Hawaii County, Island of Hawaii, USGS Quad: Kalapana. Drive south on Hwy. 130 from Pahoa to where pahoehoe flow ran over the road. Proceed west on road/trail about another mile. Stop where road goes through last forested kipuka before end of road at large pahoehoe flow. Walk north into forest 50'.
Relationship to Other Established Classifications
Jacobi, J.D. 1989. Vegetation Maps of the Upland Plant Communities on the Islands of Hawai`i, Maui, Moloka`i, and Lana`i. Technical Report 68. Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawai`i at Manoa and National Park Service.
Loh, R.K. 2004. Complete vegetation map of Hawai`i Volcanoes National park below 8,000 ft elevation. U.S. National Park Service.
Ripperton, J.C. and E.Y. Hosaka. 1942. Vegetation zones of Hawai`i. Hawai`i Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 89:1-60.
U.S. Dept. of Interior-U.S. Geological Survey. 2006. A GAP Analysis of Hawai`i. Final Report and Data.
Armstrong, R.W. 1973. Atlas of Hawai`i. University of Hawai`i Press, Honolulu.
Mueller-Dombois, D. and F.R. Fosberg. 1998. Vegetation of the Tropical Pacific Islands. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc.
Palmer, D.D. 2003. Hawai`i’s Ferns and Fern Allies. University of Hawai`i Press, Honolulu.
Pratt, H.D. 1998. A Pocket Guide to Hawai`i’s Trees and Shrubs. Mutual Publishing, Honolulu.
Rock, J.F. The Indigenous Trees of the Hawaiian Islands. 1st edition 1913, reprinted 1974, Charles E. Tuttle Company, Rutland, VT and Tokyo, Japan.
Sohmer, S.H. and R. Gustafson. 2000. Plants and Flowers of Hawai`i. University of Hawai`i Press, Honolulu.
Wagner, WL, DR Herbst, and SH Sohmer. 1990. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai`i. Bishop Museum Special Publication 83, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu.