Volume 17, Number 2, October 2016
Purwodadi Botanical Gardens, Indonesian Institute of Sciences. Jl. Raya Surabaya-Malang Km 65, Purwodadi, Pasuruan 67163, East Java, Indonesia.
Tel.: +62-343-615033, Fax.: +62-343-615033,
(Myrtaceae) consists of a lot of species which are widely distributed. One of the distribution areas is the Natural Park of Gunung Baung
(TWA Gunung Baung) in Pasuruan, East Java. The results of exploration and characterization of known species show that there are six
species of Syzygium known to grow in this region namely S. cumini, S. littorale, S. pycnanthum, S. polyanthum, S. racemosum, and S.
that are known to be cultivated. Four other species are wild and have not been explored for their potential utilization.
There are approximately 1,200 recorded species of Syzygium,
which are widely spread in South Asia, Southeast Asia,
Australia, and New Caledonia. Some species are also found
in Africa, Malagasy and southwestern region of the Pacific
Islands, Hawaii and New Zealand. Species spread across
Asia are in several areas as follows: the Indo-China (70
species), Thailand (80 sp.), the Malay Peninsula (190 sp.),
Java (50 sp.), Borneo (165 sp.), the Philippines (180 sp.),
and New Guinea (140 sp.). The Malay Peninsula and
Borneo are the two main areas of endemicity of this group
(Haron et al. 1995). Syzygium generally grows in the rain
forest, but grows well in nearly all types of vegetation, such
as coastal forest, swamp forest, resembled monsoons, bamboo
forests, peat swamp, lowland heath forest, savanna,
montane forest and shrub vegetation in the sub-alpine
region (Parnell et al. 2007). Some species are able to grow
in conditions of extreme habitats such as limestone and
ultramafic (Partomihardjo and Ismail 2008; Mustain 2009).
The large amount of genus Syzygium makes species
classification become complicated; therefore
species and the most recent study was done by using a
phylogenetic approach (Lucas et al. 2005; Craven et al.
2006; Craven and Biffin 2010). Although the number of
species is quite high, still very few species of this genus are
known by the public. Species that are known by the public
at large are species that have been cultivated for their benefits
and uses, such as Syzygium aqueum, S. samarangense, S.
mainly usages of this genus are raw material for medicine,
fruit-bearing, ornamental plants as well as a source of
lumber and carpentry (Coronel 1992; Panggabean 1992;
van Lingen 1992; Haron et al. 1995; Sardjono 1999;
Verheij and Snijders 1999).
As for wild species that grow naturally in the forest or
non-cultivated areas, not much is known of the Syzygium
existence. If information about species diversity and its
existence is unknown, it is feared that wild species can be
neglected even become scarce before functions and uses
can be understood. Flora expedition occasionally reveals
important information about floristic diversity of certain
area. Shenoy (2015) stated that S. kanarense was re-
discovered after 67 years of its last existence’s record.
Environmental conditions of habitat and human activity
can affect the existence of a plant species. Ultimately this
will affect the level of threat and the conservation status in
the wild. Raju (2014), suggested that the reproductive
capacity of Syzygium alternifolium was limited by a variety
of environmental conditions. The factors that inhibit them
are: low ability to produce fruit from the fertilization
process, short viability of seeds, high mortality of seedling
due to water stress, the pressure of dry climate in the dry
season and fruit utilization by the community.
Some studies suggest that in addition to having the
functions and benefits of direct usefulness to humans,
Syzygium species have ecological functions for the
sustainability of an ecosystem. Hasanbahri et al. (1996)
suggest that there are at least 33 species of plants that
become food for the Macaca fascicularis in hardwood
forest regions. The most general type is of the genus Ficus
and Syzygium. Alikodra (1997) recorded species of
that grow on the banks of the river of Kuala Samboja,
which became fodder for proboscis (Nasalis larvatus).
Besides this, they also used them to perform daily
activities, such as exploring, sleeping, and more.
Syzygium plays an important role in the forest ecosystem
to maintain the balance of the components inside. This
could mean the relationship complementary and mutually
beneficial among components in ecosystem. Crome (1985)
stated that one form of this relationship is the system of
pollination and fertilization of Syzygium cormiflorum with
bats, birds, and insects as pollinator agents.
important role in the stabilization of the region along the
banks of the river. This is mainly due to the nature and
character of roots that can withstand the river flow, as well
as hold up or slows down the rate of river flow. Root
systems jon strong pedestal stems, making it an excellent
plant to prevent erosion of the banks of the river
(Wiriadinata and Setyowati 2003). Riswan et al (2004),
revealed that along the banks of the Ciliwung and Cisadane
rivers, there are five species of Syzygium, namely: S. aqueum,
naturally, while the other four species were intentionally
grown for various purposes. This species has the potential
of plants as barriers to erosion by the river flow. In another
study, Waryono (2001), states that S. polyanthum is quite
often found in the Jakarta area. This species has a
considerable number of individuals encountered, both at
tree level and seedling, along the banks of the river. One of
its roles in the riparian ecosystem is as a source of food for
various species of birds that live in that area.
In general, the region of Natural Recreation Park of
Gunung Baung (TWA Gunung Baung) has the ecosystem
characteristics of a lowland monsoon forest. Flora species
that are quite often found in these areas include: Ficus
region are dominated by bamboo forest. Chess (2008)
mentions as many as 9 species from 4 genera of bamboo
grow in the area of TW A Gunun g B aung, namely:
argues that there are four Syzygium species that found
growing along the Welang river in this area, namely: S.
samarangense (fruit greenish white), S. javanicum, S.
pycnanthum, and Syzygium sp. This study aims to
determine Syzygium species diversity, field character and
distribution in the area of TWA Gunung Baung, East Java,
Natural Recreation Park of Gunung Baung (TWA
Gunung Baung) was established by decree of Minister of
Agriculture 657/Kpts/Um/12/1981, dated January 1, 1981,
covering an area of 195.50 hectares. TWA Gunung Baung
regional government is administratively located in the
Village of Cowek, Purwosari, Pasuruan District, East Java,
Indonesia. Located about 68 km from the city of
Surabaya towards Malang city. Geographically, TWA
Gunung Baung is located at 07 ° 46 '09'-07°47 '23" South
and 112°16' 23"-112°17'17" East. This region has the
following boundaries: North side is adjacent to the
Kertosari Village, Purwosari District, bordering the East is
Lebakrejo Village, Purwodadi District, southern border is
Cowek Village, Purwosari District, and western border is
Purwodadi Botanical Gardens (Figure 1) (BBKSDA 2008).
slopes. Few have flat topography. The highest peak is
around 501 m above sea level. The soil is made up of
yellow and red mediterranean component of latosols
quarter rocks formed from old metamorphic sediments.
Climatic conditions of the area including the TWA Gunung
Baung belong into type D, with a value of Q = 76.47%.
There is an average rainfall of 2571.5 mm with the annual
number of rainy days per year of 144.20.
C to 23
C. The rainy season
with rainfall ≥ 100 mm/month, generally occurs between
November to April, while the dry season (with rainfall ≤ 60
mm/month) occurs between May and October.
The method used in this study was a survey method,
which explores the research areas, and records the
encountered Syzygium. Explorative exploration was done
wherever possible to examine most of the area. A total of
five trails were conducted in this research (Figure 1).
Data collection was mainly carried out in the core of
TWA Gunung Baung region. Data collected includes:
morphological characters of Syzygium, location coordinates,
general vegetation conditions, altitude, temperature and
humidity. Voucher of herbarium specimens were collected
for identification and determination of species. Identification
of herbarium specimens was done in the Herbarium
Bogoriense (BO) and the Hortus Botanicus Purwodadiensis
Herbarium. The data were analyzed descriptively by an
identifier of Syzygium morphological characters that can be
easily recognized in the field and that can be made using a
simple identification key. The characters include: habit,
bark, leaves, flowers and fruits.
Then, based on the data obtained by morphological
characters, we made dendogram to figure out the close
relationship between species Syzygium in Gunung Baung.
Present method is absent on some morphological characters
which is used for species grouping. Data analysis was
performed using the method of cluster analysis using
Minitab 14 software.
As many as 347 individuals of Syzygium from six
species are recorded in this study. These six species are:
Syzygium cumini (duwet), S. littorale (kopo laut), S.
polyanthum (salam), S. pycnanthum (klampok, jambu
hutan), S. racemosum (kopo mangut), and S. samarangense
(jambu semarang). S. pycnanthum is the species mostly
found in the area of TWA Gunung Baung followed by S.
Of the six species of Syzygium encountered, S.
been commonly recognized and cultivated/planted by the
community. Although S. cumini has been known by the
public, it is not commonly grown as a cultivated plant. S.
species that still grow wild and are not cultivated by the
Figure 2. The number of individuals of Syzygium in TWA
Gunung Baung, East Java
Syn.: Calyptranthes capitellata Buch.-Ham. ex Wall,
Stokes, Eugenia calyptrata Roxb. ex Wight & Arn,
Wight & Arn, Eugenia obovata Poir, Eugenia obtusifolia
Roxb, Eugenia tsoi Merr. & Chun, Jambolifera chinensis
Spreng, Jambolifera coromandelica Houtt, Jambolifera
(Lam.) DC, Syzygium obovatum (Poir.) DC, Syzygium
A short-truncate tree that can reach 20 m high and has
no buttresses. Branching is grey or yellowish brown. It has
single leaves arranged opposite, oval to oval, green-dark
green, and has flat leaf edges. Size of leaves is about 7-15
cm x 5-9 cm and has a long apetiole 1 to 3.5 cm. Flowers
are small (4-7 mm diameter) and are arranged in a single
inflorescence. It has white to yellowish flowers, arranged in
inflorescences that appear in axillary panicles at the ends of
twigs and branches. Berry fruit of the seed is oval-shaped,
dark red and purple when ripe, with a sweet taste of kelat
(Figure 3.A, B, C). According to Backer and Bakhuizen
van den Brink (1963), in Java, in teak forests, this species
grows at altitude of below 500 m asl. and is widely
cultivated for its fruit. This species is found in open places;
a location with no bamboo and with relatively flat
topography. A total of 6 individual observations are
recorded in plots consisting of individual levels of pole 1
and 5 individual tree levels.
Syzygium littorale (Bl.) Amshoff
Syn.: Eugenia littoralis (Bl.) Meijer Drees; Eugenia
Tall stature of trees can reach 10-20 m. Single leaves
are arranged opposite and are lanceolate-oblong-shaped
width. The inflorescence terminal appears on the petiole
twigs as the former falls. Some flowers are arranged in a
single inflorescence. There are white flowers with a size of
about 1.5 to 2 cm (Figure 3.D, E, F). Fruit is round,
campanulate (bell-shaped), green and yellow with a
diameter of about 2.5-3.5 cm. Backer and Bakhuizen van
den Brink (1963) states that this species is a native species
in Java. They grow in forests, especially along the river bank.
In the area of TWA Gunung Baung, they are found
growing in places where there is no bamboo, in bush areas
with trees that are not too tight. There were a total of 18
individuals recorded in the observation plots, consisting of
8 individual poles and 10 individual trees.
Miq., Eugenia nitida Duthie, Eugenia pamatensis Miq.,
Masam., Syzygium pamatense (Miq.) Masam.
A tree with a single trunk and clear, dense canopy
shape, and can reach 25 meters high. It has dark brown,
rough grooved bark. Single leaves are arranged opposite
elliptic-round shaped or obovate (obovate) with a pointed
tip. Leaf size is 5-15 x 3.5 to 6.5 cm with petiole length
between 5-12 mm. Meeting at the end of the inflorescence
branches or armpit. Compact white flowers are fragrant and
reddish. Sweet fruit is round with a diameter of 8-9 mm
and red to dark red (Figure 3.G, H, I). Its natural habitat is
the forest area at an altitude of 5-1000 m asl. This species
is often planted in home gardens for the leaves and fruit
(Backer and Bakhuizen van den Brink 1963).
Seven individuals are recorded in the observation plots
consisting of: 3 individual seedlings, saplings and 1
individual, 3 pole individual levels. They grow in places
that are not dominated by bamboo and not too dense
thickets of trees, in hillside areas.
Syzygium pycnanthum Merr. & L.M. Perry
Syn.: Eugenia corymbosa Roxb., Eugenia densiflora
(Bl.) DC., Eugenia densiflora (Bl.) Duthie, E. Axillary
Auct. Non Willd., Jambosa densiflora (Bl.) DC., Myrtus
Trunk diameter can reach 30 cm with no buttresses. Single
leaves are oppositely arranged, dark green on the upper
surface and pale green on the lower surface. Leaf shape is
ovate-oblong-lanceolate (elongate-ovate-oblong), average
leaf edge, acute-acuminate leaf tip (pointy-tapered). Leaf
size ranges from 12.5 to 37 cm x 3-10 cm, has an
intramarginal vein at a distance of 8-10 mm from the edge
of the leaf. Inflorescence appears at the end of twigs.
Compact flowers with short flower stalks 3-4 mm, crown-
purplish white flowers, white-colored greenish-purple
petals, have many stamens. The fruit is berry which is
round, light green, dark purplish red or reddish-green with
a diameter of 2.5-3.5 cm (Figure 3.J, K, L).
Two variants of S. pycnanthum are found in Gunung
Baung TWA, which have purplish-red and green fruit.
Stature and other characteristics are relatively the same, the
only difference is the color of the fruit. Comparison of the
amount between the two is unknown. This is because the
time of the study does not coincide with the time of
flowering or bearing fruit.
This species has a wide range of habitats. It can grow
from lowlands to highlands with various types of
environmental conditions. According to Backer and
Bakhuizen van den Brink (1963), in Java, this species
grows naturally in the underbrush, open woods or edges of
rivers, at an altitude of 5-1500 m asl. Mustian (2009) found
S. pycnanthum along with several other Syzygium species
in a nickel mining region in Sorowako, South Sulawesi, on
ultramafic soils. This type is found growing naturally on
the banks of the river flow (Mudiana 2009; 2011). Sunarti
et al. (2008) recorded this species habitat at an altitude of
750-850 m asl. in the Polara forests of Waworete
Mountains, Wawonii Island, Southeast Sulawesi.
This species of Syzygium is the most often found
species in TWA Gunung Baung. A total of 235 individuals
were recorded in the observation plots, consisting of 42
individual seedlings, 75 saplings, 49 individual levels and
69 depressed pole level tree individuals. This species grows
in a variety of conditions, such as the location of the
dominance of bamboo groves B. blumeana, in an open
space, where there is dominance of shrubs and trees, or in
jamboloides Koord. & Valeton, Eugenia robinsoniana
Tree’s height can reach 3-20 meters, generally in the
form of a small tree with dense branching. Bark is light
gray-brown. Ellipse-shaped leaf face round with a tapered
tip, leaf size is about 8-15 x 3.5-5 cm, petiole 0.5-1.5 cm
size. Young leaves are reddish-copper. Inflorescence
terminal or axillary panicles appear on the end of the
branch. Yellowish-white flowers, with a crown like a small
calyptras. Fruit is yellowish green, rounded bell-shaped
with a diameter of 2-3 cm (Figure 3.M, N, O).
Backer and Bakhuizen van den Brink (1963) stated that
this species is found growing in Java, in a mixed forest and
a teak forest at an altitude of 10-1200 m asl. In TWA
Gunung Baung, it is often found growing mainly in areas
with a predominance of bamboo, B. blumeana, on the local
hillsides. A total of 77 individuals were recorded in this
study, consisting of 20 individual seedlings, 35 individuals,
14 individuals saplings and 8 pole level individual trees
Syn.: Eugenia javanica Lam. non Syzygium javanicum
Miq., Eugenia samarangensis (Bl.) O. Berg, Jambosa
Stature of S. samarangense is a small tree with a lot of
dense branching, height can reach 10 meters. Leaves are
arranged opposite and are oval or oblong, bright green
young leaves with leaf size of 6 to 11.5cm x 12-24cm and
petiole length of 3-5 mm. Inflorescence appears in the
former leaves that have fallen. Yellowish-white flowers
with a diameter of 3-4 cm (Figure 3.P, Q, R). The fruit is
bell-shaped and green and yellow. Its existence has been
common and planted by residents in the garden and yard
for some uses. Only found in 1 individual tree level
recorded in the observation plots. It grows in the open area,
in areas of bamboo bush.
Based on the fact that morphological characters are
easily recognizable in the field, it is simple to identify. Key
for Syzygium species in TWA Gunung Baung is as follows:
I.A. Habit of a big tree
elliptic-oblong leaf shape; flowers are small,
round, red-colored or dark red fruit .................... S. polyanthum
I.A.2. elliptical-obovate leaf shape; flowers are small,
clustered; white-yellowish flowers; sweet, oval, purple-dark
purple fruit .................................................................. S. cumini
I.B. Habit of a small tree
I.B.1. light gray or light brown sunny bark
I.B.1.1. elliptic-ovate leaf shape, thick leaf; purplish white
flowers; round green or purplish green fruit ....S. pycnanthum
I.B.1.2. elliptical-oblong leaf shape, leaf thin copper-
colored young leaves; small round white flowers
........................................... ................................ S. racemosum
I.B.2. dark gray or dark brown bark
I.B.2.1. elliptic-ovate bright green leaf; axillary inflorescence;
white flowers; bell shaped fruit .................... S. samarangense
inflorescences on the top branches; white flowers; round
shaped fruit ......... ................................................... S. littorale
morphological character practically recognized in the field. Note:
1. S. cumini, 2. S. littorale, 3. S. polyanthum, 4. S. pycnanthum, 5.
S. racemosum, 6. S. samarangense
Based on the identification key and dendogram in
Figure 4, it can be seen that in general there are three
groups of Syzygium growing on Gunung Baung. The first
group consists of S cumini and S. polyanthum, while the
second group is S. littorale, S. samarangense and S.
Differences among the three are primarily on two
morphological characters that are easily seen in the field,
namely: flower size and habit. The first group has the small
flowers with a large tree habit. The second group has a
large flower size with a small tree habit. While the third
group has a small flower size and small tree habit. S.
cumini and S. polyanthum have the same character with a
small flower size and habit of a large tree (the first group).
Despite having a small flower size, S. racemosum has a tree
with a small size habit (third group). S. littorale, S. samarang-
In addition, the character of the surface of the bark can
also be a distinguishing character between Syzygium
species in the field. S. pycnanthum and S. racemosum is
very easily recognizable in the field because of the bright
color of the bark (brown-light gray) with a relatively
smooth surface. Other species have a dark color of bark
with a rough surface.
are Syzygium species that had been commonly recognized
and utilized by the local community. It is traditionally and
mainly used for fruit consumption, as a seasoning, as
traditional medicine or timber used for household furniture
As a producer of fruit, S. samarangense is one that is
undergoing a process of "most advanced" cultivation
techniques compared to other species. Today, many cultivars
of this species have been produced. Even, sometimes, it
leads to new species as a result of human intervention.
Widodo (2007) stated that the activity of hybridization to
produce new varieties is one speciation process that
occurred in the genus Syzygium. There are at least 9
and developed by the community (Cahyono 2010).
Traditionally, the potential use of S. cumini includes
fruit for jam making or as material consumption of fruit;
the wood is used as raw material for home furnishings and
building materials, as well as leaves and seeds for
traditional medicine. Intensive studies on the potential of
the active substance content in this species suggest that
there are many medical benefits provided by this species.
One is as a producer of raw materials of diabetes mellitus
drug. The content of oleanolic acid in this plant (the stem
bark, leaves, and especially in the seeds) is an efficacious
material for lowering blood glucose levels (hypoglycemic)
and acts as an anti-diabetic (Tjitrosoepomo 1994;
Dalimartha 2003; Mas'udah et al. 2010). Lestario (2003)
suggested that a S. cumini fruit is a source of antioxidants
which is beneficial to health. These substances are needed
by the body to prevent degenerative diseases. In fact, the
leaf extract of S. cumini contains a substance (i.e.
methanol) that potentially developed as growth inhibitor of
bacteria or anti bacteria (Gowri and Vasantha 2010).
of Syzygium littorale (F); Flower (G), leaf (H), and tree physique of Syzygium polyanthum (I); Variant of young purplish red fruit (J),
green fruit variant (K), and tree physique of Syzygium pycnanthum (L); Flowers (M), leaf (N), and tree physique of Syzygium
racemosum (O); Flower buds (P), leaf (Q), and tree physique of Syzygium samarangense (R)
Several studies on the chemical content owned by S.
producer of tannins, flavonoids and essential oils (at
0.05%). Citric acid and eugenol are also produced by this
species (Sumarno and Agustin 2008). Bay leaves (S.
used as anti-diarrheal drugs as proposed by Wiryawan et al
(200). His research notes that the chemicals in the leaves
can suppress populations of the bacterium Escherichia coli
that cause diarrhea in chickens. Chemical substances
contained in the leaves include: essential oils, triterpenoids,
saponins, tannins and flavonoids.
The three species, S. littorale, S. pycnanthum and S.
utilized their potential for specific uses. All three of these
species are wild and not cultivated. Traditionally, people
use their wood as firewood. Not many studies have been
done to explore the potential of these species. One was
done by Wahidi (2001), which suggests that S. pycnanthum
contains 15 essential oil components. From the results of
these studies, it can be concluded that this species could be
a source of α-farnesen and eugenol. Mudiana (2008)
suggested that S. pycnanthum has the potential to be
developed as an ornamental out door plant because it has
characters of small-boned medium tree, leafy canopy
forms, attractive colors and shapes of flowers and also
To conclude, a total of six species of Syzygium are
found growing in the area of TWA Gunung Baung. These
six species are S. cumini, S. littorale, S. polyanthum, S.
pycnanthum, S. racemosum, and S. samarangense. Based
on morphological characters that are easily recognizable in
the field in Gunung Baung, Syzygium species can be
classified into 3 groups. The first group consists of S.
group is S. racemosum. Flower size, habit, and the surface
of the stem are character identifiers that are easily
recognizable in distinguishing species of Syzygium in Mt.
Baung. Of the six species of Syzygium, only S. polyanthum
and S. samarangense have been commonly recognized and
cultivated by people, while four other species grow wild in
The author would like to thank Prof. Dr. Elizabeth A.
Widjaja, who has provided advice and input in the
utilization of data and information on the preparation of
this manuscript. The authors also thank to Samantha
Tesoriero, who have helped enhance manuscript writing.
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