Outline of relevant legislation, policies and management plans in relation to forestry management and endangered taxa conservation
This report outlines the legislative mechanisms, administrative and operational procedures in place or proposed for the protection of threatened species in the South West Forests.
The Commonwealth and Western Australia have agreed on an approach to be implemented for the consideration of threatened species in the Deferred Forest Area (DFA) process that addresses the requirements of the Commonwealth Endangered Species Protection Act 1992. This approach includes the following:
· the inclusion of appropriate broad licence conditions in all woodchip export licences that provide for the protection of species listed under the ESP Act.
· the implementation of detailed processes and practices that support those conditions, which as far as possible, utilise existing State mechanisms.
Recognising that the preparation, and formal adoption under the ESP Act, of recovery plans for species listed under the ESP Act will be an outcome of the Regional Forest Agreements, the Commonwealth and Western Australia will continue to work cooperatively on the preparation and implementation of recovery plans for Western Australian forest species.
Endangered Species Protection Act 1992
The Commonwealth Government, through the Australian Nature Conservation Agency (ANCA), is responsible for the administration of the ESP Act. The ESP Act has a schedule of nationally vulnerable and endangered species and endangered ecological communities and requires that these are taken into account in all Commonwealth actions and decisions. At this stage the schedule contains vascular plants and vertebrates only, limiting its action to these species.
It does this through a link to the Commonwealth Environment Protection (Impact of Proposals) Act 1974 (EPIP Act) whereby any action which could threaten with extinction or significantly impeded the recovery of a listed species or community is considered to be environmentally significant in terms of the EPIP Act, and requires environmental impact assessment.
As the export of woodchips from Western Australia requires a Commonwealth decision to issue a licence under the Export Control Act 1982 the Commonwealth is required to consider listed species and communities in issuing those licences. To date this has been effected by the inclusion of conditions in woodchip export licences which provide for the protection of species and communities listed under the ESP Act, and the assessment of individual proposals.
Recovery and Threat Abatement Plans
Recovery Plans, together with Threat Abatement Plans, are the principal means outlined under the ESP Act for addressing species conservation requirements. Recovery Plans provide for the research and management actions necessary to stop the decline and support the recovery of species to maximise their chances of long-term survival in nature. Threat Abatement Plans provide for the research and management actions necessary to reduce the impact threatening processes have on taxa and communities. ANCA is yet to finalise any Threat Abatement Plans.
For species listed under the ESP Act that occur on Commonwealth areas, the Commonwealth must prepare a recovery plan within the prescribed time limits. Where a species occurs on State areas, the Commonwealth must seek the cooperation of the State with a view to the joint preparation of a recovery plan. For species that do not occur on Commonwealth areas, the Commonwealth may adopt a recovery plan prepared by a State agency.
The Commonwealth, through the ANCA, and CALM will continue to work cooperatively on the preparation and implementation of recovery plans for Western Australian species. To avoid duplication District Flora Plans and Interim Wildlife Management Guidelines will be utilised as far as possible for species recovery action and as the basis of recovery plan preparation.
To date Recovery plans have been prepared for the Chuditch (Orell and Morris 1994), Woylie (Start et al, 1994), Numbat (Friend, 1994), both the White and Orange bellied Frogs (Majors et al, 1992) and a recovery plan for the Western Ringtail Possum is in preparation.
It is recognised that an effective recovery plan approach needs to make appropriate information available to stakeholders and the public to bring about the necessary support for the process.
Western Australian legislation
The Department of Conservation and Land Management is directly responsible for the management of publicly owned forests in Western Australia through the operation of the Conservation and Land Management Act 1984 (CALM Act). The CALM Act also specifies that the Department of Conservation and Land Management is responsible for the administration of the Wildlife Conservation Act 1950 (WC Act). The long title of the CALM Act is ' an Act to make better provision for the use, protection and management of certain public lands and waters and the flora and fauna thereof, to establish authorities to be responsible therefor, and for incidental or connected purposes.' The long title of the WC Act is 'an Act to provide for the Conservation and Protection of Wildlife'.
The CALM Act also created 'controlling bodies', the 'Lands and Forest Commission' and 'National Parks and Nature Conservation Authority', which perform the functions of policy review and development and to be vesting bodies for forests and timber reserves, and nature conservation reserves, respectively.
Under the CALM Act the Department of CALM is required, among other things, to manage timber harvesting operations in publicly owned forests in accordance with Government approved management plans, to promote and encourage the development of the forest production requirements of the State, and to undertake any project or operation for that purpose.
The WC Act provides that all native flora may be declared protected. In practice all native flora is generally protected throughout the State and is the property of the Crown on all Crown lands, until lawfully taken. On private property, the ownership rights to flora rest with the property owner. The same Act provides that all native fauna is generally protected throughout the whole of the State and is the property of the Crown on all lands until lawfully taken. The WC Act also provides that the Minister for the Environment may specially protect native fauna (Section 14 (2)(ba) and flora (Section 23F) taxa. Specially protected fauna and flora may include taxa that are rare, or likely to become extinct or otherwise in need of special protection. Specially protected flora taxa are referred to under the WC Act as Declared Rare flora. There is no such legislated title for specially protected fauna.
In order to provide more detail of the basis for CALM management of public lands and waters and guidance for direction and development of management operations, CALM has developed a series of Policy Statements and Administrative Instructions and also Management Programs and Plans for forests, national parks, nature reserves, flora and fauna.
CALM Policy Statements 9 (CALM 1992a) and 33 (CALM 1991a) cover Departmental operations in relation to conservation of specially protected flora and fauna, respectively, in the wild, and create the titles 'threatened flora' and 'threatened fauna' to cover the various taxa declared by the Minister to be specially protected due to some threats of possible future extinction. In addition to these policies, the Department has also produced Administrative Instructions (AI) 24 (CALM 1987) and AI 44 (CALM 1992b) covering conservation and protection of threatened flora and threatened fauna, respectively, in departmental operations. The Forest Management Plan 1994-2003 (CALM 1994a) has been produced by the Lands and Forest Commission, to provide a framework and vision for the management of multiple use forests. Individual region, reserve and taxon management plans and programs have also been developed providing an increased level of detail on management objectives, actions and monitoring arrangements.
Comparison and Treatment of State Threatened Taxa Listings and Commonwealth Endangered Species Protection Act Schedule
The State lists of threatened flora and fauna are not identical to the Commonwealth Endangered Species schedule. Differences arise because there are different criteria for listings at the State and Commonwealth levels and also because the State and Commonwealth lists have been reviewed at different intervals.
The most recent notice of Declared Rare (Threatened) Flora for Western Australia, was published in the Government Gazette of 27 June 1995. This list comprised 272 taxa determined to be threatened with extinction within Western Australia (excluding 39 presumed extinct fauna also included in the Gazette notice). Following further field surveys three taxa listed on the Endangered Species Protection Act Schedule 1, have been determined to be not in threat of extinction and have been deleted from the State threatened list. These taxa are Caladenia integra, Grevillea cirsiifolia and Grevillea saccata.
These taxa are being referred to the Endangered Flora Network of the Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council (ANZECC) for consideration of removal from the National threatened flora list. As the ESP Act schedules are required to take account of ANZECC this is the appropriate mechanism whereby taxa not considered threatened by the State can be eventually delisted from the ESP Act.
The most recent notice of Specially Protected (including threatened) Fauna was in the Government Gazette of 8 April 1994. All ESP Act endangered and vulnerable taxa are specially protected under the State notice.
In terms of ESP Act flora and fauna management prescriptions, CALM proposes that the best strategy to follow is for CALM to treat any ESP Act listed taxa (as the ANCA advises CALM) in the same manner as threatened taxa under the WC Act.
Conservation of Declared Rare (Threatened) Flora in Departmental Operations- as Applicable to Conservation of Commonwealth ESP Act Schedule Taxa in Deferred Forest Assessment Areas
CALM Policy Statement No. 9 'Conservation of Threatened Flora in the Wild' (CALM 1992a) and the associated Administrative Instruction No. 24 'Protection of Endangered Flora in Departmental Operations' (CALM 1987) provide the framework for CALM's management of threatened flora. These statements are augmented by the Forest Management Plan 1994-2003 (CALM 1994a) in relation to CALM's forest management operations. Both of these documents are currently under review. Management Programs (defined as including Recovery Plans) for Threatened Flora are also prepared pursuant to Policy Statement No. 44 'Wildlife Management Programs' (CALM 1992b).
Priorities for threatened flora research and other operations are considered pursuant to CALM Policy Statement No. 50 'Setting priorities for the conservation of Western Australia's threatened flora and fauna' (CALM 1994b).
In addition to its legal and policy obligations CALM also maintains a priority flora list which includes plant taxa, listed according to priority codes:
· that have recently been removed from the schedule of Threatened Flora; or
· that have been adequately surveyed and are considered to be naturally uncommon but under no apparent threat through identifiable factors; or
· that are poorly known and hence there is insufficient information for reasonable assessment to be made of their status, in terms of possible inclusion on the Threatened Flora list.
The priority flora are also specially considered in terms of CALM's operations planning and preparation of management prescriptions and programs. Special efforts are made, involving surveys and research, in relation to the poorly known flora to determine if they should be added to the Threatened Flora list.
It is important to recognise that because of the comparatively uniform habitats of commercially harvested forest areas in relation to heathlands and other areas of the south-west, comparatively very few threatened plant taxa occur in those areas. Indeed, the vast majority of Declared Rare Flora (DRF) taxa that are known to occur in the overall forest regions, actually occur in the vicinity of streams, heaths, rock outcrops etc., and not in the open tall forest areas. Some submissions dispute this and the matter will be further considered during the CRA.
The major actions undertaken by CALM for threatened flora conservation and protection in relation to the Deferred Forest Assessment are:
· the identification of taxa that are threatened with extinction;
· the listing of threatened taxa as Declared Rare Flora under the WC Act;
· field location and marking of populations of threatened flora;
· surveys for populations of threatened flora. Some submissions queried the adequacy of such surveys and the matter will be further considered during the CRA;
· maintenance of a computerised Declared Rare (Threatened) Flora Database, comprising information on location and size of all known populations of DRF;
· maintenance of rare flora population locations on operations mapping and planning systems;
· nominated Threatened Flora Officers whose duties include ensuring that Policy Statement 9 and AI 24 are complied with in operations;
· operation of Threatened Flora Recovery Teams, that have been formed for the Southern Forest Region, Central Forest Region and Swan Region, with the task of preparing and implementing threatened flora management programs (Recovery Plans) for the management of all threatened flora within those regions.
· identification, reservation and management of conservation reserves to protect areas of high nature conservation value, including populations of threatened flora; and
· protection, under the Forest Management Plan, of areas of special biological value as either River and Stream (Riparian) Zones or Diverse Ecotype Zones. Travel route zones also afford special protection.
· comprehensive planning and hygiene constraints to minimise the risk of spreading dieback.
· control of environmental weeds in forests.
As mentioned above, CALM has formed Threatened Flora Recovery Teams for each of the three forest regions and also has individual threatened flora officers nominated within the forest regions and districts.
Threatened flora officer duties are under review, but under AI 24, include:
· checking that prescriptions for operations are in accord with CALM Policy Statement No. 9 and AI 24;
· the updating and maintenance of local and central records of threatened flora populations and locations, including ongoing field surveys for new populations of threatened flora;
· operating in a public advisory/extension capacity with regard to threatened flora; and,
· conducting staff training on threatened flora, as required.
The Regional Threatened Flora Recovery Teams are involved in the preparation and implementation of regional threatened flora management programs, termed recovery plans. These plans provide a source document covering the basic biology, flowering period, distribution (population locations) and habitat requirements of each threatened (and priority) flora taxon within the region. Information is also included on the known responses to disturbance (including fire), susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback, management (including monitoring) requirements, research requirements and references. The plans are implemented by the recovery teams which report annually on their progress. Another function of the recovery team is to undertake, or oversee the undertaking of surveys to locate other populations of threatened flora, as far as is possible within resource constraints. The three forest region recovery teams have the following representation.
Swan Region Threatened
Flora Recovery Team
· Region - 4 officers
· Wildlife Branch
· Science and
· WA Threatened
· Region - 3 officers
· a consultant
· Region - 6 officers
· Local Government
· WA Department of
· a volunteer
· Local Government
· 2 Volunteers
NB. Composition of committees varies according to specific needs.
In the process of planning for forestry management operations, CALM routinely consults maintained records of flora surveys and known populations of Threatened Flora and avoids damage to these populations. The strategy followed encompasses reference to the results of past targeted surveys, an ongoing program of targeted surveys, marking of threatened flora populations, and operations of regional threatened flora recovery teams and threatened flora officers. Combined with the other actions outlined previously, this strategy is seen as an efficient means of conserving threatened flora. Operations which are determined to have a likelihood of significant permanent impacts on vegetation such as roading and creation of firebreaks are seen as requiring additional special survey for possible impacts on populations of Threatened Flora. In these situations specific additional surveys are required to be undertaken in the areas proposed to be impacted, in order to verify if there will be impacts on any Threatened Flora. Under current operational practices, if management activities of the kind outlined above, involving permanent destruction of flora habitat, are determined to be likely to impact on Threatened Flora, consideration must be given to either relocating the planned operations so as to avoid the Threatened Flora or application must be made to the Minister for the Environment for permission to take Declared Rare (Threatened) Flora, pursuant to Section 23F of the WC Act.
Permits to take DRF are granted by the Minister, where he is satisfied that the taking will not result in a significant increase in the chances of that taxon becoming extinct. Essential considerations are therefore the relative significance of the population of DRF to be affected to the overall conservation of the taxon (i.e. in relation to other known populations) and the level of impact proposed for that population (proportion of plants to be involved and degree of severity of impact to those plants, ie. ability for regeneration, or regrowth after impact).
The strategies outlined above are seen as efficient means of ensuring the conservation of threatened flora taxa throughout the Deferred Forest Assessment region.
Status of Flora Taxa Listed in Schedule 1 of the Commonwealth Endangered Species Protection Act
Part 1 - Taxa that are endangered
An overview of the status, distribution and management arrangements in place for each of the flora taxa listed as endangered in the Endangered Species Protection Act 1992 and occurring within the Deferred Forest Assessment region is provided below. (Species names followed by "ms" have not yet had their species description published.)
Part 2 - Taxa that are vulnerable
An overview of the status, distribution and management arrangements in place for each of the flora taxa listed as vulnerable in the Endangered Species Protection Act 1992 and occurring within the Deferred Forest Assessment region is provided. (Species names followed by "ms" have not yet had their species description published.)
Conservation of Threatened Fauna in Departmental Operations - as Applicable to the Consdervation of Commonwealth ESP Act Schedule Taxa in Deferred Forest Assessment Areas
CALM Policy Statement No. 33 'Conservation of threatened and specially protected fauna in the wild' (CALM 1991a) and Administrative Instruction No. 44 'Protection of endangered and specially protected fauna in Departmental Operations' (CALM 1990) provide the framework for CALM's management of threatened fauna. These statements are also augmented by the Forest Management Plan 1994-2003 (CALM 1994a) in relation to CALM's forest management operations. As for the flora statements, both of the above fauna documents are currently under review. Management Programs (Recovery Plans) for Threatened Fauna are also prepared pursuant to Policy Statement No. 44 'Wildlife Management Programs' (CALM 1992b).
Priorities for threatened fauna research and other operations are considered pursuant to CALM Policy Statement No. 50 'Setting priorities for the conservation of Western Australia's threatened flora and fauna' (CALM 1994b).
The major actions undertaken by CALM for threatened fauna conservation and protection in relation to the Deferred Forest Assessment are:
· the identification of taxa that are threatened with extinction;
· the listing of threatened taxa as specially protected fauna under the WC Act;
· surveys for populations of threatened fauna;
· maintenance and development of a central computerised threatened fauna locational database;
· maintenance of information on known populations of threatened fauna on operations, mapping and planning systems;
· nominated threatened fauna officers whose duties include ensuring that Policy Statement 33 and AI 44 are complied with in operations;
· establishment and operation of recovery teams for development and implementation of recovery plans;
· protection of critical habitat elements, such as den logs and tree hollows, in timber harvest prescriptions;
· establishment and management of conservation reserves to protect habitats of threatened fauna;
· protection of areas of special biological significance from significant disturbance as either River and Stream (Riparian) Zones or Diverse Ecotype Zones. Travel route zones also afford special protection.
· research into pest animal control.
· issue of pre-logging surveys.
CALM has established 12 recovery teams for threatened fauna, each with CALM as well as non-CALM representatives. These teams have prepared, or are preparing recovery plans for the identified taxa, in most cases in association with ANCA, covering each of the ESP Act endangered fauna taxa dependent to some extent on the major forest areas. It is the duty of the teams to ensure that the recovery plans are implemented and that the taxa nominated are recovered from their threatened status. In order to achieve this, recovery plans identify key habitat areas, survey requirements and management actions necessary to assist recovery. The make-up of the recovery teams relevant to the Deferred Forest Assessment is detailed.
Bettongia penicillata (Woylie)
SA Dept of Environment
and Natural Resources
Myrmecobius fasciatus (Numbat)
World Wildlife Fund
SA Dept of Environment
and Natural Resources
Geocrinia alba (White-bellied Frog)
and G.vitellina (Orange-bellied Frog)
Uni of Western
Dasyurus geoffroii (Chuditch)
World Wildlife Fund
Pseudocheirus occidentalis (Western
In the process of planning for forest management operations CALM routinely consults maintained records on known populations of threatened fauna, obtained from targeted forest fauna surveys. The level of survey has been queried in submissions and will be further considered during the CRA.
While there are no habitat protection provisions under the WC Act and therefore no legal requirement to obtain any permits to impact on threatened fauna habitat, planners take account of known populations in the planning of reserve areas and areas to be excluded from timber harvesting and roading. The strategy followed encompasses reference to the results of past targeted surveys, ongoing targeted surveys and operations of threatened fauna recovery teams.
A key threatening fauna conservation action is the ongoing development of a conservation reserve system which is representative of vegetation types occurring throughout the forest and thus covering the habitat elements for the fauna. Where endangered or vulnerable (ie. threatened) taxa populations are known to occur, special reservation is made for them. This is relevant for the Numbat and Woylie for which the Perup Nature Reserve was principally established. In the Forest Management Plan 1994-2003 reservation has been proposed for a portion of Witchcliffe Forest Block to enhance protection of the White-bellied Frog. Other land management options to protect threatened fauna habitat include creation of Diverse Ecotype Zones and River and Stream (Riparian Zones) described in the Forest Management Plan, 1994-2003. Riparian zones are known to be important foraging habitat of the Chuditch. Furthermore, critical habitat elements, such as tree hollows and den logs, are protected under timber harvest prescriptions. The jarrah harvesting prescription provides for the retention of habitat trees and den logs where these may be limiting (CALM 1991b).
Planning of operations to avoid key threatened fauna habitat and management of these areas pursuant to recovery plans and other management programs is seen as an effective means to ensure protection of threatened fauna habitat areas within forests. CALM has also developed a major program of fox control throughout forest areas, with the aim of increasing the abundance and range of threatened and rare fauna taxa. Wherever control has been carried out populations of small to medium sized animals (Chuditch, Woylie, etc.) have increased dramatically (Friend 1990, Morris et al. 1995). Further details of these operations are included under the discussion of Operation Foxglove (see below).
Another major CALM initiative for threatened fauna is translocation in accordance with Policy No. 29 'Translocation of Threatened Flora and Fauna' (CALM 1995) and, in particular, the creation of Fauna Reconstruction Sites as detailed therein. CALM has already experienced considerable success with the reintroduction of threatened fauna taxa including Woylies and Numbats into forest areas.
Status of Fauna Taxa Listed in Schedule 1 of the Commonwealth Endangered Species Protection Act
Part 1 - Taxa that are endangered
An overview of the status, distribution and management arrangements in place for each of the fauna taxa listed as endangered in the Endangered Species Protection Act 1992 and occurring within the Deferred Forest Assessment region is provided below.
The Chuditch, Numbat and Woylie have all been the subject of detailed biological and ecological research. The jarrah forest contains the majority of the Chuditch population and a Recovery Plan has been published and is being implemented (Orell and Morris, 1994). Recovery Plans have also been prepared and are being implemented for the Orange-bellied and White-bellied Frogs, the Numbat and Woylie. A recovery plan for the Western Ringtail Possum is in preparation.
A study has commenced in the southern jarrah forest examining silvicultural systems that will achieve broad forest sustainability, that is wood production with wildlife habitat values retained, especially for the Chuditch, Numbat, Western Ringtail Possum and Woylie.
Part 2 - Taxa that are vulnerable
An overview of the status, distribution and management arrangements in place for each of the fauna taxa listed as vulnerable in the Endangered Species Protection Act 1992 and occurring within the Deferred Forest Assessment region is provided below.
Key Threatening Process for Endangered and Vulnerable Taxa
Another important aspect of managing endangered and vulnerable flora in timber harvest operations is the minimisation of the threatening process 'dieback', a disease resulting from infection by species of Phytophthora of which P. cinnamomi is the most destructive.
Dieback caused by P. cinnamomi is listed as a Key Threatening Process under the ESP Act. Accordingly the ANCA is required to prepare a national Threat Abatement Plan for Phytophthora by 1999, and it is proposed to commence the plan in 1996. ANCA is currently liaising with CALM with respect to the Threat Abatement Plan to ensure that its preparation is nationally coordinated and that it meets the objectives of the ESP Act.
Identify actions to be implemented by the draft Threat Abatement Plan, and their estimated duration and cost including, but not limited to:
· mapping and predicting the spread of infestation.
· diagnostic testing for the identification of Phytophthora in situ.
· use of control agents such as phosphorous acid, including research into mode of action and techniques of application.
· hygiene guidelines, regulations or codes of practice for roading, walking tracks, soil and gravel movement, forestry operations, nurseries, vehicle movement, mining operations, flower picking operations, fire fighting operations and other activities that cause the spread of Phytophthora.
· the role of germplasm banks (seed and tissue) for species at risk from Phytophthora.
· research to determine species and ecological communities susceptible to Phytophthora, where they are currently not affected.
· research into breeding for resistance or tolerance of susceptible species and ecological communities. research into genetics and biological control of Phytophthora.
· monitoring to determine impact of Phytophthora in long term infested ecological communities.
· land management and land use guidelines to reduce the spread of Phytophthora and to isolate disease free areas.
· community awareness and involvement in Phytophthora control
· public education programmes.
· integrated management of Phytophthora including multiple control strategies.
The CALM strategy to minimise the artificial spread of the pathogen entails:
· Quarantining the forest for up to three years to allow the existing infections to manifest themselves.
· Mapping the forest to identify disease location.
· Applying a structured analysis process to operations (including logging) to quantify the risk of introducing, spreading or intensifying disease and the impact on the vegetation if it is introduced.
· Prescribing the timing and nature of the operations to make the risk acceptable. This includes dry soil operations, 'split phase' logging, cleaning down equipment, compartmentalised operations and the provision of log stockpiles.
· Monitoring the effectiveness of these operations in containing dieback spread in time.
· For threatened or vulnerable flora susceptible for Phytophthora sp. and at risk through existing infections 'Phosphonate' is being used to protect individuals from destruction. No species associated with forest areas have required this treatment.
Predation by the European Red Fox: Operation Foxglove
This is the major factor threatening a number of endangered and vulnerable fauna and CALM is dealing with it by a massive fox baiting program, named Operation Foxglove.
Operation Foxglove has the following objectives:
· To significantly reduce and maintain at low levels populations of foxes to:
1. allow the expansion of existing populations of native fauna vulnerable to predation;
2. allow the successful translocation of fauna taxa which have recently declined in the northern jarrah forest;
3. ensure the viability of these communities in perpetuity.
· To allow the effective integration of fauna management with other uses and management strategies applied to the northern jarrah forest.
· To promote the cooperative fox baiting of adjacent land holdings.
An area of 670 000 hectares, mainly between Mundaring and Collie, is being baited for control of foxes. Operation Foxglove incorporates a research component, where monitoring of fauna populations is undertaken in areas subjected to four experimental treatments (i) control which is unbaited, (ii) baited twice per year, (iii) baited four times per year, and (iv) baited six times per year.
CALM (1987). Administrative Instruction No. 24. Protection of Endangered Flora in Departmental Operations. Department of Conservation and Land Management Policy Directorate.
CALM (1990). Administrative Instruction No. 44. Protection of Endangered and Specially Protected Fauna in Departmental Operations. Department of Conservation and Land Management Policy Directorate.
CALM (1991a). Policy Statement No. 33. Conservation of Threatened and Specially Protected Fauna in the Wild. Department of Conservation and Land Management.
CALM (1991b). Silvicultural Specification 2/91. Treemarking and Silvicultural Treatment in the Jarrah Forest. Department of Conservation and Land Management.
CALM (1992a). Policy Statement No. 9. Conservation of Threatened Flora in the Wild. Department of Conservation and Land Management.
CALM (1992b). Policy Statement No. 44. Wildlife Management Programs. Department of Conservation and Land Management.
CALM (1994a). Forest Management Plan 1994-2003. Department of Conservation and Land Management.
CALM (1994b). CALM Policy Statement No. 50. Setting Priorities for the Conservation of Western Australia's Threatened Flora and Fauna. Department of Conservation and Land Management.
CALM (1995). Policy Statement No. 29. Translocation of Threatened Flora and Fauna. Revised July 1995. Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Friend, J.A. (1990). The Numbat Myrmecobius fasciatus (Myrmecobiidae): history of decline and potential for recovery. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of Australia, 16:369-377.
Majors, C., Wardell-Johnson, G. and Roberts, J.D. (1992) Recovery Plan for the Orange-bellied (Geocrinea vitellina) andWhite bellied ( Geocrinia alba) Frogs. Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Morris, K., Orell, P. and Brazell, R. (1995). The effect of fox control on native mammals in the jarrah forest, Western Australia. Proceedings of the 10th Australian Vertebrate Pest Control Conference, Hobart, Tasmania, May 1995. pp. 177-181.
Orell, P. and Morris, K. (1994). Chuditch recovery plan. Department of Conservation and Land Management.
Start, A., Burbidge, A. and Armstrong, D. (1994). Woylie Recovery Plan. Department of Conservation and Natural Resources and the South Australian Department of Environment and Natural Resources.
Start, A., and Armstrong, D. (1994). Woylie Recovery Team Annual Report. Department of Conservation and Natural Resources and the Australian Nature Conservation Agency (ANCA).
Williams, K (1994). Geocrinia Recovery Team Annual Report. Department of Conservation and Natural Resources and the Australian Nature Conservation Agency (ANCA).
Appendix 3: Morington Region Social Impact Case Study
The township of Yarloop is characterised by a relatively narrow economic base and is largely reliant on the timber industry for its economic activity. The Yarloop sawmill provides direct employment for 91 people and is the largest employer in the town. Employees of Alcoa also reside within the town and this accounts for 7.3% of the town's employment being based in the mining sector.
In Yarloop the major focus for additional economic activity is the Bunnings Sawmill. Since 1993 Bunnings have invested $6 million dollars in the mill, providing pre-drying equipment and building a wood veneer plant. Bunnings are proposing to upgrade the mill with a further $15 million of investment mainly for the purchase of new kilns and equipment which can add value to the wood products. No woodchips are produced from the Yarloop mill. Bunnings is also considering making additional significant investment related to the sawmill. These investments have currently been put on hold until the outcome of the DFA process is known. Bunnings management have indicated that they are relatively optimistic about the future of the industry and the Yarloop mill in particular. However they did indicate that the Board of Bunnings were becoming increasingly reluctant to approve any investment in new products or equipment until the current uncertainty has been resolved. This has implications for training and research and development.
The other economic activity which provides employment for residents of Yarloop is the Alcoa Wagerup refinery. These residents also expressed concern about the DFA process and perceive it as a direct threat to the mining industry because most mining leases are within State Forest boundaries. These residents indicated that they saw clear links between the two industries and in Yarloop there was clear evidence that individuals involved in the mining industry were involved in the same community organisations as timber industry workers.
Yarloop townsite would be significantly affected by any cutbacks to logging coupes in the Mornington Area. The town is reliant on the timber industry and most individuals are involved in the industry in some way. There are few alternatives for employment in the townsite and most businesses have developed with the timber mill and receive income from it. Many employees who reside in the town have skills which are specific to the timber industry and many have worked in the timber industry all their working life. Their ability to gain employment elsewhere is limited by their lack of training for other activities.
Yarloop Primary School estimated that 20 families would be directly affected by any cutbacks at the sawmill. This represents at least 40-50 of the children attending the Yarloop Primary School which has 120 students.
This indicates that the level of stress which would be experienced by these households, should a change occur, is likely to be high.
The vulnerability of the communities in the Mornington Area to impacts created by any future reduction in logging areas is determined by a consideration of all the factors discussed above. There are many residents who are employed by the timber industry and associated industries such as mining and tourism who will be directly affected by any further changes. Towns like Collie and Yarloop which are highly dependent on these industries can be expected to show significant signs of stress. Recent changes to the mining industry in Collie created significant unemployment and community stress and is an important illustration of the vulnerability of that community.
Yarloop is a relatively small community which is dependent on the timber industry and mining. It would be vulnerable to any changes which may result from the DFA or RFA process. Temporary closure of the mill would have an immediate impact on the Yarloop community and cause major disruption to the operation of Bunnings' domestic timber production in Western Australia.