This ecological site occurs on lava flows on sloping mountainsides of shield volcanoes. Lava flows are `a`a (loose, cobbly) or pahoehoe (smooth, relatively unbroken). Volcanic ash flows range from very shallow to deep on the underlying lava.
Average annual precipitation ranges from 100 to 160 inches. Most of the precipitation falls from November through April, with December being the wettest month. Average annual temperature is about 66 to 72 degrees F. The climate can be generally classified as udic and tropical in nature.
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Monthly Precipitation (inches) and Temperature (0F)
Typical soils are highly decomposed plant materials in `a`a or on pahoehoe. Landscape surfaces in this ecological site are young (generally 400 to 1,500 years old). Soils are well to somewhat excessively drained. Available water capacity in most soils ranges from 1 to 4 inches. Available water capacity refers to the volume of water available to plants in the upper 40 inches of soil, including rocks, at field capacity. Permeability is rapid. Runoff potential is low to XXX. Moist colors range from black to dark brown. Soil reactions (pH in CaCl2) range from slightly acid to extremely acid in surface horizons and slightly acid to extremely in subsurface horizons. Soil temperature regimes are isohyperthermic. Soil moisture regime is udic (in most years, not dry for as long as 90 cumulative days).