Evolution of gender mainstreaming in development practice



Yüklə 1,47 Mb.
tarix29.07.2017
ölçüsü1,47 Mb.



Evolution of gender mainstreaming in development practice

  • Evolution of gender mainstreaming in development practice

  • From margins to mainstream – gender and the MDGs

  • Problems in research and practice

    • Drivers of discrimination
    • Origins of inequality
    • Dynamics of gender relations
  • Implications for gender-based research

    • Beyond checklists and head-counting
  • Post 2015 SDG agenda

    • Gender and education


Since UN Commission on the Status of Women in 1946:

  • Since UN Commission on the Status of Women in 1946:

    • matters related specifically to women have been a core dimension of discussions on development and global poverty eradication,
    • justified on the evidence-based arguments that greater empowerment is instrumentally valuable to development;
    • and to a lesser extent, on reason-based arguments that development generates intrinsic benefits to women, as human beings of equal moral value


‘The next development agenda must ensure that in the future neither income nor gender, nor ethnicity, nor disability, nor geography, will determine whether people live or die, whether a mother can give birth safely, or whether her child has a fair chance in life’ (2013: 7).

  • ‘The next development agenda must ensure that in the future neither income nor gender, nor ethnicity, nor disability, nor geography, will determine whether people live or die, whether a mother can give birth safely, or whether her child has a fair chance in life’ (2013: 7).

  • How is this different from the MDG commitments?

  • What does this say about 20 years of gender mainstreaming (post Beijing 1995)?



  • Emerged from the women in development (WID) policy approaches widely adopted by development organizations in the 1980s

    • Integrate women into economic development
  • Central to Beijing Platform for Action (1995)

      • Equality and women’s empowerment central to human development
      • States need to make radical changes to achieve equality and promote empowerment


“Mainstreaming a gender perspective is the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies, or programmes, in all areas and at all levels. It is a strategy for making women’s as well as men’s concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated. The Ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality”. (UN Report for the economic and social council. 1997: 1)

  • “Mainstreaming a gender perspective is the process of assessing the implications for women and men of any planned action, including legislation, policies, or programmes, in all areas and at all levels. It is a strategy for making women’s as well as men’s concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programmes in all political, economic and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally and inequality is not perpetuated. The Ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality”. (UN Report for the economic and social council. 1997: 1)



Evident in some definitions

  • Evident in some definitions

    • Institutionalization of gender concerns …. to ensure a ‘transformation of the organizations attitudes and culture
    • Gender empowerment through women’s participation in decision-making processes, enabling women to have their voices heard, giving them power to put issues on the agenda (Moser 2012: 439-440)
  • Designed to tackle both implicit and explicit forms of discrimination and exclusion



A dual strategy of mainstreaming gender-equality issues into all policies, programmes, and projects (the Integrationist approach), combined with context-specific supporting targeted actions for gender equality (the stand-alone approach)

  • A dual strategy of mainstreaming gender-equality issues into all policies, programmes, and projects (the Integrationist approach), combined with context-specific supporting targeted actions for gender equality (the stand-alone approach)

  • Gender analysis (sex disaggregated data and gender analytical information)

  • Women, as well as men, playing an active role in decision making processes to influence the development agenda

  • Organisational capacity-building and gender training

  • Gender sensitive monitoring and evaluation systems and tools (Moser 2012: 440)





MDG Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women

  • MDG Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women

    • Target – eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015
    • Measurements also include – political participation; paid employment
  • Also

      • MDG 1 - Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
      • MDG 2 – achieve universal primary education
      • MDG 4 – reduce child mortality
      • MDG 5 – improve maternal health (since 2005 – universal access to reproductive health)
      • MDG 6 – combat HIV/Aids
      • MDG 7 – environmental sustainability
        • Target 10 access to clean water and sanitation
        • Target 11 – improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers


MDG period saw some successes:

  • MDG period saw some successes:

  • However….

    • Lives and status of women has not seen a dramatic transformation
    • Women continue to be more vulnerable to extreme poverty, malnutrition, ill health, lower educational outcomes and higher incidents of violence.
    • Women continue to carry greatest responsibility for reproduction, care, subsistence food provision, and household tasks
    • Women continue to be under-represented in leadership roles both in the public institutions and private organisations.


‘Away streaming’ – (Mukhopadhyay 2004). That is

  • ‘Away streaming’ – (Mukhopadhyay 2004). That is

    • Used as an argument to stop ‘stand-alone’ projects and interventions.
      • Reduces financial and institutional resources specifically allocated to women’s needs
    • According to Hivos, this has resulted in a ‘reduction in gender expertise, capacity and advocacy’ (2007: 11)


Controlling for GM

  • Controlling for GM

    • It is a challenge for all organizations to assess the impact of gender mainstreaming on the lives of women and girls, men and boys…. whose lives are altered profoundly by all sorts of change taking place beyond the planned interventions of governments and development organizations.
  • Opening Pandora’s box

    • The gender division of labour within the household
      • The ‘black box’ in contemporary mainstream economic modelling of non-market based production (Susan Moller Okin, 2003)


Ramya Subrahmanian (2007) –

  • Ramya Subrahmanian (2007) –

    • ‘key criticism about GM has been the “narrowness” of the strategy despite the complexity of gender relations and the contextual variations in the process and outcomes related to gender inequalities’ (2007: 113)
  • Monitoring and evaluation

    • Difficult, if not impossible to distinguish impact of GM from other changes occurring beyond planned interventions.
  • ‘Smart economics’

    • Only supported by some due to its instrumental value, rather than the intrinsic value of equality and women’s empowerment


Failed to tackle

  • Failed to tackle

    • Hidden power and prevalence of discrimination
      • Key distinction between explicit and implicit discrimination –
        • Implicit discrimination has escaped challenge
        • Stiglitz 2012 – Cognitive Capture
        • Duflo 2012 – Implicit bias
    • Hermeneutical gaps
      • Sweetman 2012 - The leadership of key development organizations which shape our world is still overwhelmingly rich and male. Women’s priorities and perspectives are still missing from key decision-making bodies
      • Miranda Fricker – hermeneutical injustices


On the one hand some argue that the focus on gender has

  • On the one hand some argue that the focus on gender has

    • Cornwall, Harrison, and Whitehead, have argued that the term ‘gender’ has neutralised the political content of feminist struggles, acting as a ‘technical fix’ (2007: 9) in development projects and programmes.
    • Such a technocratic approach depoliticised and de-radicalised the feminist struggle for the empowerment of women.
    • They argue that the term gender has ‘fallen from favour and has a jaded, dated feel to it. Diluted, denatured, depoliticised, included everywhere as an afterthought... (2007: 6-7).
    • Thus, they call for a move away from the concept of gender, to refocus on the specific needs of women (Mannell 2012; Cornwall, Harrison, and Whitehead 2007 & 2008).


Some argue that this would represent a step backwards

  • Some argue that this would represent a step backwards

    • Caroline Moser - there is a need for a shift away from ‘women’s issues’ and incorporate issues that relate to women and men, girls and boys. ‘Such gender disparities can then cross-cut with other types of diversity such as those based on age, ethnicity, race, or sexual orientation’ (2012, 442).
    • Focusing on gender allows for an examination of other factors such as ethnicity, age, class and so on, how they can interact and can generate new forms of inequality (Dhamoon, 2011, Sandler and Rao 2012; Ndesamburo , Flynn, and French 2012; van Eerdewijk and Dubel 2012; Derbyshire 2012; Chant and Sweetman 2012, Unterhalter, 2012).


Broadening the research agenda:

  • Broadening the research agenda:

    • Moser 2012: Appropriate quantitative and qualitative indicators to assess progress in GM to include 2 components
      • Implementation: measured in terms both of the integration of women’s and men’s concerns throughout the development process and in terms of specific activities aimed at empowering women.
      • Outputs and impacts: measured in terms of equality and empowerment of women; impact and change for men
    • Unterhalter 2012: move beyond headcounting towards deeper examinations of norms, beliefs, and socially constructed challenges and opportunities for social change through integration of the ‘intersectionality’ approach to GBR


Broadening the focus of practice

  • Broadening the focus of practice

    • Greater consideration of gender dynamics within the household and the personal / local drivers of inequality (of access, of opportunity, of resources and so on)
      • Targeted action to reduce / remove the role of violence as a method of social control
      • Increased consideration of the gendered division of labour in non-market based productive activities.
        • Access to land; energy, finance, and the Factors of Development
    • Broadening the focus of policy
      • Shift towards the language of linkages rather than narrow goals and targets to reflect and target the relational dynamic of gender, rather than gender as a static category




Recognizing the role of education

  • Recognizing the role of education

    • Perpetuation of discrimination or platform for social transformation; Reinforcing or challenging social norms?
    • Critically examine if it aims towards ‘transformative’ agency or ‘effective’ agency? (Kabeer 2005)
  • Transformation would require

    • Focusing on girls and boys, and different social identifiers that may influence a child’s life chances
    • Examining curriculum, assessments, and management to enhance and support a child’s agency ;
    • Gender study centres leading in 1) the delivery of teaching across the disciplines and 2) continued research into the constructions and relational dynamic of gender in local and global contexts
    • ‘Education [both teaching and research] is both a systemic source of gender oppression and a means of ending it’. (Enslin and Mary 2006)











Yüklə 1,47 Mb.

Dostları ilə paylaş:




Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©azkurs.org 2020
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə