EVALUATION OF ANTI-DIABETIC AND ANTI-LIPIDIMIC POTENTIAL OF KALONGI SUGAR
POWDER WATER EXTRACT IN STZ INDUCED DIABETIC RATS
DR. SAMEENA ALAM
, SURABHI KAVYA REDDY
, ABDULLA BAIG
, MADHAVI KOLAN REDDY
, DR. M. VENKATA REDDY
, DR. RAJESH KUMAR GUPTA
Sree Dattha Institute of Pharmacy, Sheriguda, Hyderabad, A.P, India,
Gautam Buddha University, Noida, U.P, India
Received: 30 Aug 2012, Revised and Accepted: 29 Sep 2012
Natural therapies from the medicinal plants are known for their safe and alternative therapies in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aim of our
present study was to investigate the polyherbal formulation (kalonji sugar powder) for antidiabetic effect in streptozotocin induced diabetes in
wistar rats. The polyherbal formulation (kalonji sugar powder) was also investigated for its effect on serum lipid profile. Two doses of the water
extract were chosen viz. 250 mg/kg bwt and 500 mg/kg bwt in wistar rats. The aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg bwt showed significant
(p<0.01) reduction in fasting blood glucose level to 61.3% after 14 days of treatment. A preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of
various phytoconstituents which were believed to be responsible for pharmacological activity. It brought about fall in the level of total cholesterol
by 21% with increase of 45% in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol including 53.6% decrease in triglyceride level (TG) as compared to
diabetic control animals. The present study reveals the fact that polyherbal formulation (kalonji sugar powder) has antidiabetic effect. It reverses
the abnormal lipid profile observed in diabetic animals. Therefore the water extract of this formulation is useful in maintaining healthy glucose
levels and cholesterol levels.
Keywords: Antidiabetic, Antihyperlipidemic, Polyherbal extract, Streptozotocin
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease caused by an
absolute or relative lack of insulin or reduced insulin activity, which
results in hyperglycemia and abnormalities in carbohydrate, protein
and fat metabolism[1,2]. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the commonest
endocrine disorder that affects more than 100 million people
worldwide (6% of the population) . It is estimated that 143
million people worldwide are suffering from diabetes, almost five
times more than the estimates ten years ago. This number may
probably be double by the year 2030.Though different therapies
are available for the treatment of diabetes mellitus but there is a
growing interest in herbal remedies, due to less or no side effects
associated with these therapeutic agents. Because of their perceived
effectiveness, minimal side effects in clinical experience and
relatively low costs, herbal drugs are prescribed widely even when
their biologically active compounds are unknown. Ayurveda is the
oldest healing system of medicine for the treatment of diabetes. So
an attempt has been made to evaluate the effectiveness of an
ayurvedic medicine- Kalonji Sugar Powder (a polyherbal
of cinchorium intybus , leaves of gymnium sylvestre) in treatment of
diabetes in wistar rats.
The constituents of polyherbal formulation are- Nigella sativa linn.
known as black cumin and kalonji is a small medicinal herb and its
different parts have been reported as therapeutic agents in
traditional system of medicines[5,6]. Trigonella foenum graceum
seeds decrease blood glucose concentration. Syzygium cumini
seed powder exhibits normoglycemia and better glucose tolerance
. Syzygium cumini seed decrease blood glucose level and also
inhibit alpha glucosidase enzyme . The seeds are used in diabetes
treatment  .Cichorium intybus roots and seeds are used in the
treatment of diabetic and hyperlipidemic disorders . Gymnema
sylvestre leaves lowers plasma glucose level  .
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Drugs, Chemicals, Reagents
The polyherbal formulation, kalonji sugar powder was procured
from Mohammedia products, Shah Sahab Mohalla, Karimnagar,
Andhra Pradesh, India, streptozotocin, glibenclamide and all other
chemicals were purchased from sigma aldrich.
Preparation of extracts
The coarse powder was macerated for 48 hours using different
solvents. The filtrate obtained was evaporated under reduced
pressure to dryness. The aqueous extract was selected and used for
Phytochemical screening of polyherbal formulation
The different extracts obtained were subjected to phytochemical
screening for the presence of flavanoids, tannins, alkaloids ,
carbohydrates, phytosterols, triterpinoids, saponins according to
standard procedures .
Acute toxicity studies
The acute toxicity study was carried out in male wistar rats by the
"fix dose" method of OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation
and Development) Guideline No.420 . The fixed dose method as
in annex 2d, test procedure with a starting dose of 5000 mg/kg body
weight, was adopted. The animals in two groups of six each were
taken and fasted overnight. The next day the product (suspended in
5% tween 80 solution) was administered orally at a dose level of
2000 mg/kg bwt and 5000 mg/kg bwt. Then the animals were
observed continuously for 3 hours for general behavioral,
neurological, and autonomic profiles and then every 30 minutes for
next 3 hours and finally for mortality after 24 hours till 14 days. No
mortality was observed at the end of 14 day.
Induction of diabetes
Animals were fasted for 24 hours then a single intraperitoneal
injection of freshly prepared streptozotocin (40 mg/kg dissolved in
0.9% in citrate buffer) was injected
In the investigation, a total of 30 rats (24 diabetic surviving rats and
6 normal rats) were taken and divided into five groups of 6 rats
each. The group I was normal rats , group II serves as a diabetic
control ,group III receiving aqueous extract of polyherbal (250
mg/kg of body weight)formulation, group IV receiving aqueous
extract of polyherbal (500 mg/kg of body weight)formulation and
group V serves as a positive control receiving the standard drug
(glibenclamide) at the dose of (10mg/kg of body weight).
International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
The fasting blood glucose concentrations of the animals were
measured at the beginning of the study and the measurements were
repeated on 1
, and 14
day of the experiment.
The anti-diabetic effect of aqueous extract of polyherbal
formulation(kalonji sugar powder) in mild-diabetic rats was
assessed by studying improvement in glucose tolerance(OGTT). The
rats were divided into six groups- group I control, received vehicle
(distilled water) only, group II served as diabetic control whereas
variable doses of 250, and 500 mg/ kg bwt of leaf extract was given
orally to group III and IV respectively. Blood glucose levels were first
checked after 90 min of treatment, considered as “0” h value, and
then 2g/ kg bwt glucose was given orally to all the groups. Blood
glucose levels were further checked up to 3 h at regular intervals of
1 h each, considered as 1, 2, and 3 h values. The results were
compared with group V rats, which were treated with 10 mg/ kg bwt
of glibenclamide (synthetic hypoglycemic agent).
After the 14
day of treatment, blood was collected from the orbital
triglycerides, LDL, HDL and cholesterol level were determined by
using glucose, triglycerides test kit ,LDL, and HDL and
cholesterol test kits (Span diagnostic Ltd, Surat), respectively.
All the group data were statistically evaluated using student’s t-test,
expressed as the mean±S.D. from six rats in each group. P-value of
0.05 or less was considered to be sigificant.
Our study reveals a well define role in suppressing the high blood
glucose levels in mild diabetic rats of the polyherbal
formulation(kalonji sugar powder) prepared from plants like Nigella
rats after 14 day of treatment.
The OGTT studies of the mild diabetic animals reveal a maximum fall
of 40% in 1 h by the dose of 500 mg/kg bwt whereas, the doses of
250 mg/kg bwt produced fall of about 36.5% as compared to the
control.(fig 1). Moreover, the dose of 500 mg/kg bwt of the aqueous
extract showed nearly similar effect as that of synthetic drug
glibenclamide. The OGTT studies also confirm 500 mg/kg bwt to be
the most effective dose. This dose was therefore, selected for further
studies in the case of mildly diabetic animals and a fall of 42% and
61% was observed in FBG after 7 and 14 days of treatment,
respectively (Table. 1).
Blood Glucose Level (BGL) in mg /dl
Control Diabetic Rats
Diabetic Rats +aqueous extract 250mg
Diabetic Rats +aqueous extract 500mg
Diabetic Rats + SD (Glibenclamide)
*P < 0.01 as compared to control; **P < 0.05 as compared to control
Hyperlipidemia is mostly coupled with hyperglycemia. High
levels of triglycerides and LDL cholesterol are associated with
high risk of coronary dysfunction. Whereas increase in HDL
cholesterol is associated with decrease in coronary risk. It is
interesting to note that the dose of 500 mg/kg bwt of the
aqueous extract lowered the TG,LDL and total cholesterol by
53.6%, 53% and 21% and simultaneously an increase in HDL
cholesterol level by 45% after 14 day treatment was observed
(Table 2) in our study. This would cause a decrease in mortality
in individuals suffering from hyperglycemia accompanied by
hyperlipidemia where the cause of deaths is coronary
Control Diabetic Rats
Diabetic Rats +aqueous extract 500mg
The phytocemical investigation revealed the fact that the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity could be due to the presence of flavonoids,
terpenoids or alkaloids (Table 3).
Table 3: Pytochemical study for polyherbal formulation (kalonji sugar powder)
For the present study we conclude that the aqueous extract of the
polyherbal formulation (kalonji sugar powder) showed remarkable
antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect in streptozotocin induced
diabetic rats. The extract showed no toxicity at significantly higher
doses. Furthermore the above results could be due to the synergism
exhibited by different components of the polyherbal formulation
(kalonji sugar powder)
The authors are grateful to the Chairman Mr. G. Panduranga Reddy,
Sree Dattha group of Institutions, Hyderabad, India for providing
financial assistance for the above work.
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