Ann. Pak. Inst. Med. Sci. 2011; 7(4): 200-203
Effects of the Aqueous and
According to a report of world Health Organization three
fourth of world population cannot afford modern medicine and rely
on traditional medicine of plant origin.
Many medicinal plants are
ailments in ASSAM, a northern Indian state.
Pakistan carries one of
failure and hepatocellular carcinoma.
Aqueous leave extract of
alterations in tumor bearing mice and lengthen the mean survival of
animals. It may be used as chemo protective against hepatic
Liver is a major drug metabolizing and detoxifying organ
of pharmaceutical and environmental chemicals.
injury. Intrinsic hepatotoxins such as acetaminophen, aminitin or
produce liver damage in a predictable, dose dependent
A large number of indigenous plants have been shown to
Cichorium intybus linn is domesticated
, root is used in
Ann. Pak. Inst. Med. Sci. 2011; 7(4): 200-203
Punjab and Andhra Pradesh.
As in the previous study hepatopreventive effect of
hepatocurative effects (post treatment study) of aqueous and
alcoholic extracts of seeds of the Cichorium intybus linn against
carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in the albino rats of
Sprague dowley strain.
Materials and Methods
The study was carried out at
The seeds of
Cichorium intybus linn were purchased from a dealer at
the herbal market made clear of dust. Seeds were
identified and authenticated by the taxonomy section of
the Department of Biological sciences, Quaid -i- Azam
University, Islamabad. Seeds were powdered, out of
which 200g of powder was transferred in stopper flask
along with 250ml of distilled water and 200g in another
stopper flask along with 250ml ethanol occasionally
agitated for one day at room temperature. Mixture was
filtered through a Whatman filter paper No.7; filtrates
were dried in an oven at 40
C under reduced pressure
Powder obtained from drying was 8g and 13g
respectively. These were stored in refrigerator and
dissolved in 10ml of distilled water before use.
Forty male albino rats of Sprague dowley strain
of body weight between 150-200 g were obtained from
animal house of National Institute of Health, Islamabad
and were kept in the wire cages at the animal house of
Quaid -i- Azam University, Islamabad under standard
conditions, food and water was easily available. Animals
were divided in four groups with ten animals in each
in this group were only given normal saline 10ml /kg
body weight, mixed in olive oil (vehicle) 7.5 ml/kg orally
with the help of gastric tube. Four doses were given at
12 hourly intervals.
Group II animals served as sham control.
Animals in this group were given CCl
at zero hour and after one hour saline
Group III animals were given CCl
along with vehicle orally at 0 hour. After one hour
aqueous extract 500mg/kg
was given orally in four
Group 1V animals were given CCl
extract 500mg/kg was given orally in four doses at 12
All animals in each group were anaesthetized
with injection ketamine 100mg/kg IM in thigh muscle 24
hours after the last dose of treatment and 3ml blood was
extracted by cardiac puncture at maximum pulsating
point, using 24G sterile disposable syringes. Blood was
allowed to clot and serum was separated by
centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 15 minutes, the
supernatant layer of serum was sucked by micropipette
and plunged into cuvette and stored in refrigerator at
C.Serum levels of ALT, AST and ALP were estimated
using preprogrammed 4010
spectrophotometers of the same company.
comparison were made by one way anova mini tab15.
P<0.05 was regarded as significant.
In this study results are represented in Table I
raised in group II animals compared to group I animals
(P0.000) while comparing group III with group II
significant decrease in serum enzymes activity was
was also decreased significantly (P 0.001).
In case of group IV serum levels of ALP, AST
and ALT were decreased significantly (P0.000)
compared to group II animals. On comparisons between
group IV and group III mean values of ALP was close to
each other (P 0.196) but there was significantly
decreased activity of ALT and AST (P0.000)
Comparison between the mean values of group II with group I,
III and IV
Liver cells contain many enzymes, which may
blood whenever liver cells are damaged and their
increased levels in blood are sensitive index of liver
is commonly used to produce hepatic
injury to study the effects of drugs in treatment.
peroxidative degeneration of lipid membrane, due to
ALP 432+ 14
293 + 11 395+13 388
118 +12 341+ 10
ALT 223+ 10
175+ 11 143+
enzymes present in hepatocytes are released in general
circulation thereby serum levels of AST and ALT are
markedly increased in circulation markedly whereas
ALP is raised only slightly due to swelling of hepatocytes
which cause intracanalicular obstruction to flow of bile.
Massive productions of free radicals produced are
tocopherol etc are depleted leading to wide spread
damage to macromolecules of lipid membranes of cell.
and some of guainolides, which possess cytotoxic
activity against cultured cancer cells.
AST were markedly increased compared to group I
(P0.000), increase in ALP activity may be due to
swelling of hepatocytes.
In-group III animal’s aqueous
in this group
statistically but mean values of Serum ALP, ALT and
AST were close to group II animals than to group I
Animals. In-group IV animals mean values of Serum
ALP, ALT and AST were highly significantly increased
(P0.000) compared to group I animals. Activity of Serum
ALP and ALT and AST were very significantly
decreased (P0.000) than group II animals. Mean value
of ALP was more close to group II as compared to the
mean values of ALT and AST. It may be due to less
effect on decreasing the swelling of hepatocytes and
better repair of the hepatocytes cell membrane by
decreasing the release of ALT and AST from
hepatocytes in circulation.
From the present study it can be proposed that
alcohol soluble extract is more effective in treating the
liver injured by CCl
than the aqueous extract. Possibly
hepatocurative activity, these compound (s) may be
polyphenolic compounds or flavonoids. These
compounds have the significant antioxidant activities
that protect the liver against the free radical injury by
preventing the lipid per oxidation of the cell
treatment study) alcoholic extracts was more effective in
preventing the damage to liver when it was given to rats
before liver was damaged by CCl
sesquiterpene lactones present in many plants including
Cichorum intybus linn is helpful in treating hepatitis by
increasing the content of glutathione and decreasing
lipid per oxidation.
study. Some of the plants have antiviral activity such as
a flavonoid, ellagic acid isolated from phyllanthus
urinaria blocks the HBVe antigen secretion in HBV
infected hepatocytes. Since HB-e antigen is involved in
immune tolerance in HBV infection, it can act as anti
Cichorium Intybus linn may also have
polyherbal formulation comprising of phyllanthus nuri
nuri and extracts of Terminalia belerica,Terminalia
hebula, Phyllanthus embolica and Tinospora
cordifoliahas reversed the leakage of lactate
dehydrogenase(LDH) and glutamate pyruvate
transaminase(GPT or ALT) also prevented the depletion
of glutathione(GSH) in primary monolayer culture of
hepatocytes(in vitro). Antioxidative enzymes in liver,
catalases and super oxide dismutases (SOD) were
restored to normal level after administration of HP-1
when liver was damaged by CCl
seeds of Cichorium intybus linn possess hepatocurative
effect. More studies should be carried out to discover
the chemically active ingredients and other beneficial
effects of its extracts
Alcoholic extract exhibited more significant
hepatocurative effect against CCl4 induced hepatic
1. 1. Rai L K, Punjak P and Sharma E. Conservation threats to some
2000; 93: 27-33
2. 2.Farooquee N A and Sexena K G. Ethnobotanical notes on tree
species of Pir Punjal Biodiversity Park of Baba Ghulam Shah
University. Ethnobotanical leaflets. 2008; 12:404-414
3. 3. Kotoky J and Das P N. Medicinal plants used for the liver diseases
in some parts of Karnup district of Assam, north eastern state of India.
Filoterapia. 2008; 79: 384-387
4. 4. Ali S A, Rafe M J, Donahue, Qurashi H and Vermund S H. Hepatitis
B and Hepatitis C in Pakistan: prevalence and risk factors. Int J infect
Dis 2009; 13 (1): 9-19
5. 5. Janusz malar Z, Anna stojakowska and Wanda Kisiel.
Sesquiterpene lactones in a hairy root culture of Cichorium intybus. Z
Naturforsch 2002; 57c: 994-997
6. 6. Farrel G C and Liddle C. Hapatotoxicity in the twenty first century,
semin liver disease. Dis 2002; 22: 109-206
7. 7. Hatter C A, Dyer J E, Ko R, Kent R and West O. Making a diagnosis
of Herbal related toxic hepatitis. J Med 2002; 176 (1): 39-447.
8. 8. Reinhard E. Biology and chemistry of natural products. Planta
Medica. 1990; 56: 5009.
9. 9. Zafar R and Ali S M. Cichorium intybus linn. A review. Hamdard
Medicus.Karachi. Bai-tul-Hikmat.1998; 98-105.
10. 10. Naseem N, Latif M S Z, Tahir M, Naveed A K, Hassan M and Malik
S A. Hepatoprotective effect of Cichorium intybus Linn (Kasani)
Extracts against Carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage. JRMC
2009; 13 (2) 53-55
11. 11. Gilani A H, Janbaz K H and Shah B G. Esculetin prevents liver
damage induced by paracetamol and CCl4. Pharmacological
Research 1998; 37: 31-35
12. 12. Heibatulla S, Raza N M, Izadpanah G and Sohailla S.
Hepatoprotective effect of Cichorium intybus on CCl4-induced liver
damage. African journal of Biochemistry research 2008; vol 2 (6) 141-
Clin 1986; 44, 321. J clin. Chem clin Bioch 24:481
14. 14. Christopher R W, Edwards and Ian A D Bouchier. Davidson
15. 15. Manjuhnath B K and Vidya S M. Hepatoprotective activity of vitrex
trifolia against Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage. Indian J
Pharma Sci 2008; 70(2): 241-245
16. 16. Brattin W J, Glende E A and Recknagel R O. Pathologic
mechanism in CCl
hepatotoxicity. J free Radic Biol Med. 1985; 1(1):
17. 17. Klaassen C D. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 7
edition, New York, Toronto, London, Macmillan.,1985;1635-36
concept of antioxygenic potential: vitamin E changes in acute
and ethanol-induced liver injury. Toxicol.
Appl. Pharmac. 1977; 42:463-475
19. 19. Chakraborthy T, Bhuniya D, Chaterjee M, Rehman M, Singha D,
Chaterjee B N, Datta S, Rana A, Samanta K, Srivastava S and Maitra
S K. Acanthus ilicifolius plant extract prevents DNA alteration in a
transplantable Eherlich ascites carcinoma bearing murine model.
World J Gastroenterol 2007; 13(48): 6538-6548
20. 20. Mars D, Romagnoli C, Tosi B, Andreotti E, Chillemi G and Poli F.
Chicory extracts from Cichrium intybus L as potential antifungal.
Mycopathologica 2005; 100: 85-92
21. 21. Navarro M C, Montilla M P, Martin A, Jimene J, Utrilla M P. Free
radicals and antihepatotoxic activity of Rosemarinus tomentosus.
Planta Med1992; 59: 312-314.
22. 22. Halim A B, El-Ahmady O, Abdul-Galil F, Hafiz Yand Darwish A.
Biochemical effect of antioxidants on lipids and liver function in
experimentally induced liver damage. Ann.Clinical Biochem 1997; 34:
and Muralidhara R D. Hepatocurative potential of sesquiterpene
lactones of Taraxacum officinale on Carbon tetrachloride induced liver
toxicity in mice. Acta Biol Hung 2010; 61: 175-190
24. 24. Shin M, Kang E H and Young I K. A flavanoid plant block hepatitis
B virus-e antigen secretion in HBV infected hepatocytes. Taejon 2005;
25. 25. Tasaduk S A, Singh K, Sethi S, Sharma S, Bedi K L, Singh J and
Jaggi B S. Hepatocurative and antioxidant profile of HP-1, a polyherbal
phytomedicine. Human and experimental toxicology 2003; 22(12): 639-