State 2, Plant Community 2, Mixed Native/Alien Forest plant community. A partially cleared experimental site with native ohia trees and `ie`ie vines and dense alien undergrowth.
STATE 3 – Alien Forest
Plant Community 3
This state consists of one plant community dominated by alien species in both the overstory and understory. Some tall ohia trees may persist for a long time, and a few native species including kopiko, tree ferns, pandanus, and bird’s nest ferns are able to reproduce and maintain low populations. The diversity of weedy trees, shrubs, vines, ferns, and herbs is high. The alien species present on different sites varies, but strawberry guava, melastoma, Koster’s curse, and albizia are usually present. Albizia rapidly grows very tall and is able to overtop all other trees. Ironwood trees are more common near the coast. Miconia and bingabing are able to grow in dense shade and may become codominant with strawberry guava.
Pathways from this state/plant community
To State 4, Grassland, via “G&H”:
G = land clearing; H = pasture establishment.
Alien Forest can be converted to Grassland by clearing the forest with heavy machinery and planting desirable pasture species. On shallow soils over lava substrates, underlying lava rock often is ripped and crushed by heavy machinery. Ripping and crushing produces some fine mineral particles and small, abundant gaps between the rock fragments. When this is done on organic soils, about 50% of the soil organic matter may be lost in the process due to exposure to air and higher temperatures.
Composite representation of State 3, Plant Community 3, Alien Forest.