Effects of the Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of Seeds of Cichorium Intybus Linn (Kasni) In Treatment of Liver Damaged By Carbon Tetrachloride

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Effects of the Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of Seeds of Cichorium Intybus Linn (Kasni)…   Nadeem Naseem et al. 

Ann. Pak. Inst. Med. Sci. 2011; 7(4): 200-203 





Effects of the Aqueous and 

Alcoholic Extracts of Seeds of 

Cichorium Intybus Linn (Kasni) 

In Treatment of Liver Damaged 

By Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl





To determine the role of extracts of seeds of Cichorium intybus linn in the 

treatment of liver already damaged by Carbon tetrachloride (CCl



Study Design: 

Quasi Experimental study. 

Place and Duration: 

Materials and Methods: 

Forty rats were subdivided into four sub groups, ten in each 


Group I was kept as standard control. Group II was sham control. Group III and IV were 

given aqueous and alcoholic extracts respectively one hour after the liver was damaged by 



. Curative effects were assessed by measuring Serum levels of alanine transaminase 

(ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). 


 Group I was normal control, on normal rat diet. Group II were given CCl


 orally to 

damage their liver and no treatment was given enzyme levels of ALP, ALT and AST were 

significantly raised (Po.ooo) compared to Group I animals. Group III animals liver was 

damaged by CCl


 and after one hour aqueous extract of seeds of Cichorium intybus linn 

was given in four doses at 12 hourly interval significant improvement was observed as ALP 

and AST levels were less than Group II animals (P0.000) and for AST (p0.001) although 

mean values were more close to group II animals than group I animals. Group 1V animals’ 

liver was damaged by CCl

and alcoholic extract was given after one hour significant 

improvement (P0.000) was observed as serum levels of ALP, AST and ALT were less than 

Group II animals as compared to Group III animals.   


Alcoholic extract exhibited more significant hepatocurative effect against 


induced hepatic injury. 


Cichorium intybus linn, Carbon tetrachloride (CCl


), Hepatotoxicity, 



Nadeem Naseem* 

Riffet Khurshid*  

Tehmina Qamar* 

Syed Farmanullah Hussaini* 

Munir Tahir**   

Abdul Khaliq Naveed***  

S A Malik***** 




*Department of Biochemistry, 

Rawalpindi Medical College, 


**Department of Biochemistry, 

Yusra Medical College, Rawalpindi 

*** Department of Biochemistry, 

Army Medical College, Rawalpindi  

***** Department of Biology, Quaid-i-

Azam University, Islamabad 













Address for Correspondence 

Dr. Nadeem Naseem 

Assistant professor, Department of 

Biochemistry, Rawalpindi Medical 

College, Rawalpindi.  








According to a report of world Health Organization three 

fourth of world population cannot afford modern medicine and rely 

on traditional medicine of plant origin.


 Many medicinal plants are 

being extracted for drugs by pharmaceutical industry.


plant species are used as herbal remedies for treatment of liver 

ailments in ASSAM, a northern Indian state.


 Pakistan carries one of 

the highest burdens of chronic hepatitis and mortality due to liver 

failure and hepatocellular carcinoma.


 Aqueous leave extract of 

Acanthus ilicifolius was effective in preventing hepatic DNA 

alterations in tumor bearing mice and lengthen the mean survival of 

animals. It may be used as chemo protective against hepatic 



 Liver is a major drug metabolizing and detoxifying organ 

in the body; it is subject to potential damage from an enormous array 

of pharmaceutical and environmental chemicals.


 Hepatitis may 

have intrinsic, idiosyncratic or immune mediated mechanism of 

injury. Intrinsic hepatotoxins such as acetaminophen, aminitin or 



 produce liver damage in a predictable, dose dependent 



  A large number of indigenous plants have been shown to 

possess antiviral activity.


 Cichorium intybus linn is domesticated 

plant and cultivated for food, fodder and medicine


, root is used in 

treatment of jaundice, liver enlargement, gout and rheumatism. 

Effects of the Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of Seeds of Cichorium Intybus Linn (Kasni)…   Nadeem Naseem et al. 

Ann. Pak. Inst. Med. Sci. 2011; 7(4): 200-203




Cichorium intybus linn is an erect herb, 30-90 cm in height found in 

Punjab and Andhra Pradesh.



As in the previous study hepatopreventive effect of 

alcoholic extract was noticed when extract was given before CCl



damaged the liver.



The present study was carried out to evaluate the 

hepatocurative effects (post treatment study) of aqueous and 

alcoholic extracts of seeds of the Cichorium intybus linn against 

carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in the albino rats of 

Sprague dowley strain.  

Materials and Methods 

The study was carried out at

        The seeds of 

Cichorium intybus linn were purchased from a dealer at 

the herbal market made clear of dust. Seeds were 

identified and authenticated by the taxonomy section of 

the Department of Biological sciences, Quaid -i- Azam 

University, Islamabad. Seeds were powdered, out of 

which 200g of powder was transferred in stopper flask 

along with 250ml of distilled water and 200g in another 

stopper flask along with 250ml ethanol occasionally 

agitated for one day at room temperature. Mixture was 

filtered through a Whatman filter paper No.7; filtrates 

were dried in an oven at 40


C under reduced pressure 

in Toyo vacuum drying oven (Seisakusho Co. Japan). 

Powder obtained from drying was 8g and 13g 

respectively. These were stored in refrigerator and 

dissolved in 10ml of distilled water before use.  

Forty male albino rats of Sprague dowley strain 

of body weight between 150-200 g were obtained from 

animal house of National Institute of Health, Islamabad 

and were kept in the wire cages at the animal house of 

Quaid -i- Azam University, Islamabad under standard 

conditions, food and water was easily available. Animals 

were divided in four groups with ten animals in each 


Group I was standard control for study. Animals 

in this group were only given normal saline 10ml /kg 

body weight, mixed in olive oil (vehicle) 7.5 ml/kg orally 

with the help of gastric tube. Four doses were given at 

12 hourly intervals.   

Group II animals served as sham control. 

Animals in this group were given CCl

1.5ml/kg along 

with vehicle


 at zero hour and after one hour saline 

10ml/kg was administered in four doses at 12 hourly 



Group III animals were given CCl


 1.5 mg/kg 

along with vehicle orally at 0 hour. After one hour 

aqueous extract 500mg/kg


was given orally in four 

doses at 12 hourly intervals. 

Group 1V animals were given CCl


along with vehicle at zero hour. After one-hour alcoholic 

extract 500mg/kg was given orally in four doses at 12 

hourly interval. 

All animals in each group were anaesthetized 

with injection ketamine 100mg/kg IM in thigh muscle 24 

hours after the last dose of treatment and 3ml blood was 

extracted by cardiac puncture at maximum pulsating 

point, using 24G sterile disposable syringes. Blood was 

allowed to clot and serum was separated by 

centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 15 minutes, the 

supernatant layer of serum was sucked by micropipette 

and plunged into cuvette and stored in refrigerator at 



C.Serum levels of ALT, AST and ALP were estimated 

on the same day using the kit (Boehringer Mannheim 



using preprogrammed 4010 

spectrophotometers of the same company.



were expressed as mean +SD and all statistical 

comparison were made by one way anova mini tab15. 

P<0.05 was regarded as significant. 



In this study results are represented in Table I 

Serum levels of ALT, AST and ALP were significantly 

raised in group II animals compared to group I animals 

(P0.000) while comparing group III with group II 


significant decrease in serum enzymes activity was 

noticed in ALP and ALT (P 0.000) and activity of AST 

was also decreased  significantly (P 0.001). 

In case of group IV serum levels of ALP, AST 

and ALT were decreased significantly (P0.000) 

compared to group II animals. On comparisons between 

group IV and group III mean values of ALP was close to 

each other (P 0.196) but there was significantly 

decreased activity of ALT and AST (P0.000) 


Comparison between the mean values of group II with group I, 

III and IV 



Liver cells contain many enzymes, which may 

be released into blood. ALT and AST are liberated into 

blood whenever liver cells are damaged and their 

increased levels in blood are sensitive index of liver 





 is commonly used to produce hepatic 

injury to study the effects of drugs in treatment.


 It is 

converted to trichloromethyl free radical leading to 

peroxidative degeneration of lipid membrane, due to 

Table I: effects of the aqueous and alcoholic 

extracts of the seeds of Cichorium intybus linn on 



 induced hepatic injury described as mean + SD 

serum levels of ALP, AST and ALT.


Enzyme Group 



Group I 








ALP 432+ 14 

293 + 11  395+13 388 


AST 362+ 13 

118 +12 341+ 10 

263+ 11 

ALT 223+ 10 

  52+ 7 

175+ 11 143+ 


Effects of the Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of Seeds of Cichorium Intybus Linn (Kasni)…   Nadeem Naseem et al. 

Ann. Pak. Inst. Med. Sci. 2011; 7(4): 200-203




which cell membrane of hepatocytes is damaged, 

enzymes present in hepatocytes are released in general 

circulation thereby serum levels of AST and ALT are 

markedly increased in circulation markedly whereas 

ALP is raised only slightly due to swelling of hepatocytes 

which cause intracanalicular obstruction to flow of bile.



 Massive productions of free radicals produced are 

neutralized by antioxidants such as glutathione, α 

tocopherol etc are depleted leading to wide spread 

damage to macromolecules of lipid membranes of cell.



Cichorium intybus linn contains sesquiterpene lactones 

and some of guainolides, which possess cytotoxic 

activity against cultured cancer cells.



intybus linn is a potential anti fungal agent.


 In this 

study, in-group II animals’ serum levels of ALP, ALT and 

AST were markedly increased compared to group I 

(P0.000), increase in ALP activity may be due to 

swelling of hepatocytes.


In-group III animal’s aqueous 

extract was given one hour after CCl


 in this group 

significant hepatocurative (P 0.000) was noticed 

statistically but mean values of Serum ALP, ALT and 

AST were close to group II animals than to group I 

Animals. In-group IV animals mean values of Serum 

ALP, ALT and AST were highly significantly increased 

(P0.000) compared to group I animals. Activity of Serum 

ALP and ALT and AST were very significantly 

decreased (P0.000) than group II animals. Mean value 

of ALP was more close to group II as compared to the 

mean values of ALT and AST. It may be due to less 

effect on decreasing the swelling of hepatocytes and 

better repair of the hepatocytes cell membrane by 

decreasing the release of ALT and AST from 

hepatocytes in circulation.  

From the present study it can be proposed that 

alcohol soluble extract is more effective in treating the 

liver injured by CCl


 than the aqueous extract. Possibly 

alcoholic extract contain ingredients, which possess 

hepatocurative activity, these compound (s) may be 

polyphenolic compounds or flavonoids. These 

compounds have the significant antioxidant activities 

that protect the liver against the free radical injury by 

preventing the lipid per oxidation of the cell 


21, 22

 In the hepatopreventive study (pre 

treatment study) alcoholic extracts was more effective in 

preventing the damage to liver when it was given to rats 

before liver was damaged by CCl



Ethanolic extract, 

sesquiterpene lactones present in many plants including 

Cichorum intybus linn is helpful in treating hepatitis by 

increasing the content of glutathione and decreasing 

lipid per oxidation.


Same observation was made in this 

study. Some of the plants have antiviral activity such as 

a flavonoid, ellagic acid isolated from phyllanthus 

urinaria blocks the HBVe antigen secretion in HBV 

infected hepatocytes. Since HB-e antigen is involved in 

immune tolerance in HBV infection, it can act as anti 

HBV agent.


 Cichorium Intybus linn may also have 

hepatocurative effect due to antiviral activity. HP-1 a 

polyherbal formulation comprising of phyllanthus nuri 

nuri and extracts of Terminalia belerica,Terminalia 

hebula, Phyllanthus embolica and Tinospora 

cordifoliahas reversed the leakage of lactate 

dehydrogenase(LDH) and glutamate pyruvate 

transaminase(GPT or ALT) also prevented the depletion 

of glutathione(GSH) in primary monolayer culture of 

hepatocytes(in vitro). Antioxidative enzymes in liver, 

catalases and super oxide dismutases (SOD) were 

restored to normal level after administration of HP-1 

when liver was damaged by CCl




Present study suggests that alcoholic extracts of 

seeds of Cichorium intybus linn possess hepatocurative 

effect. More studies should be carried out to discover 

the chemically active ingredients and other beneficial 

effects of its extracts 


Alcoholic extract exhibited more significant 

hepatocurative effect against CCl4 induced hepatic 

injury. .  



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Effects of the Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of Seeds of Cichorium Intybus Linn (Kasni)…   Nadeem Naseem et al. 

Ann. Pak. Inst. Med. Sci. 2011; 7(4): 200-203




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