves that 
are more or less whorled, sessile, linear to lanceolate, 3-3.5 mm long, 0.3-0.5 mm wide. Leaves are 
shed before flowering. The inflorescence is on an elongated, terminal raceme, with 10-100 paired 
axillary flowers. Flowers are pea-shaped, standard yellow-orange and red, 5.1-6.3 mm long by 4.7-5.1 
mm wide with the red eye more or less oblong with a flared apex and irregular margin. Wings are 
pink-red, oblong, 5-5.5 mm long by 1.8-1.9 mm wide. The keel is yellow and red, longer than wings, 
5.6-6.2 mm long by 2.3-2.6 mm wide. The fruit is an inflated long-stalked pod, usually somewhat 
asymmetric and is broad or broader than long.  
The species differs from S. validum in its standard eye which has irregular rather than stellate edges 
and its elongated rather than triangular wings. It is also more or less herbaceous with slender long 
branches, rather than short woody branches. 
The species is easily distinguished from S. drummondii as the latter has flowers that are orange-red, 
pink-purple or cream, the standard eye is domed to cordate, the sub-apical stylar wing lack a fringed 
margin and the anther appendages are usually pale orange and hastate to rhombic. 
Flowering period: late October to November 
Distribution and Habitat 
Sphaerolobium benetectum is found in disjunct populations south of Collie, north-east of Augusta and 
at Mount Lindsey. A population north of Walpole (Soho forest block) has not been relocated and the 
population at Mount Lindsey may have been killed by fire. The species is restricted to low-lying, 
seasonally wet areas fringing swamps, growing in grey sandy loam to sandy clay soils. 
Conservation Status 
Current: Priority 1 
Recommended: Priority 2 
Known populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
 
 Last survey 
 
Comments/condition 
WAR 100 
Gumlink Rd 
FRA 
RR 
na 
20/11/1999 
 
WAR 101 
Mount Lindsey  
FRA 
NP 

11/2003 
Not relocated 
WAR 102 
Soho 
FRA 
 
SF na  5/11/1995 Relocate 
 
Response to Disturbance 
May have low tolerance to fire as, in the Mount Lindsey population, only one adult plant and no 
young seedlings were found by Brenda Hammersley and Roger Hearn in 2003 following a November 
burn in 1998. 
Response to Phytophthora 
Unknown. 
Management Requirements 
Relocate a population at Soho Block. 
Search for further populations in areas of suitable habitat 
Research Requirements 
Determine response to fire. 
Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
References 
78 

Butcher (2001) 
 
Sphaerolobium benetectum 
 
 
 
79 

Synaphea decumbens A.S. George 
PROTEACEAE 
 
   
    WAR F4/198 
Alex George described this species in 1996 from a collection he made near Moorinup Lake, north of 
Lake Muir in 1971. Material collected in 1996, two kilometres south of the type locality, was used to 
supplement the species description given here with plants being generally larger (with larger leaves 
and longer spikes) than described in Alex George’s Flora of Australia treatment. A possible new 
population may be present in Unicup Nature Reserve but to date only vegetative material has been 
seen. 
Description 
Synaphea decumbens is a small shrub with simple, pubescent, decumbent stems to 20 cm long. Leaves 
are cuneate to flabelliform, gently undulate, irregularly dentate lobed, the lamina 4-15 cm long by 2.5-
6 cm wide, tapering into a 1-16 cm petiole. The ultimate lobes are approximately triangular, obtuse 
and mucronate. Spikes are 4-34 cm long. The peduncle is simple, 5-15 cm long, pilose the rachis 
pubescent. Bracts are acute, 2.5-3 mm long. The perianth is widely opening and sparsely puberulous, 
the adaxial tepal 6-6.5 mm long and about 3 mm wide, very convex with a thick dorsal ridge on lower 
half. The abaxial tepal is 5-5.5 mm long. The stigma is oblong but expanded at base, shallowly 
emarginate, 1.5 mm long by 1 mm wide. 
The species resembles Synaphea hians but the latter is not known from the Warren Region or adjacent 
areas.  Synaphea hians is readily distinguished by its stigma which is deeply divided with erect to 
incurved horns to about 2 mm long. A collection made by Ian Wilson in 1996 from near Lake Muir is 
similar in many ways to S. decumbens but keys out more closely to S. otiostigma, having a large 
broadly lunate stigma. (This collection differs from S. otiostigma in having an even larger stigma). 
Flowering period: September-October 
Distribution and Habitat 
Known from Jarrah forest near Lake Moorinup in the Lake Muir area, growing in sand over laterite. 
Conservation Status 
Current: Priority 1 
Recommended: Priority 2 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
  
Last 
survey 
 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 1 
Panhandle Swamp 
DON 
NR/RR 
<50 
2003 
Healthy 
WAR 100 
Wingebellup Rd 1 
DON 
RR 
20+ 
2003 
 
WAR 101 
Wingebellup Rd 2   DON 
NR 
 
2003 
Few plants seen 
WAR 102 
Tuckett Rd. 
DON 
NR/River 

500+ 2003  
WAR 103 
De Landgrafft Rd 
DON 
NR 
1000+ 
2003 
Scattered along road 
over several km's and in 
adjacent bush 
WAR 104 
Southfield Rd 
DON 
NR/RR 
 
<100 1996 Needs 
collections 
Response to Disturbance 
Response to fire is unknown. 
The population at De Landgrafft Rd (WAR 103) indicates that this species responds to disturbance as 
it has been spread by road graders for several kilometres along the road. 
Response to change in soil moisture is unknown. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Response to change canopy is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
80 

Unknown, but given the susceptibility of the Proteaceae in general, should be assumed to be highly 
susceptible. 
Management Requirements 
Search areas of suitable habitat for further populations. 
With Threatened Flora Seed Centre staff, collect seed for long term conservation storage. 
Research Requirements 
Determine the susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
Determine the question of response to fire. 
References 
George (1995b) 
 
Synaphea decumbens  
 
 
81 

Tetratheca sp. Kent River (B.G. Hammersley 1791) 
TREMANDRACEAE 
  
 
WAR 
F4/217 
Tetratheca sp. Kent River is a rare taxon that was first collected by Brenda Hammersley in 1996 while 
working on the taxonomic dilemma of Tetratheca setigera T. elliptica. Examination of the material 
by Terry Macfarlane shows that it is closely related to T. prolifera from the Swan Region but is never 
the less a distinctive taxon. 
Description 
Tetratheca sp. Kent River is a small shrub 0.1-0.3 m high with multiple stems from the base. Stems 
are terete, 0.8-1.3 mm broad, branching. Leaves are alternate, occasionally sub-opposite, never in 
whorls, lower ones broadly elliptic to narrow elliptic or oblong, 10-12 mm long by 4-5 mm wide, the 
upper ones narrower, upper surface scabrous with stiff short white hairs and longer red glandular 
setae, lower surface glabrous or with scattered hairs on midrib, margins with reddish hairs making leaf 
appear dentate. Flowers are deep pink, solitary on peduncles 6-9 mm long. The five sepals are 
ellipsoid to oblong and 2.5 mm long. The five petals are narrow, 8 mm long by 3.5 mm wide at the 
apex. The stamens are 2.5 mm long. The tube is very short (to 0.3 mm long), white, scabrous on the 
inner surface. 
The species  is similar to Tetratheca setigera but is readily distinguished by its very short scabrous 
tube and generally more slender, delicate appearance. 
Flowering period: August-September. 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species is known from two populations on the Kent River north-east of Walpole where it is found 
in Jarrah woodland adjacent to watercourses, growing in sand, on or near granite. The two populations 
occur close together along the same river and, as the area between them has yet to be surveyed, it is 
possible more plants will be found.  
Conservation Status 
Current: Priority 1 
 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
 
No. of plants 
  
Last survey 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM1 
Break Rd 1 
Frankland 
PP 

9/10/2002 
 
CLM2 
Break Rd 2 
Frankland 
PP 
 
35 9/10/2002 
 
Response to Disturbance 
Response to fire is unknown. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
Response to change in soil moisture is unknown. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown. 
Management Requirements 
Survey other areas of suitable habitat for further populations. 
Survey area between the two populations. 
82 

Research Requirements 
Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
References 
Macfarlane (in prep.) 
 
Tetratheca sp. Kent River  
 
 
83 

2. P
RIORITY TWO 
S
PECIES
 
Species which are known from one or a few (generally less than five) populations or collections, at 
least some of which are not believed to be under immediate threat (i.e. not currently endangered).  
Such taxa are under consideration for declaration as 'rare flora', but are in urgent need of further 
survey  
 
 
 
Photograph of Priority two species, Andersonia annelsii ms by Roger Hearn 
 
84 

Andersonia annelsii  K. Lemson ms 
EPACRIDACEAE 
  
WAR 
F4/129 
Andersonia annelsii ms was collected by Tony Annels in 1982 and was recognised as distinct by Greg 
Keighery in 1990. It is still only known only from the original location. In February 2004, only small 
seedlings were observed (1-2 years old) and, as the seed bank has been severely depleted, the species 
may become extinct if fire occurs before they have reached maturity and set seed. 
Description 
Andersonia annelsii ms is a wiry, woody shrub to 25 cm with glabrous rhomboidal to ovate leaves 1-3 
mm long by 1-2 mm wide and white flowers arranged in ovoid to globular terminal spikes, each 
subtended by a bract about twice the dimension of the leaves. The sepals are free and 7-12 mm long. 
The corolla is pubescent inside, tubular, five lobed, 7-12 mm long and equal in length to the sepals. 
The lobes are 1.5-3 mm long (about 25% of length of corolla). The stamens are free, not exerted, the 
staminal filaments glabrous. The style is glabrous and exerted. The fruit is a five-celled capsule.  
Flowering period: October 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species is known only from a single population in a low open heath of Pericalymma ellipticum 
and  Baeckea camphorosmae in Palgarup State Forest east-northeast of Manjimup, growing in white 
sandy loam over an exposed quartzite/granite ridge. This area is in the proposed Perup Nature 
Reserve. 
Conservation Status 
Current: Priority 2* 
 *Species is of the highest priority for further survey and consideration for gazettal as DRF. 
  
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
Last 
survey 
 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 1 
Perup 
NR 
DON NR 1000+ 
2/2004
The population has been reduced 
severely in size and area due to 
Phytophthora
 
Response to Disturbance 
The species is killed by fire and regenerates from seed. Seedlings that appeared following a fire in 
1995 have not yet flowered. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
Response to change in soil moisture is unknown. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
The population has reduced dramatically in size through Phytophthora infection. 
Management Requirements 
Monitor the population for Phytophthora damage. 
Search areas of suitable habitat adjacent to the known population. 
Determine the length of time to first flowering after germination. 
Mark and protect the known population from vehicular traffic and machine operations. 
Research Requirements 
85 

Determine responses to disturbance. 
Determine the longevity of the soil seed bank, especially as the species is killed by fire and 
regenerates solely by seed. 
References 
None. 
 
 
Andersonia annelsii ms 
  
86 

Andersonia auriculata L. Watson 
EPACRIDACEAE 
  
WAR 
F4/36 
There are at least two other recognisable Andersonia taxa that are very close to A. auriculata but have 
separate and distinct geographic distributions in the Warren Region. These have not been included 
here and only populations containing plants that fit the type circumscription of the species are listed 
below.  
Andersonia auriculata
 
is currently known from twenty documented populations. Several additional 
populations that have been recently found have not been included in this program. Refer to regional 
files for these. 
The Gumlink road populations west of the Saw Rd intersection consist of scattered plants along the 
edge of the road and are probably an artefact of road grading rather than a natural population. 
Description 
Andersonia auriculata
 
is a small ascending shrub 7-30 cm tall with bright green, spreading, spirally 
twisted leaves 5-25 mm long by 1-5 mm wide that are tapered to a thickened pungent apex. Most dead 
leaves are retained on the stem. Flowers are subtended by a series of pale green leaf-like bracteoles. 
The flower buds are light green-yellow, sepals white to very pale green, corolla tube blue, lobes 
darker and about twice as long as the tube, erect, densely bearded, white, almost to the tip. Staminal 
filaments are hairy and often auriculate but the extent of lobbing is variable both within populations 
and in different flowers on individual plants. The style is sparsely hairy. 
The allied taxon Andersonia sp. Frankland and the white flowered form of Andersonia auriculata also 
occur in the Warren Region but are readily separated from A. auriculata as they have discrete 
distributions. Plants found west of the Frankland River (Andersonia sp. Frankland) differ in the 
absence of auricles on filaments and having finer foliage and a generally shorter corolla, while the 
group east of the Frankland River but west of the Bow River and north of private property differ in the 
absence of auricles on filaments and having a white (or extremely pale blue) corolla with lobes shorter 
or about equal to tube length. Andersonia  hammersleyana ms differs in its lack of auricles and its 
general hairy character. 
Flowering period: May-September 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species occurs in Jarrah/Sheoak/Marri woodlands and open heaths abutting areas that are subject 
to winter inundation between Kordabup, Nornalup, Peaceful Bay and Thames Block, growing on 
white to grey sandy soils. 
Conservation Status 
Current: Priority 2 
Recommended: Priority 3 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
  
Last 
survey 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 1 
Quarram Town Site 
FRA 
VCL 
500 
27/7/2001 
 
CLM 2a 
Gum Link NR 
FRA 
NR 
na 
28/8/1994 
 
CLM 2b 
Gum Link Rd/Saw Rd 
FRA 
TR 
na 
28/8/1994 
 
CLM 3 
Thames Block 1 
FRA 
SF 
na 
1/5/1994 
 
CLM 4 
Nut Road 1 
FRA 
NP 
18 
31/7/1998 
 
CLM 5 
Nut Road 2 
FRA 
NP 
100 
21/7/1993 
 
CLM 6 
Kordabup Rd 1 
FRA 
SHR 
100 
28/7/1993 
 
CLM 7 
Kordabup Rd 2 
FRA 
SF/ 
VCL 
5 2/8/2001 
 
CLM 8 
Ficifolia Rd/Nut Rd 
FRA 
NP 
na 
6/6/1989 
 
CLM 9 
Peaceful Bay/ The Gap 
FRA 
NP 
na 
1/9/1991 
 
CLM 10 
Quarram NR 
FRA 
NR 
na 
23/4/1989 
 
CLM 12 
Middle Rd 
FRA 
SF 
100 
9/11/1998 
 
CLM 13 
Kordabup Rd 3 
FRA 
TR 
1000 
18/8/2000 
 
87 

 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
  
Last 
survey 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 14 
Tindale Rd 
FRA 
SF 
30 
28/8/2002 
 
CLM 15 
Gum Link Rd 
FRA 
SF 

27/6/2001 
 
CLM 16 
Thames Block 2 
FRA 
SF 
na 6/12/2001 
Misidentification 
CLM 17 
Gum Link Rd 2 
FRA 
 
 
 
 
CLM 18 
Ficifolia Rd 2 
FRA 
NP 
na 
12/10/1995 
Herbarium record only 
CLM 19 
Ficifolia Rd 3 
FRA 
NP 
na 
11/02/1997 
As above 
CLM 20 
Turpin Rd 
 
 
 
 
Relocate to confirm ID 
(sterile specimen) 
WAR 100 
Soho FB 
FRA 
NP 
1000+ 
15/6/2004 
Relocate population. 
Many deaths due to 
Phytophthora  
 
Response to Disturbance 
The species is killed by fire and regenerates from seed. The first significant flowering is in the third 
spring after fire. 
Plants are killed following soil disturbance but regenerate from seed. Populations along Gum Link 
Road are likely to have originated following movement of seed during road grading. 
Natural populations are usually found in ecotones just above zones subject to winter inundation. 
Significant changes in water tables could impact on the taxon’s conservation status, particularly where 
Phytophthora species are present. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Highly susceptible with all known populations apparently affected by the pathogen. 
Management Requirements 
Dieback management to be practised during operations that are likely to affect populations. 
Monitor the health / plant numbers in populations every second year. 
Consider treating populations with Phosphonate in Phytophthora affected sites. 
Liaise with Shire / MRWA to protect populations. 
Survey populations in the Gum Link Rd and Thames block area and determine if they are one 
continuous population or separate populations 
Collect and store seed from all populations to protect against possible population (and taxon) 
extinction. 
Research Requirements 
Liaise with Kristina Lemson on matter of taxonomy of the complex, reviewing conservation status of 
the taxon/taxa when her revision of the genus is complete. 
References 
Watson (1962); Kristina Lemson (personal communication); Wheeler et al. (2002) 
88 

Andersonia auriculata  
 
89 

Andersonia hammersleyana K. Lemson ms 
EPACRIDACEAE 
  
WAR 
F4/108 
Andersonia hammersleyana ms is a recently discovered species that was first collected by Brenda 
Hammersley in 1990. For several years it was known from a single, small, apparently dieback affected 
population until a second larger population was found by Laurie Anderson in 1996. Both populations 
are located in an area that is a proposed dam site. A possible third population has been located about 
10 km northwest of these two populations but needs collecting when in flower to confirm its identity. 
The species is most closely related to Andersonia pinaster ms and will be formally described by 
Kristina Lemson during a revision of the genus. Both known populations occur in State Forest in areas 
that were originally proposed for inclusion in a National Park (1987) but are now likely to be excised 
to create a water reserve for future damming of the Denmark River (1994). 
Description 
Andersonia hammersleyana ms is a small straggly shrub to 80 cm with narrowly ovate-triangular, 
ciliate, erect to slightly spreading, flat to spirally twisted leaves 10-18 mm long by 1.5-2.5 mm wide, 
tapering to a thickened pungent apex. Dead leaves are retained on the lower stem. Flowers are blue 
and white, 10-15 mm long, solitary, terminal on short branches, subtended by numerous leafy 
bracteoles, these densely hairy. The sepals are white, tinged pink to 15 mm long and glabrous. The 
corolla is about 15 mm long, the tube pale blue/white to 9 mm long with deep blue, densely hairy 
lobes to 6 mm long, tips spreading. The style is sparsely hairy. Stamens are not exserted. Staminal 
filaments are hairy. 
Andersonia hammersleyana ms is distinguished from A. auriculata and A. aff. auriculata by its hairy 
leaves and large flowers. 
Flowering period: April-October 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species is known from two populations near Mt. Lindesay, growing in sandy-gravel soils in jarrah 
forest with a heath understorey. 
Conservation Status 
Current: Priority 2* 
*Species is of the highest priority for further survey and consideration for gazettal as DRF. 
  
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
 
Last survey 
 
Comments/condition 
WAR 101 
Mt. Lindesay 
FRA 
SF (WR) 
<100 
16/9/1994 
 
WAR 102 
Granite Rd. 
FRA 
SF (WR) 
500 
19/8/1996 
 
 
Response to Disturbance 
Plants are killed by fire and regenerate from soil-stored seed. Plants have been observed to germinate 
sporadically over three successive years with significant drought losses of new seedlings each year. 
Flowering and first seed set occurred in the third season after germination. 
Plants on a firebreak were noted to respond to mechanical disturbance in the same way as to fire.  
The species is apparently vulnerable to summer drought in the first year after germination. Both 
populations occur in moisture gaining situations in the landscape. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
As with other species in the genus, Andersonia hammersleyana ms is presumed to be highly 
susceptible. However, sampling of dead plants has failed to return a positive result for Phytophthora 
90 

and further testing will be conducted. The moist habitat of the species makes populations vulnerable 
to rapid disease development if infection occurs. 
Management Requirements 
Monitor populations annually. 
Collect seed from the second population. 
Survey areas of suitable habitat for further populations. 
Given the location of both populations in relation to roads and the likely introduction of 
Phytophthora, periodic treatment of the sites with phosphonate should be conducted. 
Planned fire events in the area of populations should be separated by at least six and preferably eight 
years. 
The third possible population on Watershed Road needs to be relocated and collected when in flower 
to confirm its identity. 
Research Requirements 
Confirm susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
Liaise with Kristina Lemson regarding taxonomy and conservation. 
References 
Kristina Lemson (personal communication); Wheeler et al. (2002) 
 
Andersonia hammersleyana ms  
 
91 

Andersonia virolens K. Lemson ms 
EPACRIDACEAE 
  
WAR 
F4/132 
This species was illegitimately named Sprengelia macronema by Mueller from material he collected 
from Mt. Roe (Burrobunup) on his 1877 trip through the Region and was later (1962) included in 
Andersonia setifolia by L. Watson. Type material borrowed by Kristina Lemson for her revision of 
Andersonia revealed two specimens on a composite sheet with A. sprengelioides. As the species had 
been illegitimately named she assigned the manuscript name A. virolens to it. Several visits to Mt. Roe 
made prior to seeing the ‘Type’ collection, failed to relocate the original population and plants are 
currently known only from Mt. Lindesay and the Nicol Road areas.  
Description 
Andersonia virolens is a cushion-like shrub to 20 cm with narrowly ovate, spiral, spreading, ciliate, 
imbricate, sessile leaves, 5-8 mm long by 1-2 mm wide, gradually tapered to a thickened pungent apex 
and with an adnate sheathing base. Flowers are white and arranged in ovoid to globular terminal 
spikes, each subtended by a bract and two bracteoles. The five sepals are about 4 mm long. The 
corolla is tubular, five lobed, 5.5-6.5 mm long with lobes that are glabrous or sparsely hairy towards 
base. The throat is bearded. Stamens are red in colour, exserted and spreading. The staminal filaments 
and style are glabrous. Flowers emit an odour of rotting flesh (similar to that of Cryptandra congesta 
which grows in close proximity to it). The fruit is a five-celled capsule. 
The population on Mt. Lindsey and Nicol road are morphologically different, with the Mt. Lindsey 
fom upright and the Nicol road population compact and pincushion like. 
Flowering period: October-November 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species is known from granite heath and shrubland at Mt. Lindesay, Sharpe Block and Mt. Roe 
(Burrobunup), growing in sandy soil. 
Conservation Status 
Current: Priority 2 
 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
 
 Last survey 
 
Comments / condition 
WAR 1 
Burrobunup 
(Mt. Roe) 
FRA 
SF (5g) 

6/10/1994 
Not relocated  
CLM 1, 2 
& 3 
Mt. Lindesay 
FRA 
SF (NP) 
1000+ 
17/8/1997 
CLM1, 2 & 3 are the same 
population 
WAR 100 
Nicol Rd 
FRA 
SF 
na 
20/1/2004 
Burnt in 2003, Assessed 
too soon after burn to 
identify seedlings 
WAR 101 
Preston Rd. 
FRA 
SF 
50+ 
10/2002 
Similar morphology to 
Nicol Rd population. 
WAR 102 
Mt. Pingerup 
FRA 
NP 
30 
11/12/1997 
As above 
 
Response to Disturbance 
Plants are killed by fire and regenerate from seed. The first flowers appeared in the third year 
following germination. 
Observation of the Mt. Lindesay population suggests that the species re-colonises disturbed areas. 
Responses to changes in soil moisture are unknown. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
92 

Unknown, but given the susceptibility of other members of the genus populations should be managed 
as if highly susceptible. 
Management Requirements 
Search suitable habitat on Mt. Roe for the Type population. 
Monitor populations annually, particularly for the possible introduction of Phytophthora
Search areas of suitable habitat between and adjacent to the two known populations. 
Research Requirements 
Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
Liaise with Kristina Lemson in relation to her revision of Andersonia
References 
Watson (1962); Kristina Lemson (personal communication); Wheeler et al. (2002) 
 
Andersonia virolens ms  
 
 
93 

Anthocercis sylvicola T. Macfarlane & Wardell-Johnson 
SOLANACEAE 
 
 
   WAR F4/128 
Anthocercis sylvicola was first collected by R.D. Royce in 1965 and two years later (1967) a second 
collection was made by Paul Wilson. Following these collections it was not seen for over 20 years 
until a population was found during floristic studies that were being undertaken in the Walpole 
Nornalup National Park in 1989. More recently, during field work for this plan, a small population 
was found near Granite Peak, the population found by Paul Wilson was relocated and a new 
population was located in the Woolbales by Ted Middleton. The species was formally described by 
Terry Macfarlane and Grant Wardell-Johnson in 1996. 
Along with a number of other Warren taxa included in this plan, Anthocercis sylvicola is considered to 
be a primitive Gondwanan relic of a more mesic environment. 
Description 
Anthocercis sylvicola is a spinescent, often sprawling, partly pubescent shrub with glandular and non-
glandular hairs. Stems are up to 2.5 m tall by 1.5 cm thick, either erect or in an inclined or horizontal 
position with erect branches, these often giving the appearance of being separate plants.  Spines are 
one to two per leaf axil. Leaves are obovate, entire, acute, 7-11 mm long by 2-4.5 mm wide, sparsely 
hairy, the petiole 1-1.5 mm long. The inflorescences are terminal or subterminal comprising of cymes 
of up to five flowers or flowers axillary and solitary. Pedicels are about 3 mm long. The calyx is green 
and about 3 mm long, externally glabrous with five lobes. The corolla is 7-8.5 mm long, purple and 
green with lobes 3-4 mm long. 
What constitutes a single plant is a problem in the field due to the sprawling character of the species 
and its tendency to set vertical shoots, each looking like a new plant. Overestimates of population size 
are likely. (* See table below.) 
Flowering period: September-February 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species is known from a few areas of tall open forest between Walpole and Denmark, growing on 
brown gravelly, free draining clay loams. In each site soil moisture is high due to the habitat being 
downslope of water shedding granite outcrops. 
Conservation Status 
Despite extensive survey work, the species is known from just five extant populations. A sixth 
(Royce’s) that is possibly east of Walpole has not been relocated and may be extinct. The failure of 
plants to set seed or reproduce vegetatively (though resprouting has been observed) suggests the 
species is at risk. 
Current: Priority 2 
 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
  
Last 
survey 
 
Comments / condition 
CLM1 Deep 
River FRA NP/RR 
12 
1/1997   
CLM2 Mt. 
Clare  FRA NP  500+ 

1/1997 
* May be an overestimate. 
CLM3 Granite 
Peak 
FRA NP  200+ 22/9/1994 
 
CLM4 Woolbales  FRA NP  na 
1/1997   
WAR 100 
Mt. Hallowell 
FRA 
SHR 

30/8/1998 
Relocate plant 
WAR 101 
Brainy cutoff 
 
FRA  
na 
5/3/1998 
 
Response to Disturbance 
Response to fire is unknown. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
Response to change in soil moisture is unknown. 
94 

Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Response to change in canopy is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown. 
Management Requirements 
Monitor populations periodically. 
Monitor specifically before disturbance and in years following disturbance. 
Research Requirements 
Research reproduction and regeneration. 
Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
Determine response to disturbance. 
References 
Macfarlane and Wardell-Johnson (1996) 
 
Anthocercis sylvicola 
 
 
95 

Apodasmia ceramophila L.A.S.  Johnson & B.G.  Briggs ms 
RESTIONACEAE 
  
WAR 
F4/47 
Apodasmia ceramophila ms was first collected near Yarloop by R.D. Royce in 1947 and has since 
been collected intermittently in southern areas of Western Australia. It is now known from twelve 
populations, the majority of which are not secure. As it is a wetland species, it may be subject to 
climate change and altering water tables.  
While survey indicates the species is more common than previously thought, field observation of 
southern populations indicates ongoing monitoring is essential. It is difficult to determine the actual 
number of plants as this species is clonal, e.g. a population may represent a single genotype. 
Populations on the Swam Coastal Plain have not been relocated. All known populations are subject to 
habitat modifying pressures such as land degradation due to impacts of adjacent land use. While salt 
tolerance is evident in southern populations, a feature of the genus (B. Briggs, personal 
communication), increasing salt levels may exceed the species tolerances.  Siltation, erosion, drainage 
and weeds show evidence of becoming major problems for all populations. 
Description 
Apodasmia ceramophila ms is an erect, perennial, dioecious rush to 45 cm with a creeping rhizome. 
Stems are about 1 mm broad and greyish in colour. Leaves are about 12 mm long, acuminate with 
narrow translucent margins. The male spikelets are few, spreading, 5-9 mm long, the bracts reddish 
brown 3.5-5.5 mm long and acuminate. The female flowers are in a terminal head like cluster about 8 
mm long. Involucral bracts are 5-6 mm long. Floral bracts are broadly ovate and shortly acuminate. 
Flowering period: July-December 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species is known from three disjunct areas in Harvey-Yarloop, Lake Muir-Rocky Gully-Mt. 
Barker, and Forrestdale (K. Meney personal communication), growing in dense clays on the margins 
of lakes, rivers and swamps. All areas are subject to inundation. Southern populations are usually 
found in Melaleuca shrubland.  
Conservation Status 
Current: Priority 2 
Recommended: Priority 3 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants* 
 
 
 Last survey 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 1 
Lake Muir 1 
DON 
NR 
1ha 
9/12/1994 
Drainage problem 
CLM 2 
Wamballup 
FRA 
NR 
0.5 ha 
11/10/1994 
As above 
CLM 3 
Rocky Gully 2 
FRA 
PP 
0.25 ha 
3/11/1994 
As above 
CLM4 
Lake Muir 2 
DON 
NR 
1 ha 
9/12/1994 
As above 
CLM5 
Lake Muir 3 
DON 
NR 
1 ha 
9/12/1994 
As above 
CLM6 Kent 
River 
FRA 
RR 

0.25 ha 
23/11/1995 
As above 
WAR 101 
Pinticup NR 
DON 
NR 
na 
27/3/1997 
As above 
WAR 102 
Cobertup NR 
DON 
NR 
na 
10/12/1997 
As above 
WAR 103 
Kululinup NR 1 
DON 
NR 
1 ha 
22/10/1997 
As above 
WAR 104 
Kodjinup NR 
DON 
NR 
1ha  
15/12/1999 
As above 
WAR 105 
Kululinup NR 2 
DON 
NR 
0.5 ha 
15/12/1999 
As above 
WAR 100 
 
Frankland River 
FRA 
 
 
 
Not relocated 
*or area occupied  
Response to Disturbance 
Known to resprout after fire. 
Has recolonised damaged areas adjacent to the Kent River. 
96 

Apodasmia ceramophila ms is a species that occupies seasonally winter inundated and summer 
parched sites and is possibly vulnerable to changes in water tables. See comments above regarding 
salt. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown. 
Management Requirements 
Resurvey then monitor populations every three years, or more frequently if disturbance levels on 
adjacent lands are known to be high. 
Search for further populations, particularly for adequately conserved populations in the Denbarker 
area. 
Research Requirements 
Determine response to disturbance. 
Determine questions of susceptibility to salt levels and Phytophthora spp. 
Conduct molecular genetic studies intra- and inter-population due to clonal and long-lived nature of 
taxon. 
References 
Rye (1987b); Meney and Pate (1999) 
 
Apodasmia ceramophila 
 
 
 
97 

Borya longiscapa Churchill 
ANTHERICACEAE 
 
           WAR F4/39 
Borya longiscapa was collected by Eileen Croxford in 1982 and described by D. Churchill in 1987. It 
has a very restricted distribution over a range of less than 20 km with pig digging and the spread of 
Phytophthora posing immediate threats to several populations. The species has been well searched for 
and it is believed unlikely that further populations will be found. 
Description 
Borya longiscapa is a domed, erect or reclining perennial to 60 cm high, making it the largest of the 
Borya species. It is characterised by its long scapes, 14-42 cm long and the large number of outer 
involucral bracts (10-12 per flowering head). Borya sphaerocephala differs in only reaching 20 cm in 
height, with scapes 5-20 cm long and 3-8 outer involucral bracts. 
Flowering period: September-December 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species is known from a small area to the north of Denmark, growing in shallow soil on granite 
outcrops. 
Conservation Status 
Current: Priority 2 
Recommended: Priority 3 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
  
Last survey 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 1 
Mt. Lindesay 1 
FRA 
SF 
2000 
15/10/1994 
 
CLM 2 
Mt. Lindesay 2 
FRA 
SF 
 
15/10/1994 
 
CLM 3 
Break Rd 
FRA 
SF 
 
6/12/1994 
Pig activity noted 
CLM 4 
Granite Rd 1 
FRA 
SF 
200 
27/11/1992 
 
CLM 5 
Stan Rd 1 
FRA 
PP 
2000 
25/9/1992 
 
CLM 6 
Stan Rd 2 
FRA 
SF 
2000 
25/9/1992 
 
CLM 7 
Nutcracker Rd 
FRA 
PP 
200 
28/9/1992 
 
CLM 8 
Stan Rd 3 
FRA 
SF 
200 
30/9/1993 
 
CLM 9 
Little Lindesay 
FRA 
SF 
2000 
26/10/1994 
 
CLM 10 
Granite Rd 2 
FRA 
SF 
200 
22/9/1995 
 
CLM 11 
Granite Rd 3 
FRA 
SF 
1000 
19/8/1996 
 
CLM 12 
Granite Rd 4 
FRA 
 
SF 1000  19/8/1996  
Response to Disturbance 
Response to fire: unknown. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
Plants are drought tolerant and are able to resprout following rain. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown, but probably susceptible (as are other Borya spp.) 
Management Requirements 
Continue pig control. 
Resurvey populations and monitor every two years or following disturbance. 
Search for additional populations. 
Research Requirements 
98 

Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
Determine response to disturbance. 
References 
Churchill D.M. (1987) 
 
Borya longiscapa  
 
 
 
  
 
99 

Caladenia abbreviata Hopper & A.P. Br.  
ORCHIDACEAE 
Coastal Spider Orchid
  
WAR 
F4/40 
Caladenia abbreviata is a poorly known species that was first collected south of northwest of Augusta 
by Andrew Brown in 1986 and subsequently near Walpole by Bill Jackson in 1989. Due to its coastal 
habitat in often inaccessible areas of the south coast it has remained poorly collected. 
Description 
Coastal Spider Orchid is a attractive late flowering orchid which grows between 25-30 cm high and 
has a leaf 10-20 cm long by 4-5 mm wide that is often withered when flowering. The inflorescence 
consists of one to three green/yellow or rarely reddish flowers about 6-8 cm long by 5-7 cm wide with 
petals 2.5-5 cm long by 2-3 mm wide, horizontal to down curved or occasionally held high. The 
labellum is down curved, 10-13 mm long and 7-9 mm wide with a narrow fringe and thick dark red 
radiating basal lines becoming large irregular spots and blotches towards the recurved apex. Calli are 
in 8-13 pairs extending at least half the length of the labellum. 
Caladenia abbreviata is closely related to, and overlaps in range with, C. evanescens, however, the 
latter species is readily distinguished by its shorter petals and sepals, its projecting labellum and single 
flower. 
Flowering period: November-December 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species is known from areas of coastal Peppermint woodland in scattered populations between 
Yallingup and William Bay, growing in deep sand on consolidated dunes. It has been reported from 
the Lake Jasper area but has not been relocated there since first sighted. It has also been reported from 
Black Point and the Black Point - Scott National Park Road but requires confirmation. 
Conservation Status 
Current: Priority 2 
 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
  
Last survey 
 
Comments/condition 
WAR 101 
Crystal Springs 1 
FRA 
NP 
50 
28/11/1989 
 
WAR 102 
Crystal Springs 2 
FRA 
 
NP 50 
16/11/1995  
Response to Disturbance 
Plants are killed by fire during their active growing period (May – October). 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
Response to change in soil moisture is unknown. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown, but the species is probably vulnerable to annuals that are able 
to rapidly occupy a site after fire or other soil disturbance. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown. 
Management Requirements 
Resurvey and monitor populations annually. 
Manage fire in the area of the known population to ensure conservation of the species. 
Search Lake Jasper/Black Point area for reported populations. 
Survey other areas of suitable for possible additional populations. 
100 

Collect seed and mycorrhiza for conservation work being conducted at the Botanic Gardens and Parks 
Authority. 
Research Requirements 
Liaise with the Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority as required. 
Determine issue of susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
References 
Hoffman and Brown (1992, 1998); Hopper and Brown (2001) 
 
Caladenia abbreviata  
 
 
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