Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Warren Region


Part of the area is proposed



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Part of the area is proposed 
NP and part is in the proposed 
dam area 
CLM 2 
Denmark River 
FRA 
SF 
<1 000 
1/1993 
Proposed dam area 
CLM 3 
Mt. Shadforth 
 
FRA 
PP 

1/1993 
Old mature trees  
Response to Disturbance 
Plants have shown lignotuber growth and reshooting following fire. Seedlings were not observed 
following the 1991 Mt. Lindesay fire. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
Response to change in soil moisture is unknown. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown, but should be treated as if susceptible. 
Management Requirements 
Resurvey and monitor populations five yearly noting any signs of recruitment, senescence, disease 
and pests and record responses to disturbance. 
132 

Liaise with the private property owner, the Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority and CALM’s 
Threatened Flora Seed Centre in relation to collecting seed for long term storage and protecting plants 
on private land. 
Research Requirements 
Confirm susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
Determine response to disturbance. 
References 
Grant Wardell-Johnson (personal communication) 
 
Eucalyptus virginia ms  
 
 
133 

Euphrasia scabra R. Br.    
SCROPHULARIACEAE 
Yellow Eye-bright
 
   WAR F4/120 
Euphrasia scabra was once a widely distributed Australian species that was described by Robert 
Brown in 1810 from material he collected at Port Dalrymple in 1804. In 1982 Bill Barker noted the 
disappearance of the taxon from the Australian landscape and, despite extensive searches over the last 
few years only Parentucellia viscosa, an exotic taxon, has been found across most of the Region. Just 
two populations are currently known from the Lake Muir area. Populations in the Salt River Rd. 
(North Stirling Ranges) have disappeared and an old reference to Denmark/Mt. Barker area has not 
collaborated. 
Description 
Euphrasia scabra is an erect scabrous/pubescent annual herb 8-50 cm tall with glandular and non 
glandular hairs. Leaves are opposite, to 20 mm long, elliptic to ovate, pinnatifid to serrate. Floral 
leaves are longer than stem leaves. Flowers are in a terminal spike, dense at first but, after extension, 
often long and interrupted on a pedicel to 1 mm. The calyx, to 9 mm long, is narrow, tubular, 
glandular pubescent and four lobed. The corolla tube, to 14 mm long, is yellow and two lipped, with 
the upper lip hood-shaped with two broad spreading reflexed lobes. The lower lip is three lobed. 
Stamens are in pairs, connivent under upper lip, filaments glabrous and the anthers glabrous to hairy. 
Parentucellia viscosa differs in its longer corolla (16-20 mm long), its longer calyx (9-13 mm) and 
sub-sessile flowers. 
Euphrasia scabra is a seed obligate annual and is hemi-parasitic. Western Australian populations 
differ from those  in the eastern states in having glandular hairs rather than entirely non-glandular 
hairs.  
Flowering period: October-November 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species has been recorded across southern Australia, but with very few recent collections. In 
Western Australia early records showed a distribution from Perth to Esperance but the only currently 
known location is in the Lake Muir area (1971 and 1997) and in the Narrikup area (1973) with the 
latter populations having since disappeared. Early collections also include references to Mt. Barker 
(1867) and Mt. Lindesay (1879). The species is found in low open heath community types on sandy 
soils over ironstone that are wet (saturated) for part of the year. 
Conservation Status 
Current: Priority 2 
 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
Last  
Survey 
 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 1 
Lake Muir NR 1 
DON 
NR 
1000+ 
11/2001 
Over area of three ha 
WAR 100 
Lake Muir NR 2 
 
DON 
NR 
100 
11/2001 
20 sq m 
Response to Disturbance 
Susceptible to local extinction from frequent fire as it a late flowering seed obligate annual. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
Euphrasia scabra is a wetland species and is therefore susceptible to changes in hydrology and 
climate. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown. 
134 

Management Requirements 
Conduct further intensive searches in areas where it has previously been collected. 
Research Requirements 
Determine if sufficiently different from eastern populations to consider a distinct taxon. 
Determine response to disturbance. 
References 
Barker (1982); Bentham (1869); Grieve and Blackall (1982); Wheeler (1987b) 
 
Euphrasia scabra  
 
135 

Fabronia hampeana Sond.  
FABRONIACEAE 
 
                                                         WAR F4/250 
Fabronia hampeana is a possibly widespread, endemic moss that was originally collected by Preisse 
in 1840 in what is now suburban Perth and later (1844) described by German Bryologist Otto 
Wilhelm Sonder in Hampe’s Icones Muscorum Novorum vel minus Cognitorum and documented in 
Lehmann’s Plantae Preissianae (1846). Records of its occurrence are scarce, with recent collections 
from Perth, Windy Harbour and possibly Sullivans Rock. Perth collections are mostly from sites that 
have since been cleared for housing. However, it is possible that the Bold Park population still exists. 
The Windy Harbour population has not been relocated. 
Description  
Fabronia hampeana is a cushion forming moss with horizontal stems sitting on a layer of woolly, 
tomentose rhizomes, bearing numerous short erect branches about 7-9 mm long. The shoots are soft, 
silky and very narrow with long appressed hairs. Leaves are as wide as stems and narrow lanceolate 
with a long hair point. Margins are covered in long cilia, these longer than the width of the leaf and 
dense enough to generally obscure the leaves. Leaves are usually secund, all pointing to the upper side 
of the stems. The nerve is weak reaching only mid leaf. Seta rise above the cushion to a height about 
double the length of the leaves. The capsule is short, ovate with a rounded conical operculum. 
The species differs from Fabronia australis in having cilia on the margins of the leaves. 
Flowering period: Unknown 
Distribution and Habitat 
The type collection of Fabronia hampeana was made in what is now suburban Perth, as were three 
more recent collections. The only other documented collection was made near Windy Harbour by Ima 
Scott in 1971. A collection made by Brenda Hammersley at Sullivans Rock on the Albany Highway 
appears to be F. hampeana, as does a collection from the Stirling Range. Most records indicate that it 
grows on the base of Macrozamias, though the Stirling Range collection is recorded as growing on 
Xanthorrhea stems. 
Conservation Status 
Current: Priority 2 
 
 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. 
No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
Last 
survey 
 
 
Comments/condition 
 
Chudalup – Windy 
Harbour 
 
DON NP 
0  2/9/2004 
Not 
relocated 
Response to Disturbance 
A fire that burns into the base of hosts is likely to damage or kill colonies. 
Response to change in canopy is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback  
Host is known to be susceptible to Phytophthora spp. 
Management Requirements 
Survey areas of suitable habitat for the species. 
Research Requirements 
Research the species’ life history and impacts of disturbance. 
Locate fruiting material. 
136 

References 
Lehmann (1846b); Scott and Stone (1976)  
 
 
Fabriona hampeana  
 
137 

Grevillea acropogon Makinson 
PROTEACEAE 
 
 
   WAR F4/251 
A member of the Grevillea thelemanniana group, Grevillea acropogon was first collected from north 
of Lake Unicup by Ted Middleton in 1993 and is still known only from that area. The species was 
formally described by Makinson in 2000. 
Description 
Grevillea acropogon is a prostrate to erect shrub to 1.8 m high with branchlets softly angular to sub 
terete, loosely to sparsely sub-tomentose with straight hairs, becoming nearly glabrous. Leaves are 
linear, rigid, 1.5-2.5 cm long, divaricately pinnatisect with five to seven primary lobes 10-15 mm long 
by 0.8-1.1 mm wide, the upper surface loosely subtomentose or subsericeous, soon glabrous, not 
pitted. Margins are angularly revolute and the lower surface mostly or wholly enclosed except for 
mid-veins. The conflorescence is decurved, shortly and broadly secund, 18-24 flowered, acropetal. 
The rachis is 12-17 mm long (only c. 8-9 mm active), openly pubescent becoming almost glabrous. 
The perianth and style are both red, the perianth glabrous outside except for a few inconspicuous 
appressed hairs near tip of limb segments, densely bearded inside. The pistil is 20-22 mm long. 
Follicles and seeds not seen. 
Grevillea ripicola is closely related to G. acropogon but differs in its glabrous leaf lower surface, 
longer leaves i.e. 2.5-6 cm long, longer and wider ultimate lobe 10-30 mm long and 1.5-5 mm wide, 
and a longer pistil 29-35 mm. 
Flowering Period: June-September 
Distribution and Habitat 
Grevillea acropogon is known from one population north of Lake Unicup Nature Reserve, growing in 
shallow soils over ironstone on the margin of seasonally inundated areas.  
Conservation Status 
Current: Priority 2 
Recommended: Priority 1 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
 
Last survey 
 
Comments/condition 
WAR 100 
Lake Unicup area 
DON 
 
PP 51  1/9/2004   
Response to Disturbance 
Response to fire is unknown. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
Response to change in soil moisture is unknown. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Response to change in canopy is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown. 
Management Requirements 
Survey areas of suitable habitat for further populations 
Collect seed for Phytophthora testing. 
Research Requirements 
Determine response to disturbance. 
138 

References 
Makinson (2000) 
 
Grevillea acropogon  
 
139 

Grevillea fuscolutea Keighery 
 
PROTEACEAE 
 
 
   WAR F4/44 
Grevillea fuscolutea was first collected in 1879 by William Webb and later (1980) by a Forests 
Department survey team. It was then recollected from the same general area over subsequent years. 
Recognised as being part of the Grevillea drummondii complex, it was named in 1992 by Greg 
Keighery. Despite extensive surveys, it has only been recorded from a few populations north of 
Denmark. 
Description 
Grevillea fuscolutea is an erect open, much-branched shrub to 2.5 m tall with densely tomentose 
branchlets when young, becoming glabrous with age. New growth is ferruginous in colour. Leaves are 
grey-green, oblanceolate to linear, 41-78 mm long by 7-12 mm wide with margins recurved, midrib 
prominent and a short black mucro. The petiole is 3-5 mm long. Flowers are in axillary racemes, 
usually five on short peduncles, the rachis densely pubescent. Bracts are 3-4 mm long. Pedicles are 4-
6 mm long, orange-ferruginous and hirsute. The perianth is 6-8 mm long, golden yellow with orange 
hairs, inside and glabrous except for a ring of hairs in the throat. The style is 6-7 mm long and yellow 
with orange-red hairs. 
Grevillea fuscolutea is closely related to G. fistulosa  but differs in having a ring of hair in the 
perianth, and yellow instead of red flowers. 
Flowering period: April-October 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species is restricted to granite outcrops north of Denmark, growing in coarse grey sand and 
shallow loam in open low woodland of Eucalyptus marginata over low open heaths. 
Conservation Status 
Current: Priority 2* 
*Species is of the highest priority for further survey and consideration for gazettal as DRF. 
  
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. 
No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
and 
status 
 
 
No. of 
plants 
  
Last survey 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 3 
Mt. Lindesay 1 
FRA 
SF 
2000+ 
28/2/1992 
 
CLM 1 
Mt. Lindesay 2 
FRA 
PP 
80+ 
28/9/1992 
 
CLM 2 
Little Lindesay 1 
 
FRA SF 200+  8/10/1994  
Response to Disturbance 
Plants are killed by fire and regenerate from seed. Seedlings reach reproductive maturity in the fourth 
year after fire. It has been noted that, as with a number of other granite species on Mt. Lindesay, 
germination is spread over about three years post fire. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
Response to change in soil moisture is unknown. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown, but presumed susceptible. 
Management Requirements 
Monitor populations every two years, and also pre and post disturbance events. 
Search for further populations in areas of suitable habitat. 
140 

Exclude vehicle/motor cycle access from Little Lindesay for Phytophthora spp. management. 
Research Requirements 
Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
Determine response to disturbance. 
References 
Keighery (1992) 
 
 
Grevillea fuscolutea  
 
 
141 

Hemiandra australis B. Conn ms 
LAMIACEAE 
 
 
      WAR F4/180 
Hemiandra australis was first collected by Bob Voutier in 1974 but at that time was thought to be 
Hemiandra pungens. It was subsequently collected by Barry Conn who recognised it as a distinct 
taxon. A collection of a Hemiandra made at Broke Inlet during work for this report appears to be this 
species as does a population on Meerup dunes.  
Description 
Hemiandra australis is an upright shrub to about 1 m tall and 1 m wide with hairy stems when young, 
becoming glabrous with age. Leaves are ovate, 8-16 mm long, 3-4 mm wide with scattered hairs of 
variable length on the margins and mid-vein (abaxial) and bases not overlapping. Inflorescences are 
pedicellate with pedicles 1-1.5 mm long and densely hairy. Bracteoles are leaf-like, 8-10 mm long, 1 
mm wide, also with hairs on margins and mid-vein. Calyx (tube plus lobes) is 6-9 mm long and two 
lipped, the upper lip entire, 3-4 mm long, lower lip divided into two acute lobes 2-3 mm long, with 
scattered hairs on margins, retained as part of the seed capsule. The corolla is about 13 mm long, pale 
pink to mauve with short hairs on outer surface and long tangled hairs on the inner surface, two 
lipped, the lower lip three lobed, deeply divided, the upper lop two lobed, not as deeply divided. 
Stamens are of unequal length, upper pair about 3.5 mm long and the lower pair about 5 mm long. 
Flowering period: November-January 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species is known from thirteen populations on coastal dunes between the mouth of the Warren 
River and Broke Inlet, growing in deep sandy soil in heath communities. 
Conservation Status 
Current: Priority 2 
Recommended: Priority 3 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
 Last 
survey 
 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 1, 7 & 

Pemberton/Callcup 
Hill 
DON 
NP 
na 
 
Herbarium record. Exact 
location not known 
CLM 2 
Inlet River/ Broke 
Inlet 
FRA NP 20 19/12/1994 
 
CLM 3 
Meerup Dunes 
DON 
NP 
1000+ 
27/2/1997 
 
CLM 5 
Pt. D'Entrecasteaux 
DON 
NP 
20+ 
12/2/2004 
 
CLM 6 
Windy Harbour Rd. 
DON 
NP 
na 
12/1/1995 
Herbarium record only 
WAR 101 
Summertime Track 
DON 
NP 
 
1/12/2003 
 
WAR 102 
Southern shore, 
Broke Inlet 
FRA 
NP 
 
7/1/2003 
Herbarium record. Requires 
resurvey. 
WAR 103 
Clarke Island 
FRA 
NP 
30 
6/1/2003 
1000+ seedlings 
WAR 104 
Broke Inlet 
FRA 
NP 
 
8/11/2000 
As above 
WAR 105 
Fisherman's track 
FRA 
NP 
10 
4/12/2003 
 
 
Response to Disturbance 
Response to fire is unknown. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
Response to change in soil moisture is unknown. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Response to change in canopy is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown. 
142 

Management Requirements 
Locate all known populations and make additional plant collections in each. 
Search coastal areas for further populations and, if found, collect material for taxonomic work. 
Research Requirements 
Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
Determine response to disturbance. 
References 
Barry Conn (personal communication) 
 
 
Hemiandra australis ms  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
143 

Hybanthus volubilis E.M. Bennett  
VIOLACEAE 
 
 
       WAR F4/168 
Hybanthus volubilis was collected by Royce in 1947 and described by Eleanor Bennett in 1972. Until 
recently, it was known from just a few populations in the Margaret River area but has since been 
located in the Warren Region by Tony Annels in 1995.  
Description 
Hybanthus volubilis is a twining perennial herb to 1 m high with linear to narrowly elliptic, acute 
leaves 10-20 mm long by 2-6 mm wide. Flowers are axillary, solitary the flower scapes recurved and 
about 4 mm long. Sepals are 2-2.5 mm long, green to purple. The lower petal is 6-8 mm long, white 
with mauve veins and the lateral petals 1.5-2.5 mm long and blue to purple. The capsule is 5 mm long. 
The species is identified by its twining habit and solitary flowers. 
Flowering period: September-October 
Distribution and Habitat 
The main distribution is in Jarrah/Karri forest along riverbanks, between Margaret River and Scott 
River National Park, with an outlier recorded on the margins of the Deep River. 
Conservation Status 
Current: Priority 2 
 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
  
Last survey 
 
Comments/condition 
WAR 100 
Deep River 
FRA 
 
SF 
100+ 
11/10/1995 
Full survey required 
Response to Disturbance 
Response to fire is unknown. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
Response to changes in soil moisture is unknown but, as the species is only recorded along riverbanks, 
climate change may be a major threat. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Response to change in canopy is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown. 
Management Requirements 
Conduct a full survey of the Warren population. 
Search for further populations in the Warren Region. 
Research Requirements 
Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
Determine response to disturbance. 
Conduct molecular research to ascertain if there any differences between the Warren and Margaret 
River populations. 
References 
Bennett (1972) ; George (1982) 
144 

Hybanthus volubilis  
 
145 

Juncus meianthus K. L. Wilson   
JUNCACEAE 
 
 
      WAR F4/147 
Juncus meianthus was first collected from the Nornalup area by Blackall in 1929 and, at that time, 
was placed with Scirpus antarctica. It was then not collected again until 1979 when Mary McCallum-
Webster found it near Albany. Prior to recognition as a new species, both Western Australian 
collections were considered to be forms of the Eastern Australian Juncus gracilis. 

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